Matching Items (9)
Exploring the relationship between critical consciousness and intent to persist in immigrant Latina/o college students
The purpose of this investigation was to develop a testable integrative social cognitive model of critical consciousness (Freire, 1973) that explains the relationship between critical consciousness and intent to persist in college among underserved students, such as undocumented immigrants known as DREAMers. Three constructs based on theory (i.e., critical reflection, critical action, and political efficacy) as well as a new one (i.e., political outcome expectations) were conceptualized and tested through a framework inspired by Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT; Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994; Lent & Brown, 2013). A total of 638 college students participated in this study and reflected a spectrum of disadvantage and educational attainment, which included 120 DREAMers, 124 Latina/o students, 117 non-Latina/o minorities, and 277 non-Latina/o Whites. Goodness of fit tests showed support for the adequacy of using the new model with this diverse sample of students. Tests of structural invariance indicated that 10 relational paths in the model were invariant across student cultural groups, while 7 paths were differentiated. Most of the differences involved DREAMers and non-Latina/o White students. For DREAMers, critical action was positively related to intent to persist, while that relationship was negative for non-Latina/o Whites with legal status. Findings provide support to the structure of critical consciousness across cultural groups, highlight the key role that students’ supporters (i.e., important people in their life) play in their sociopolitical engagement and intent to persist, and suggest that political outcome expectations are related to higher persistence intention across all students.
Grounded in Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT; Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994, 2000), the current study examines environmental and person-cognitive variables as predictors of academic performance among a sample of 194 Mexican American undergraduate students. Specifically, this study used multiple regression analysis to test the associations between college self-efficacy (course self-efficacy and social self-efficacy), proximal contextual influences (campus climate and cultural fit), and gender on the academic performance (self reported grade point average, GPA). Results indicated that course self-efficacy was a significant predictor of academic performance for Mexican American undergraduate students. In addition, social self-efficacy, positive perceptions of the campus climate, and cultural fit were associated with high self-efficacy. This study contributes to our knowledge of college student development in general, and academic attainment among Mexican Americans specifically. Practice and research recommendations are discussed.
Multicultural counseling competencies (MCCs) are fundamental to the ethical practice of providing services to clients. One such competency is the aspect of self-awareness of one's own worldview. As such, it is incumbent that attention to counselor's self-awareness be a part of clinical training. While research has begun to examine multicultural supervision, much of the research holds assumptions about the types of multicultural discussions that take place, as well as what may actually occur within these sessions. Little is known about what is discussed and how. This exploratory, qualitative study examined what actually occurs within clinical supervision sessions with regard to having discussion of multicultural perspectives, as well as how supervisors and supervisees experience these discussions. Five supervisory dyads from university counseling centers in the southwest were recruited to engage in a guided discussion of multicultural perspectives (DMP) in a supplemental supervision session. In these DMPs, dyads were asked to discuss issues related to personal identity, as well as to discuss the relevance of having such discussions in clinical supervision. Both the supervisors and supervisees then engaged in follow-up telephone interviews with the researcher to discuss their experience in having this discussion. All supervision sessions and follow-up interviews were recorded and transcribed. Grounded theory was used to analyze the transcribed sessions and the follow-up interviews for emergent themes. Four domains emerged from the data: dynamics in the relationship, cultural lens, characteristics of the discussion, and impact of the discussion. Further, several areas of congruence between supervisors' and interns' accounts of what occurred during the DMP, as well as congruence between supervisors' and interns' accounts of what occurred and what actually happened during the DMPs were discovered. These areas of congruence that emerged included power, similarities, differences, comfort level, enjoyment, intentionality for future work and increased awareness. The one distinct pattern of incongruence that emerged from the data was in the category of increased connection in supervisory relationship. A theoretical model of supervisors' and interns' experiences in discussions of multicultural perspectives is included. Implications, limitations and suggestions for future research are explored.
The concept of multiculturalism in music therapy is becoming increasingly relevant in the United States. The purpose of this thesis was to analyze multicultural content in undergraduate programs approved by the American Music Therapy Association (AMTA), and evaluate the Multicultural Counseling Competencies, in order to develop an educational tool to foster multicultural competency in undergraduate music therapy students. The research questions addressed in this analysis were: (a) what are the current multicultural education practices for undergraduate music therapy students in the United States, and (b) what aspects of multicultural counseling education can provide a framework for multicultural education in music therapy? Within music therapy education, there seems to be no standardized method of delivering multicultural content. Based on the findings of this content analysis, the author combined content from current multicultural music therapy and multicultural counseling education to develop a lecture series for undergraduate music therapy students. Results included the curricula of 68 AMTA-Approved undergraduate music therapy programs. 327 multiculturally related courses were identified. Coded course categories in order of frequency were ability, age, language, Non-Western music, ethnicity, race, socioeconomic status, gender, spirituality, sexual orientation, religion, and general
culture. These results are consistent with existing publications remarking on the state of multicultural education in music therapy.
A brief mindfulness intervention: effects on counselor trainees' multicultural counseling competence and ethnocultural empathy
Increasing counselor trainees’ self-efficacy for multicultural counseling competence (MCC) is an essential part of their professional development to serve racially and ethnically diverse clients effectively. The present study examined the impact of multicultural training and the effects of a brief mindfulness intervention, compared to a control condition, on counselor trainees’ self-reported ethnocultural empathy and MCC. Data obtained from a sample of masters (n = 63) and doctoral (n = 23) counselor trainees were analyzed through a series of linear multiple hierarchical regression analyses. Consistent with previous research, results revealed that multicultural training significantly predicted scores of self-reported multicultural counseling knowledge and empathic feeling. The mindfulness intervention significantly predicted self-reported multicultural counseling knowledge. There was a significant interaction between condition (i.e., mindfulness intervention or control) and previous multicultural training when examining ethnocultural empathy’s empathic feeling and expression subscale. Specifically, trainees with lower levels of multicultural training who received the mindfulness intervention scored higher on empathic feeling compared to those in the control condition, while at higher levels of multicultural training there were no differences across condition. Implications for future research and counselor training are discussed.
Cognitive and Affective Outcomes among Targets and Non-Targets of Racist Hate Speech in the College Setting
The current study used a Solomon four-group, experimental design to investigate the influence racist hate speech has on college students' anxiety, affective state, and attentional functioning. This study also examined if racist hate speech has differential impacts between students of color (i.e. targets of racist hate speech) and White students (i.e., non-targets of racist hate speech). Participants included 591 undergraduate students predominantly from Arizona (n = 553, 93.57%). Participants were randomly assigned to one of four groups (i.e., pretest experimental, pretest control, posttest only experimental, and posttest only control). Participants assigned to the experimental condition read a vignette containing a classroom incident of racist hate speech, while participants assigned to the control condition read a vignette containing a classroom incident of speech remarking on a university’s football team. Repeated measures, within-between interaction analyses of variance as well as Spearman's bivariate correlations were conducted. Findings revealed that exposure to racist hate speech in a classroom setting can raise state anxiety for students of color and White students. Unexpectedly, exposure to racist hate speech reduced positive affect among White students, and previous experiences witnessing racist hate speech was associated with greater anxiety and attentional difficulty for White students; however, students of color did not experience changes in affective outcomes following exposure to racist hate speech, and previous experiences with racist hate speech were not associated with affective or attentional outcomes for students of color. The present study and future research on this topic can help to inform university policies and campus initiatives to support students impacted by racist discourse and create a more inclusive learning environment for all students.
Although the topic of hate group radicalization processes has received significant attention in recent years, less research has been dedicated to hate group exit processes. This gap is concerning because the number of hate groups and violent hate crimes in the United States has increased dramatically over the last decade (Southern Poverty Law Center, 2020). Through in-depth, semi-structured interviews with nine former white supremacists, this study explores how and why former ex-white supremacists leave their hate groups, and why some choose to then speak out against their former racist ideologies. Using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) as a methodological framework, I identified eleven themes related to the process of leaving one’s hate group and becoming an anti-hate activist. These themes are organized into three categories consistent with the research questions: (a) participants’ exit experiences (e.g., exit-precipitating interactions with members of marginalized communities), (b) participants’ post-exit experiences (e.g., navigating personal danger and threats to safety), and (c) participants’ experiences of becoming anti-hate activists (e.g., developing an activist identity). These findings may be used to guide the development of clinical interventions for supporting hate group members confronting pre- and post-exit consequences.
White Parents’ Color-Blind Racial Ideology and Implicit White Preference as Predictors of Children’s Racial Attitudes
This study examined relations between White parents’ color-blind and implicit racial attitudes and their children’s racial bias as well as moderation by diversity in children’s friends and caregivers, parental warmth, child age, and child sex. The sample included 190 White/Non-Hispanic children (46% female) between the ages of 5 and 9 years (M = 7.11 years, SD = .94) and their mothers (N = 184) and fathers (N = 154). Data used were parents’ reports of color-blind racial attitudes (Color-blind Racial Attitudes Scale; CoBRAS), parental warmth, and racial/ethnic diversity of children’s friendships and caregivers, direct assessment of primary parent implicit racial attitudes (Implicit Association Test; IAT), and direct assessment of children’s racial attitudes. Results supported hypothesized relations between parent racial attitudes and some child racial bias variables, especially under certain conditions. Specifically, both mothers’ and fathers’ color-blind racial attitudes were positively related to children’s social inclusion preference for White children over Black children and parents’ implicit White preference positively predicted child social inclusion racial bias, but only for younger children. Fathers’ color-blind racial attitudes positively predicted children’s social inclusion racial bias only when children’s pre-K caregivers were mostly White and were inversely related to children’s implicit White preference when children’s caregivers were more racially heterogeneous. Finally, parental warmth moderated relations such that, when mothers’ warmth was low, mother color-blind attitudes were negatively related to children’s racial bias in social distance preference and fathers’ color-blind attitudes positively predicted children’s social inclusion bias only when father warmth was low or average.
Women in the U.S. Military: Coping Style as a Moderator between Gender Microaggressions and Depressive Symptoms
Women in the military work in a hypermasculine environment and may have experiences with gender microaggressions that contribute poorly to their mental health. In this quantitative study, the author assessed active duty U.S. military women’s (N = 683) reports of experiences with eight types of gender microaggressions (traditional gender roles, sexual objectification, second class citizen, sexist language, explicit threat to physical safety, implicit threat to physical safety, invalidation of sexism, and environmental; Capodilupo et al., 2010). Participants reported around a little or rarely having experiences with such microaggressions. Exploratory analyses demonstrated that Navy and junior enlisted women reported significantly higher frequencies of gender microaggressions compared to other groups. Using hierarchical regression analysis, controlling for general levels of stress, branch, rank, and sexual orientation, the author also examined whether the eight gender microaggressions explained scores on a measure of depression. Results suggested that only second class citizen explained a significant proportion of variance in depression. Therefore, the author examined whether coping style moderated the association between the gender microaggression subscales and depression as proposed. Results indicated problem focused engagement and emotion focused disengagement both moderated the link between second class citizen and depression. Findings from the current study have the potential to inform military programs, specifically around bringing awareness to subtle forms of sexism and ways to engage in coping. Limitation and directions for future research also are discussed.