Matching Items (97)

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Using InSAR to Investigate Injection-Induced Deformation and Seismicity in Timpson, Texas

Description

Hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, has become a common practice in United States oil fields for enhancing their productivity. Among the concerns regarding fracking, however, is the possibility that it could

Hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, has become a common practice in United States oil fields for enhancing their productivity. Among the concerns regarding fracking, however, is the possibility that it could trigger shallow earthquakes. The brine that results from fracking is injected into the subsurface for disposal. This brine causes a pore pressure gradient that is commonly believed to trigger failure along critically stressed subsurface faults. In Timpson, a small city in eastern Texas, earthquakes have become much more common since two injection wells were installed in 2007. 16 events of M_W > 2 have been detected since 2008 and are believed to be associated with failure along a subsurface fault. Applying interferometric synthetic aperture radar, we analyzed 3 sets of SAR images from the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) from May 2007 to December 2010. Using these data sets, XX interferograms were generated. From these interferograms, it was possible to determine the spatial and temporal evolution of the crustal deformation in the line-of-sight of the satellite. The results show strong evidence of uplift in the region adjacent to the injection wells. While previous studies have established a strong connection between fluid injection and increased seismicity, this is to our knowledge the first observed case of crustal deformation that has been observed as a result of hydraulic fracturing fluid disposal.

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  • 2014-05

(U-Th)/He Geochronology of Grains in Baked Zones to date Volcanism

Description

Many radioactive decay schemes employed in geochronology prove imprecise when placing accurate age constraints on young basalt flows. The (U-Th)/He systematics of detrital zircon and apatite within baked zones is

Many radioactive decay schemes employed in geochronology prove imprecise when placing accurate age constraints on young basalt flows. The (U-Th)/He systematics of detrital zircon and apatite within baked zones is examined as an alternative. Parent-daughter radioisotope ratios within grains from baked zones can completely reset if subjected to temperatures high enough and long enough for bulk diffusive loss. Presented here is the reproducibility of initial attempts to date flows by examining the (U-Th)/He geochronology of grains within baked zones. We examine grains from two localities within the San Francisco Volcanic Field and the Mormon Volcanic Field in northern Arizona. Thirteen zircon and apatite grains yielded from locality 2 collected from the uppermost 10 cm beneath a 7m flow of a basalt yield an apparent age of 4.39 ± 0.28 Ma (2σ), which is within range of published Middle Pliocene ages. Twenty-nine grains from locality 1 collected from the uppermost 20 cm beneath a 2 to 5m flow yield dates ranging from 0.47 ± 0.02 Ma to 892.77 ± 27.02 Ma, indicating the grains were partially reset or not reset at all. The degree to which grains are reset depends on a variety of factors detailed in this study. With these factors accounted for however, our study confirms application of this indirect dating technique is a useful tool for dating basaltic flows.

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  • 2014-05

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Symbiotic state & reproduction in the giant green sea anemone Anthopleura xanthogrammica

Description

The giant green sea anemone, Anthopleura xanthogrammica, hosts two different endosymbiotic algae. One is a unicellular chlorophyte, Elliptochloris marina; the other is Symbiodinium muscatinei, a dinoflagellate. Hosting these different symbionts

The giant green sea anemone, Anthopleura xanthogrammica, hosts two different endosymbiotic algae. One is a unicellular chlorophyte, Elliptochloris marina; the other is Symbiodinium muscatinei, a dinoflagellate. Hosting these different symbionts influences the life history strategy of A. xanthogrammica's congener A. elegantissima, directly impacting its reproductive strategy (asexual vs. sexual). My study sought to examine whether the type and density of symbiont also affects the reproductive condition of A. xanthogrammica, which reproduces only sexually. Gonad development was measured in anemones from Slip Point, Clallam Bay, WA and Tongue Point, WA along with symbiont type and density per mg of anemone protein. The results indicate a trend towards brown anemones having more developed gonads, especially in males. This may mean that A. xanthogrammica anemones that host zooxanthellae are more reproductively fit than zoochlorellate anemones. Thus, it may be favorable for anemones to host zooxanthellae. This is especially true in summer months when the high temperatures and mid-day low tides coincide with the period of most rapid gonad development.

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Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Remote Sensing Applied to the Arizona Monsoon: GOES Moisture Imagery

Description

Large, violent storms come through the Phoenix area during monsoon season, and currently, the best ways to predict them are not very accurate. The primary goal of this investigation is

Large, violent storms come through the Phoenix area during monsoon season, and currently, the best ways to predict them are not very accurate. The primary goal of this investigation is to see if a mechanism can be developed for the prediction of these storms in Phoenix during monsoon season. In order to answer this question, two data sets (a remote sensing satellite imagery and a ground-based weather information set) will be used and their measurements will be compared against one another using a corresponding time as the related variable. The goal is to try and identify some type of correlation or explanation of correlation. Events known as moisture surges (from the gulf surge \u2014 which comes from the California Gulf) will be identified and then compared in some detail. These chutes of moisture surge through Arizona, primarily up through Yuma in a northeasterly direction. The point of the investigation is to prove or disprove that satellite imagery can be used as an analog for dew point measurements in areas where ground measurements are not available. If this can be demonstrated, then, because of the high temporal resolution of the remote sensing data, satellite imagery could be used as an identifier of oncoming storms.

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Date Created
  • 2013-05

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COMPARATIVE POLICY ANALYSIS: WATER MANAGEMENT IN MESA, ARIZONA USA AND HERMOSILLO, SONORA MEXICO

Description

Despite similar climate, ecosystem, and population size, the cities of Hermosillo, Mexico and Mesa, USA manage their water very differently. Mesa has a stable and resilient system organized around state

Despite similar climate, ecosystem, and population size, the cities of Hermosillo, Mexico and Mesa, USA manage their water very differently. Mesa has a stable and resilient system organized around state and federal regulations. Hermosillo, after rapidly industrializing, has not been able to cope with climate change and long-term drought conditions. Water distribution statistics, stakeholders, policy structure, and government organization were combined in an organizational framework to compare the practices of the two cities. These inputs were weighed against the outcomes and the sustainability of each system. While Mesa is part of a massive metropolitan area, Hermosillo is still developing into a metropolitan center and does not have access to the same infrastructure and resources. In Hermosillo local needs are frequently discounted in favor of broad political goals.

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Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Investigation of Multimodal Tactile Cues for Multidigit Rotational Tasks

Description

The goal of this project was to use the sense of touch to investigate tactile cues during multidigit rotational manipulations of objects. A robotic arm and hand equipped with three

The goal of this project was to use the sense of touch to investigate tactile cues during multidigit rotational manipulations of objects. A robotic arm and hand equipped with three multimodal tactile sensors were used to gather data about skin deformation during rotation of a haptic knob. Three different rotation speeds and two levels of rotation resistance were used to investigate tactile cues during knob rotation. In the future, this multidigit task can be generalized to similar rotational tasks, such as opening a bottle or turning a doorknob.

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Date Created
  • 2014-05

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PHXmuraltour: Exploring the Downtown Street Art

Description

PHXmuraltour is an app for iPhone and Android that guides users through the plethora of mural art in downtown Phoenix. It can be found and downloaded from iTunes and the

PHXmuraltour is an app for iPhone and Android that guides users through the plethora of mural art in downtown Phoenix. It can be found and downloaded from iTunes and the Android app store. Before the artists began drawing people downtown for events like First Fridays and ArtDetour during the 1980s, Phoenix was notorious for having a deserted city core. The art community brought life, color and vibrancy to the downtown landscape. The website giving more information about the project can be found at http://kristenhwang.com/PHX-mural-tour.html. This project aims to widen the reach of the mural art in downtown Phoenix. Public art has the unique ability to foster a conversation between people who may not think of themselves as art connoisseurs, but like all kinds of art the message can sometimes be mysterious to passersby. Many of the murals downtown portray Hispanic or Native American themes, make political statements, document historic events and people, or serve as visual spice. They are emblems of the values the downtown community identifies with--values like creativity, enterprise, civic responsibility and diversity. This project hopes to make these messages more prominent to people in downtown Phoenix. It is important for the students, workers, shop owners and residents downtown to have the opportunity to learn more about the mural art because the art community surrounding Roosevelt Row played an integral role in shaping the culture and texture of their daily lives.

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Date Created
  • 2014-12

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Searching for Stellar Outflow in the R Coronae Australis Region

Description

Using data from the Arizona Radio Observatory Submillimeter Telescope, we have studied the active, star-forming region of the R Coronae Australis molecular cloud in 12CO (2-1), 13CO (2-1), and HCO+

Using data from the Arizona Radio Observatory Submillimeter Telescope, we have studied the active, star-forming region of the R Coronae Australis molecular cloud in 12CO (2-1), 13CO (2-1), and HCO+ (3-2). We baselined and mapped the data using CLASS. It was then used to create integrated intensity, outflow, and centroid velocity maps in IDL. These clearly showed the main large outflow, and then we identified a few other possible outflows.

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Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Global ethnotheories of climate change-related disease causation

Description

Understanding more about the similarities and differences in cultural perceptions of climate change-related disease causation can better inform culturally specific public health measures. Using interviews conducted with 685 adults in

Understanding more about the similarities and differences in cultural perceptions of climate change-related disease causation can better inform culturally specific public health measures. Using interviews conducted with 685 adults in eight diverse global locations ranging from Fiji and China to England and Phoenix, Arizona, this study explores climate change-disease beliefs within and across diverse cultures and comparisons between cultural and scientific models. A cultural consensus analysis was employed to identify a "culturally correct" model for each study site. Next, a scientific model was generated based on current scientific consensus regarding climate change- disease connections. Using the Quadratic Assignment Procedure (QAP), we determined the amount of correlation shared between the scientific model and each cultural model. The analysis revealed a high level of intercorrelation between the models of English speaking, economically developed sites such as Phoenix, Arizona. Additionally, cultural models from the non-English speaking sites were highly intercorrelated with one another. Overall, the English speaking sites tended to have more complex models with a greater density of causal links. Cultural models from the English speaking sites also demonstrated high levels of correlation with the scientific model. In comparison, the cultural models from the non-English speaking sites exhibited little correlation with the scientific model. Based on these findings, we suggest that cultural beliefs related to climate change-related disease causation may be influenced by complex local factors. For example, differences in education and media influences along with localized differences in climate change impacts may, in part, contribute to divergences between the cultural models.

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Date Created
  • 2014-05

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THE BLUE MOUND CHERT INVESTIGATING A TOPOGRAPHIC ANOMALY IN SOUTHERN WISCONSIN

Description

Blue Mound State Park, located in the state of Wisconsin (USA), is host to a topographic anomaly known as Blue Mound. This mound is the western of the two mounds

Blue Mound State Park, located in the state of Wisconsin (USA), is host to a topographic anomaly known as Blue Mound. This mound is the western of the two mounds that make up the park, and it marks the highest elevation in southern Wisconsin. Unlike its eastern sibling, Blue Mound possesses an unusual chert cap that may have protected it from erosion, thus preserving its stratigraphic integrity. Although Blue Mound's unique chert armor was noted in 1927 by the Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey, no published work has satisfactorily explained its origin. As little was known about the formation of cherts until the mid-to-late 1900s, the Blue Mound cap was classified merely as a Silurian dolostone into which chert had somehow become integrated (Steidtmann). However, the published observations of the Blue Mound chert do not necessarily match with the classification granted by the Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey, nor were any convincing interpretations offered regarding the presence of the chert. Since 1927, significant progress in the field of sedimentology has been achieved. There now exists knowledge that may fill the gaps between observation and interpretation in the Blue Mound survey. The observations in the 1927 bulletin correspond with modern notions of a paleokarst chert breccia, which forms a chert rubble or residuum. A chert breccia is formed when existing clasts, or pieces, of chert become cemented together by further chert deposition (Kolodny, Chaussidon and Katz). This can form large boulders of chert rubble that resist erosion. Accumulation of chert rubble has been documented to form along old weathering surfaces as an insoluble residue in environments similar to Blue Mound (Kolodny, Chaussidon and Katz). The purpose of this investigation was to verify the observations within the 1927 survey of the Blue Mound chert, and determine through field observations and sample study if the Blue Mound chert fits the model of a paleokarst chert breccia.

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  • 2013-05