Matching Items (6)

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The Accretion of Solar Material Onto White Dwarfs: No Mixing With Core Material Implies That the Mass of the White Dwarf is Increasing

Description

Cataclysmic Variables (CVs) are close binary star systems with one component a white dwarf (WD) and the other a larger cooler star that fills its Roche Lobe. The cooler star

Cataclysmic Variables (CVs) are close binary star systems with one component a white dwarf (WD) and the other a larger cooler star that fills its Roche Lobe. The cooler star is losing mass through the inner Lagrangian point of the binary and some unknown fraction of this material is accreted by the WD. One consequence of the WDs accreting material, is the possibility that they are growing in mass and will eventually reach the Chandrasekhar Limit. This evolution could result in a Supernova Ia (SN Ia) explosion and is designated the Single Degenerate Progenitor (SD) scenario. This paper is concerned with the SD scenario for SN Ia progenitors. One problem with the single degenerate scenario is that it is generally assumed that the accreting material mixes with WD core material at some time during the accretion phase of evolution and, since the typical WD has a carbon-oxygen CO core, the mixing results in large amounts of carbon and oxygen being brought up into the accreted layers. The presence of enriched carbon causes enhanced nuclear fusion and a Classical Nova explosion.

Both observations and theoretical studies of these explosions imply that more mass is ejected than is accreted. Thus, the WD in a Classical Nova system is losing mass and cannot be a SN Ia progenitor. However, the composition in the nuclear burning region is important and, in new calculations reported here, the consequences to the WD of no mixing of accreted material with core material have been investigated so that the material involved in the explosion has only a Solar composition. WDs with a large range in initial masses and mass accretion rates have been evolved. I find that once sufficient material has been accreted, nuclear burning occurs in all evolutionary sequences and continues until a thermonuclear runaway (TNR) occurs and the WD either ejects a small amount of material or its radius grows to about 10[superscript 12] cm and the evolution is ended. In all cases where mass ejection occurs, the mass of the ejecta is far less than the mass of the accreted material. Therefore, all the WDs are growing in mass. It is also found that the accretion time to explosion can be sufficiently short for a 1.0M[subscript ⊙] WD that recurrent novae can occur on a low mass WD. This mass is lower than typically assumed for the WDs in recurrent nova systems. Finally, the predicted surface temperatures when the WD is near the peak of the explosion imply that only the most massive WDs will be significant X-ray emitters at this time.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-02-25

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Isotopic Analysis of Nova Stardust Grains

Description

Stardust grains can provide useful information about the Solar System environment before the Sun was born. Stardust grains show distinct isotopic compositions that indicate their origins, like the atmospheres of

Stardust grains can provide useful information about the Solar System environment before the Sun was born. Stardust grains show distinct isotopic compositions that indicate their origins, like the atmospheres of red giant stars, asymptotic giant branch stars, and supernovae (e.g., Bose et al. 2010). It has been argued that some stardust grains likely condensed in classical nova outbursts (e.g., Amari et al. 2001). These nova candidate grains contain 13C, 15N and 17O-rich nuclides which are produced by proton burning. However, these nuclides alone cannot constrain the stellar source of nova candidate grains. Nova ejecta is rich in 7Be that decays to 7Li (which has a half-life of ~53 days). I want to measure 6,7Li isotopes in nova candidate grains using the NanoSIMS 50L (nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry) to establish their nova origins without ambiguity. Several stardust grains that are nova candidate grains were identified in meteorite Acfer 094 on the basis of their oxygen isotopes. The identified silicate and oxide stardust grains are <500 nm in size and exist in the meteorite surrounded by meteoritic silicates. Therefore, 6,7Li isotopic measurements on these grains are hindered because of the large 300-500 nm oxygen ion beam in the NanoSIMS. I devised a methodology to isolate stardust grains by performing Focused Ion Beam milling with the FIB – Nova 200 NanoLab (FEI) instrument. We proved that the current FIB instrument cannot be used to prepare stardust grains smaller than 1 𝜇m due to lacking capabilities of the FIB. For future analyses, we could either use the same milling technique with the new and improved FIB – Helios 5 UX or use the recently constructed duoplasmatron on the NanoSIMS that can achieve a size of ~75 nm oxygen ion beam.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Modeling layered accretion and the magnetorotational instability in protoplanetary disks

Description

Understanding the temperature structure of protoplanetary disks (PPDs) is paramount to modeling disk evolution and future planet formation. PPDs around T Tauri stars have two primary heating sources, protostellar irradiation,

Understanding the temperature structure of protoplanetary disks (PPDs) is paramount to modeling disk evolution and future planet formation. PPDs around T Tauri stars have two primary heating sources, protostellar irradiation, which depends on the flaring of the disk, and accretional heating as viscous coupling between annuli dissipate energy. I have written a "1.5-D" radiative transfer code to calculate disk temperatures assuming hydrostatic and radiative equilibrium. The model solves for the temperature at all locations simultaneously using Rybicki's method, converges rapidly at high optical depth, and retains full frequency dependence. The likely cause of accretional heating in PPDs is the magnetorotational instability (MRI), which acts where gas ionization is sufficiently high for gas to couple to the magnetic field. This will occur in surface layers of the disk, leaving the interior portions of the disk inactive ("dead zone"). I calculate temperatures in PPDs undergoing such "layered accretion." Since the accretional heating is concentrated far from the midplane, temperatures in the disk's interior are lower than in PPDs modeled with vertically uniform accretion. The method is used to study for the first time disks evolving via the magnetorotational instability, which operates primarily in surface layers. I find that temperatures in layered accretion disks do not significantly differ from those of "passive disks," where no accretional heating exists. Emergent spectra are insensitive to active layer thickness, making it difficult to observationally identify disks undergoing layered vs. uniform accretion. I also calculate the ionization chemistry in PPDs, using an ionization network including multiple charge states of dust grains. Combined with a criterion for the onset of the MRI, I calculate where the MRI can be initiated and the extent of dead zones in PPDs. After accounting for feedback between temperature and active layer thickness, I find the surface density of the actively accreting layers falls rapidly with distance from the protostar, leading to a net outward flow of mass from ~0.1 to 3 AU. The clearing out of the innermost zones is possibly consistent with the observed behavior of recently discovered "transition disks."

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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When white dwarfs collide

Description

3D models of white dwarf collisions are used to assess the likelihood of double-degenerate mergers as progenitors for Type Ia supernovae (henceforth SNIa) and to identify observational signatures of double-degenerate

3D models of white dwarf collisions are used to assess the likelihood of double-degenerate mergers as progenitors for Type Ia supernovae (henceforth SNIa) and to identify observational signatures of double-degenerate collisions. Observations of individual SNIa, SNIa rates in different galaxy types, and double white dwarf binary systems suggest that mergers or collisions between two white dwarfs play a role in the overall SNIa population. Given the possibility of two progenitor systems (single-degenerate and double-degenerate), the sample of SNIa used in cosmological calcula- tions needs to be carefully examined. To improve calculations of cosmological parameters, the development of calibrated diagnostics for double-degenerate progenitor SNIa is essential. Head-on white dwarf collision simulations are used to provide an upper limit on the Ni-56 production in white dwarf collisions. In chapter II, I explore zero impact parameter collisions of white dwarfs using the Eulerian grid code FLASH. The initial 1D white dwarf profiles are created assuming hydrostatic equilibrium and a uniform composition of 50% C-12 and 50% O-16. The masses range from 0.64 to 0.81 solar masses and have an isothermal temperature of 10^7 K. I map these 1D models onto a 3D grid, where the dimensions of the grid are each eight times the white dwarf radius, and the dwarfs are initially placed four white dwarf radii apart (center to center). To provide insight into a larger range of physical possibilities, I also model non-zero impact parameter white dwarf collisions (Chapter III). Although head-on white dwarf collisions provide an upper limit on Ni-56 production, non-zero impact parameter collisions provide insight into a wider range of physical scenarios. The initial conditions (box size, initial separation, composition, and initial temperature) are identical to those used for the head-on collisions (Chapter II) for the same range of masses. For each mass pair- ing, collision simulations are carried out at impact parameters b=1 and b=2 (grazing). Finally, I will address future work to be performed (Chapter IV).

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Formation of compact stellar clusters by high-redshift galaxy outflows

Description

Using high-resolution three-dimensional adaptive mesh refinement simulations I study the interaction between primordial minihalo, a clump of baryonic and dark matter with a virial temperature below the atomic cooling limit,

Using high-resolution three-dimensional adaptive mesh refinement simulations I study the interaction between primordial minihalo, a clump of baryonic and dark matter with a virial temperature below the atomic cooling limit, and a galaxy outflow. In Chapter 2 I concentrate on the formation of molecular coolants and their effect on the evolution of the minihalo gas. Molecular coolants are important since they allow gas to cool below 10000 K. Therefore, I implement a primordial chemistry and cooling network that tracks the evolution and cooling from these species. I show that the shock from the galaxy outflow produces an abundance of coolants in the primordial gas which allows the gas to cool to below 10000 K. I also show that this interaction produces compact stellar clusters that are ejected from their parent dark matter halos. In Chapter 3 I look at the turbulent mixing of metals that occur between the minihalo and outflow. To do this, I develop a sub-grid model for turbulence that reproduces three primary fluid instabilities. I find that the metals from the outflow are well mixed throughout the minihalo gas. In addition, the metal abundance found roughly corresponds to the observed abundances in halo globular clusters. In Chapter 4, I conduct a suite of simulations that follow this interaction over a wide range of parameters. In almost all cases, the shocked minihalos form molecules and cool rapidly to become compact, chemically homogenous stellar clusters. Furthermore, I show that the unique properties of these clusters make them a prime observational target for study with the next generation of telescopes. Given the unique properties of these clusters there are reasons to suspect that their low-redshift counterparts are halo globular clusters. I outline this comparison in Chapter 5 and give my conclusions in Chapter 6. Finally, I summarize my current work in Chapter 7 and future extensions in Chapter 8. By the end, I hope to convince you that the interaction between a galaxy outflow and a primordial minihalo provides a formation pathway for present day halo globular clusters.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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The Effect of Varying Mass Loss Rate on the Initial-Final Mass Relation of Massive Stars

Description

Stellar mass loss has a high impact on the overall evolution of a star. The amount<br/>of mass lost during a star’s lifetime dictates which remnant will be left behind and

Stellar mass loss has a high impact on the overall evolution of a star. The amount<br/>of mass lost during a star’s lifetime dictates which remnant will be left behind and how<br/>the circumstellar environment will be affected. Several rates of mass loss have been<br/>proposed for use in stellar evolution codes, yielding discrepant results from codes using<br/>different rates. In this paper, I compare the effect of varying the mass loss rate in the<br/>stellar evolution code TYCHO on the initial-final mass relation. I computed four sets of<br/>models with varying mass loss rates and metallicities. Due to a large number of models<br/>reaching the luminous blue variable stage, only the two lower metallicity groups were<br/>considered. Their mass loss was analyzed using Python. Luminosity, temperature, and<br/>radius were also compared. The initial-final mass relation plots showed that in the 1/10<br/>solar metallicity case, reducing the mass loss rate tended to increase the dependence of final mass on initial mass. The limited nature of these results implies a need for further study into the effects of using different mass loss rates in the code TYCHO.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05