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The Motivations of College Students to Volunteer in Local Nonprofit Hospitals

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The purpose of this study is to assess the factors that motivate and influence 18-24-year-olds, compared to those of other age groups, to volunteer, specifically in local hospitals. Volunteers play an integral role towards sustaining nonprofit organizations (NPOs). For this

The purpose of this study is to assess the factors that motivate and influence 18-24-year-olds, compared to those of other age groups, to volunteer, specifically in local hospitals. Volunteers play an integral role towards sustaining nonprofit organizations (NPOs). For this reason, volunteers have the potential to impact the success and effectiveness of local NPOs including nonprofit hospitals such as Banner Health, Mayo Clinic, and HonorHealth. These hospitals rely on the services provided by volunteers to help facilitate their patient care and achieve their missions. An important component of the hospitals’ volunteer programs must focus on the recruitment and retention of volunteers. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, volunteer rates are lowest among 20-24-year-olds. Since most college students encompass the 18-24 age range, understanding the factors that motivate and influence them could indicate why there is a low number of hospital volunteers in this age group. ASU students were surveyed regarding their volunteer history, volunteer motivations, and volunteer constraints. Their responses were compared to survey results from local hospital volunteers to look for significant differences or similarities which are highlighted in this study. A total of 183 ASU students between the ages of 18 and 24 completed the survey, and 58 of those students identified as a prior or current hospital volunteer. Three ASU students participated in a focus group. Out of the five Arizona nonprofit hospitals contacted, only one participated in the study. Banner Thunderbird Medical Center (BTMC) had 34 active hospital volunteers complete the survey. The BTMC volunteers who participated in the study were between 14 and 83 years old with the most common age being 69 years old.

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2019-05

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Strategies for the Recruitment of College Student Volunteers

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College students are historically an underrepresented demographic group of American volunteers. Based on a combination of research on volunteer motivations and a study conducted of Arizona State University students, this paper identifies major motivations of college students for the purpose

College students are historically an underrepresented demographic group of American volunteers. Based on a combination of research on volunteer motivations and a study conducted of Arizona State University students, this paper identifies major motivations of college students for the purpose of pinpointing strategies to recruit college-aged volunteers for non-profit organizations and student-led service initiatives on college campuses. From a sample of 271 ASU students, it can be concluded that students are motivated to volunteer by enjoying the work that they are doing, caring about the cause they are working for, being asked to volunteer, and participating in volunteer work with a group or student organization to which they belong. All variable groups in this study represent actions and opinions of college volunteering unless otherwise specified. The respondents were most passionate about causes that involved education, poverty alleviation, working with children, and human rights. Additionally, the most effective avenues found for informing college students about volunteer opportunities were: email, social media, friends, word-of-mouth, and Volunteermatch.org. In other words, students are informed of events both personally and from the Internet. The most effective strategies identified to recruit college student volunteers include classroom announcements through student leaders, social media and Internet marketing, fliers around campus and in residence halls, and consistent emphasis on the impact that the students' efforts will have on the causes that they care most about.

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2016-05

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Furniture longevity: how mass-produced heirloom furniture supports sustainable consumption

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In recent years, the length of time people use and keep belongings has decreased. With the acceptance of short-lived furniture and inexpensive replacements, the American mentality has shifted to thinking that discarding furniture is normal, often in the guise of

In recent years, the length of time people use and keep belongings has decreased. With the acceptance of short-lived furniture and inexpensive replacements, the American mentality has shifted to thinking that discarding furniture is normal, often in the guise of recycling. Americans are addicted to landfills. The high cost of landfill real estate and other considerable ecological impacts created by the manufacturing of furniture should persuade people to give their belongings a longer life, but in reality, furniture is often prematurely discarded. This grounded theory study takes a multi-method approach to analyze why some types of furniture are kept longer and to theorize about new ways to design and sell furniture that lasts well past its warranty. Case studies bring new insight into designer intention, manufacturer intent, the world of auction-worthy collectables and heirlooms, why there is a booming second-hand furniture market and the growing importance of informed interior designers and architects who specify or help clients choose interior furnishings. An environmental life cycle assessment compares how the length of furniture life affects environmental impacts. A product's life could continue for generations if properly maintained. Designers and manufacturers hoping to promote longevity can apply the conclusions of this report in bringing new pieces to the market that have a much longer life span. This study finds areas of opportunity that promote user attachment, anticipate future repurposing, and provide services. This thinking envisions a paradigm for furniture that can re-invent itself over multiple generations of users, and ultimately lead to a new wave of desirable heirloom furniture.

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2011

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Schooling choice during structural transformation

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This dissertation consists of two essays. The first measures the degree to which schooling accounts for differences in industry value added per worker. Using a sample of 107 economies and seven industries, the paper considers the patterns in the education

This dissertation consists of two essays. The first measures the degree to which schooling accounts for differences in industry value added per worker. Using a sample of 107 economies and seven industries, the paper considers the patterns in the education levels of various industries and their relative value added per worker. Agriculture has notably less schooling and is less productive than other sectors, while a group of services including financial services, education and health care has higher rates of schooling and higher value added per worker. The essay finds that in the case of these specific industries education is important in explaining sector differences, and the role of education all other industries are less defined. The second essay provides theory to investigate the relationship between agriculture and schooling. During structural transformation, workers shift from the agriculture sector with relatively low schooling to other sectors which have more schooling. This essay explores to what extent changes in the costs of acquiring schooling drive structural transformation using a multi-sector growth model which includes a schooling choice. The model is disciplined using cross country data on sector of employment and schooling constructed from the IPUM International census collection. Counterfactual exercises are used to determine how much structural transformation is accounted for by changes in the cost of acquiring schooling. These changes account for small shares of structural transformation in all economies with a median near zero.

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2011

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Laboratory determination of hydraulic conductivity functions for unsaturated cracked fine grained soil

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In geotechnical engineering, measuring the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of fine grained soils can be time consuming and tedious. The various applications that require knowledge of the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function are great, and in geotechnical engineering, they range from

In geotechnical engineering, measuring the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of fine grained soils can be time consuming and tedious. The various applications that require knowledge of the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function are great, and in geotechnical engineering, they range from modeling seepage through landfill covers to determining infiltration of water under a building slab. The unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function can be measured using various direct and indirect techniques. The instantaneous profile method has been found to be the most promising unsteady state method for measuring the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function for fine grained soils over a wide range of suction values. The instantaneous profile method can be modified by using different techniques to measure suction and water content and also through the way water is introduced or removed from the soil profile. In this study, the instantaneous profile method was modified by creating duplicate soil samples compacted into cylindrical tubes at two different water contents. The techniques used in the duplicate method to measure the water content and matric suction included volumetric moisture probes, manual water content measurements, and filter paper tests. The experimental testing conducted in this study provided insight into determining the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity using the instantaneous profile method for a sandy clay soil and recommendations are provided for further evaluation. Overall, this study has demonstrated that the presence of cracks has no significant impact on the hydraulic behavior of soil in high suction ranges. The results of this study do not examine the behavior of cracked soil unsaturated hydraulic conductivity at low suction and at moisture contents near saturation.

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2011

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The emergence and scaling of division of labor in insect societies

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Division of labor, whereby different group members perform different functions, is a fundamental attribute of sociality. It appears across social systems, from simple cooperative groups to complex eusocial colonies. A core challenge in sociobiology is to explain how patterns of

Division of labor, whereby different group members perform different functions, is a fundamental attribute of sociality. It appears across social systems, from simple cooperative groups to complex eusocial colonies. A core challenge in sociobiology is to explain how patterns of collective organization are generated. Theoretical models propose that division of labor self-organizes, or emerges, from interactions among group members and the environment; division of labor is also predicted to scale positively with group size. I empirically investigated the emergence and scaling of division of labor in evolutionarily incipient groups of sweat bees and in eusocial colonies of harvester ants. To test whether division of labor is an emergent property of group living during early social evolution, I created de novo communal groups of the normally solitary sweat bee Lasioglossum (Ctenonomia) NDA-1. A division of labor repeatedly arose between nest excavation and guarding tasks; results were consistent with hypothesized effects of spatial organization and intrinsic behavioral variability. Moreover, an experimental increase in group size spontaneously promoted higher task specialization and division of labor. Next, I examined the influence of colony size on division of labor in larger, more integrated colonies of the harvester ant Pogonomyrmex californicus. Division of labor scaled positively with colony size in two contexts: during early colony ontogeny, as colonies grew from tens to hundreds of workers, and among same-aged colonies that varied naturally in size. However, manipulation of colony size did not elicit a short-term response, suggesting that the scaling of division of labor in P. californicus colonies is a product of functional integration and underlying developmental processes, rather than a purely emergent epiphenomenon. This research provides novel insights into the organization of work in insect societies, and raises broader questions about the role of size in sociobiology.

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2011

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Global behavior of finite energy solutions to the focusing nonlinear Schrödinger Equation in d dimension

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Nonlinear dispersive equations model nonlinear waves in a wide range of physical and mathematics contexts. They reinforce or dissipate effects of linear dispersion and nonlinear interactions, and thus, may be of a focusing or defocusing nature. The nonlinear Schrödinger equation

Nonlinear dispersive equations model nonlinear waves in a wide range of physical and mathematics contexts. They reinforce or dissipate effects of linear dispersion and nonlinear interactions, and thus, may be of a focusing or defocusing nature. The nonlinear Schrödinger equation or NLS is an example of such equations. It appears as a model in hydrodynamics, nonlinear optics, quantum condensates, heat pulses in solids and various other nonlinear instability phenomena. In mathematics, one of the interests is to look at the wave interaction: waves propagation with different speeds and/or different directions produces either small perturbations comparable with linear behavior, or creates solitary waves, or even leads to singular solutions. This dissertation studies the global behavior of finite energy solutions to the $d$-dimensional focusing NLS equation, $i partial _t u+Delta u+ |u|^{p-1}u=0, $ with initial data $u_0in H^1,; x in Rn$; the nonlinearity power $p$ and the dimension $d$ are chosen so that the scaling index $s=frac{d}{2}-frac{2}{p-1}$ is between 0 and 1, thus, the NLS is mass-supercritical $(s>0)$ and energy-subcritical $(s<1).$ For solutions with $ME[u_0]<1$ ($ME[u_0]$ stands for an invariant and conserved quantity in terms of the mass and energy of $u_0$), a sharp threshold for scattering and blowup is given. Namely, if the renormalized gradient $g_u$ of a solution $u$ to NLS is initially less than 1, i.e., $g_u(0)<1,$ then the solution exists globally in time and scatters in $H^1$ (approaches some linear Schr"odinger evolution as $ttopminfty$); if the renormalized gradient $g_u(0)>1,$ then the solution exhibits a blowup behavior, that is, either a finite time blowup occurs, or there is a divergence of $H^1$ norm in infinite time. This work generalizes the results for the 3d cubic NLS obtained in a series of papers by Holmer-Roudenko and Duyckaerts-Holmer-Roudenko with the key ingredients, the concentration compactness and localized variance, developed in the context of the energy-critical NLS and Nonlinear Wave equations by Kenig and Merle. One of the difficulties is fractional powers of nonlinearities which are overcome by considering Besov-Strichartz estimates and various fractional differentiation rules.

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2011

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Deviant bodies resisting online: examining the intersecting realities of women of color in Xbox Live

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Employing qualitative methods and drawing from an intersectional framework which focuses on the multiple identities we all embody, this dissertation focuses on oppressions and resistance strategies employed by women of color in Xbox live, an online gaming community. Ethnographic observations

Employing qualitative methods and drawing from an intersectional framework which focuses on the multiple identities we all embody, this dissertation focuses on oppressions and resistance strategies employed by women of color in Xbox live, an online gaming community. Ethnographic observations and narrative interviewing reveal that women of color, as deviants within the space, face intersecting oppressions in gaming as in life outside the gaming world. They are linguistically profiled within the space based off of how they sound. They have responded with various strategies to combat the discrimination they experience. Some segregate themselves from the larger gaming population and many refuse to purchase games that depict women in a hyper-sexualized manner or that present people of color stereotypically. For others, the solution is to "sit-in" on games and disrupt game flow by 'player-killing' or engage in other 'griefing' activities. I analyze this behavior in the context of Black feminist consciousness and resistance and uncover that these methods are similar to women who employ resistance strategies for survival within the real world.

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2011

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Migration aspirations, religiosity, and sexual behavior among youth: a new look at suicidal Ideation in Central Mexico

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While the suicide rate in Mexico is relatively low when compared to countries throughout the world, it is increasing at an alarming pace. Unfortunately, the amount of suicide research focused on Mexican populations is relatively scarce. Using a sample of

While the suicide rate in Mexico is relatively low when compared to countries throughout the world, it is increasing at an alarming pace. Unfortunately, the amount of suicide research focused on Mexican populations is relatively scarce. Using a sample of high school students living in Guanajuato, Mexico, this study explored the relationship between recent suicidal ideation and three factors that previous research in other countries has connected to suicide: Migration aspirations, religiosity, and sexual behavior. Using multiple and logistic regression, the results indicated the following: 1) Recent suicidal ideation predicted increased migration aspirations, 2) higher levels of external religiosity predicted lower odds of recent suicidal ideation, and 3) stronger parent-child relationships predicted lower odds of recent suicidal ideation. The findings are discussed in light of the Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory, Bogenschneider's risk/protection model, and Stark's religious commitment theory.

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2011

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First ladies as modern celebrities: politics and the press in Progressive Era

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Historians often characterize first ladies in the Progressive Era as representatives of the last vestiges of Victorian womanhood in an increasingly modern society. This dissertation argues that first ladies negotiated an image of themselves that fulfilled both traditional and modern

Historians often characterize first ladies in the Progressive Era as representatives of the last vestiges of Victorian womanhood in an increasingly modern society. This dissertation argues that first ladies negotiated an image of themselves that fulfilled both traditional and modern notions of womanhood. In crafting these images, first ladies constructed images of their celebrity selves that were uniquely modern. Thus, images of first ladies in the Progressive Era show them as modest and feminine but also autonomous, intelligent, and capable. Using the historian Charles Ponce de Leon's research on modern human-interest journalism, I contend that first ladies in the Progressive Era worked with the modern press in a symbiotic relationship. This relationship allowed the press exclusive access to what was, ostensibly, the first lady's private, and therefore authentic, self. By purporting to reveal parts of their private lives in the press, first ladies showed themselves as down-to-earth despite their success and fulfilled by their domestic pursuits despite their compelling public lives. By offering the press exclusive access to their lives, first ladies secured the opportunity to shape specific images of themselves to appeal, as broadly as possible, to their husbands and parties' constituents and the American public. First ladies in the Progressive Era thus acted as political figures by using both public and private, or what historian Catherine Allgor terms, "unofficial spaces" to support and reflect their husbands and parties' political agendas. In examining representations of first ladies in popular magazines and newspapers from 1901 to 1921 in tandem with letters, memoirs, and other personal papers from these women, a clear pattern emerges. Despite personal differences, first ladies in the Progressive Era represented themselves according to a specific formula in the modern press. The images, constructed by first ladies in this time period, reflect shifts in economic, social, and political life in Progressive Era America, which called for women to be independent and intelligent yet still maintain their femininity and domesticity.

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2011