Matching Items (43)

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Serum Immune Profiling for Early Detection of Cervical Disease

Description

Background: The most recent (2012) worldwide estimates from International Agency for Research on Cancer indicate that approximately 528,000 new cases and 270,000 deaths per year are attributed to cervical cancer

Background: The most recent (2012) worldwide estimates from International Agency for Research on Cancer indicate that approximately 528,000 new cases and 270,000 deaths per year are attributed to cervical cancer worldwide. The disease is preventable with HPV vaccination and with early detection and treatment of pre-invasive cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, CIN. Antibodies (Abs) to HPV proteins are under investigation as potential biomarkers for early detection.
Methods: To detect circulating HPV-specific IgG Abs, we developed programmable protein arrays (NAPPA) that display the proteomes of two low-risk HPV types (HPV6 and 11) and ten oncogenic high-risk HPV types (HPV16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52 and 58). Arrays were probed with sera from women with CIN 0/I (n=78), CIN II/III (n=84), or invasive cervical cancer (ICC, n=83).
Results: Abs to any early (E) HPV protein were detected less frequently in women with CIN 0/I (23.7%) than women with CIN II/III (39.0%) and ICC (46.1%, p<0.04). Of the E Abs, anti-E7 Abs were the most frequently detected (6.6%, 19.5%, and 30.3%, respectively). The least frequently detected Abs were E1 and E2-Abs in CIN 0/I (1.3%) and E1-Abs in CIN II/III (1.2%) and ICC (7.9%). HPV16-specific Abs correlated with HPV16 DNA detected in the cervix in 0% of CIN 0/I, 21.2% of CIN II/III, and 45.5% of ICC. A significant number (29 - 73%) of E4, E7, L1, and L2 Abs had cross-reactivity between HPV types.
Conclusion: HPV protein arrays provide a valuable high-throughput tool for measuring the breadth, specificity, and heterogeneity of the serologic response to HPV in cervical disease.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-08-23

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Isolation, Detection, and Quantification of Cancer Biomarkers in HPV-Associated Malignancies

Description

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been recognized as the main etiologic factor in the development of various cancers including penile, vulva, oropharyngeal and cervical cancers. In the development of cancer,

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been recognized as the main etiologic factor in the development of various cancers including penile, vulva, oropharyngeal and cervical cancers. In the development of cancer, persistent HPV infections induce E6 and E7 oncoproteins, which promote cell proliferation and carcinogenesis resulting elevated levels of host antibodies (e.g., anti-HPV16 E7 antibody). Currently, these cancers are clinically diagnosed using invasive biopsy-based tests, which are performed only in centralized labs by experienced clinical staff using time-consuming and expensive tools and technologies. Therefore, these obstacles constrain their utilization at primary care clinics and in remote settings, where resources are limited. Here, we present a rapid, inexpensive, reliable, easy-to-use, customized immunoassay platform following a microfluidic filter device to detect and quantify anti-HPV16 E7 antibodies from whole blood as a non-invasive assisting technology for diagnosis of HPV-associated malignancies, especially, at primary healthcare and remote settings. The platform can detect and quantify anti-HPV16 E7 antibody down to 2.87 ng/mL. We further validated our immunoassay in clinical patient samples and it provided significantly high responses as compared to control samples. Thus, it can be potentially implemented as a pretesting tool to identify high-risk groups for broad monitoring of HPV-associated cancers in resource-constrained settings.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-06-12

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Genomic amplification of 9p24.1 targeting JAK2, PD-L1, and PD-L2 is enriched in high-risk triple negative breast cancer

Description

We used DNA content flow cytometry followed by oligonucleotide array based comparative genomic hybridization to survey the genomes of 326 tumors, including 41 untreated surgically resected triple negative breast cancers

We used DNA content flow cytometry followed by oligonucleotide array based comparative genomic hybridization to survey the genomes of 326 tumors, including 41 untreated surgically resected triple negative breast cancers (TNBC). A high level (log2ratio ≥1) 9p24 amplicon was found in TNBC (12/41), glioblastomas (2/44), and colon carcinomas (2/68). The shortest region of overlap for the amplicon targets 9p24.1 and includes the loci for PD-L1, PD-L2, and JAK2 (PDJ amplicon). In contrast this amplicon was absent in ER+ (0/8) and HER2+ (0/15) breast tumors, and in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (0/150). The PDJ amplicon in TNBCs was correlated with clinical outcomes in group comparisons by two-sample t-tests for continuous variables and chi-squared tests for categorical variables. TNBC patients with the PDJ amplicon had a worse outcome with worse disease-free and overall survival. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed that the PDJ amplicon in TNBC is associated with elevated expression of JAK2 and of the PD-1 ligands. These initial findings demonstrate that the PDJ amplicon is enriched in TNBC, targets signaling pathways that activate the PD-1 mediated immune checkpoint, and identifies patients with a poor prognosis.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-07-03

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Application of flat panel OLED display technology for the point-of-care detection of circulating cancer biomarkers

Description

Point-of-care molecular diagnostics can provide efficient and cost-effective medical care, and they have the potential to fundamentally change our approach to global health. However, most existing approaches are not scalable

Point-of-care molecular diagnostics can provide efficient and cost-effective medical care, and they have the potential to fundamentally change our approach to global health. However, most existing approaches are not scalable to include multiple biomarkers. As a solution, we have combined commercial flat panel OLED display technology with protein microarray technology to enable high-density fluorescent, programmable, multiplexed biorecognition in a compact and disposable configuration with clinical-level sensitivity. Our approach leverages advances in commercial display technology to reduce pre-functionalized biosensor substrate costs to pennies per cm[superscript 2]. Here, we demonstrate quantitative detection of IgG antibodies to multiple viral antigens in patient serum samples with detection limits for human IgG in the 10 pg/mL range. We also demonstrate multiplexed detection of antibodies to the HPV16 proteins E2, E6, and E7, which are circulating biomarkers for cervical as well as head and neck cancers.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-07-04

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Targeted Delivery DNA-Tetrahedron Assembled Therapeutics

Description

As advanced as current cancer therapeutics are, there are still challenges that need to be addressed. One of them is the non-specific killing of normal cells in addition to cancerous

As advanced as current cancer therapeutics are, there are still challenges that need to be addressed. One of them is the non-specific killing of normal cells in addition to cancerous cells. Ideal cancer therapeutics should be targeted specifically toward tumor cells. Due to the robust self-assembly and versatile addressability of DNA-nanostructures, a DNA tetrahedron nanostructure was explored as a drug carrier. The nanostructure can be decorated with various molecules to either increase immunogenicity, toxicity, or affinity to a specific cell type. The efficiency of the specific binding and internalization of the chosen molecules was measured via flow cytometry. Using a murine B cell lymphoma as the model system, several targeting molecules have been evaluated for their specific binding and induced internalization of DNA nanostructures, including an anti-Igκ antibody, an idiotype-binding peptide, and a g-quadruplex nucleolin specific aptamer. It was found that adding the anti-Igκ antibody appeared to provide increased binding and facilitated cellular internalization. Also, it was found that the presence of CpG appeared to aid in the binding of nanostructures decorated with other molecules, as compared to nanostructures without CpG. The g-quadruplex aptamer thought to specifically bind cancer cells that overexpress nucleolin was tested and found to have better binding to cells when linked to the nanostructure than when alone. The drug doxorubicin was used to load the DNA-nanostructure and attempt to inhibit cancer cell growth. The DNA-nanostructure has the benefit of being self-assembled and customizable, and it has been shown to bind to and internalize into a cancer cell line. The next steps are to test the toxicity of the nanostructure as well as its specificity for cancerous cells compared to noncancerous cells. Furthermore, once those tests are completed the structure’s drug delivery capacity will be tested in tumor bearing mice. The DNA-nanostructure exhibits potential as a cancer specific therapeutic.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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The Effect of an Environmental Stimulus on a Genetic Pathway Associated with Schizophrenia

Description

Schizophrenia risk is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. The immediate early gene early growth response 3 (Egr3), is regulated downstream of several schizophrenia risk genes and encodes a

Schizophrenia risk is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. The immediate early gene early growth response 3 (Egr3), is regulated downstream of several schizophrenia risk genes and encodes a zinc-finger transcription factor protein. Previous studies from our lab indicate that Egr3 deficient (Egr3 -/-) mice exhibit schizophrenia-like phenotypes. We also discovered decreased serotonin 2a receptors (5-HT2AR) in the Egr3 -/- mice, similar to studies that reported decreased 5-HT2ARs in schizophrenia patients. We previously reported that sleep deprivation, a mild stress, causes the over expression of Egr3 and the serotonin 2a gene (Htr2a) in the cortex. To determine whether EGR3, a transcription factor, regulates Htr2a in the prefrontal cortex after sleep deprivation, Egr3 -/-and Egr3 +/+ mice were sleep deprived for eight hours. Transgenic mice were used that expressed enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under control of the Htr2a promoter via a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). Immunohistochemistry was performed to identify EGFP containing cells. Data analysis revealed no significant interaction between genotype and sleep deprivation in 5-HT2AR/EGFP containing cells within the prefrontal cortex. Based on the findings of this study, more data is needed to better determine the relationship between sleep deprivation and its effect on the regulation of Htr2a through in an EGR3 dependent manner.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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PDZ-binding kinase promotes adrenocortical carcinoma cell proliferation and tumorigenesis

Description

Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare and deadly disease that affects 0.5-2 people per million per year in the US. Currently, the first line clinical management includes surgical resection, followed

Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare and deadly disease that affects 0.5-2 people per million per year in the US. Currently, the first line clinical management includes surgical resection, followed by treatment with the chemotherapeutic agent mitotane. These interventions, however, have limited effectiveness, as the overall five-year survival rate of patients with ACC is less than 35%. Therefore, further scientific investigation underlying the molecular mechanisms and biomarkers of this disease is of high importance. The aim of this project was to identify potential biomarkers that may be used as prognosticators as well as candidate genes that might be targeted to develop new therapies for patients with ACC. An analysis of publicly-available datasets revealed PDZ-binding kinase (PBK) as being upregulated roughly 9-fold in ACC tissue compared to normal adrenal tissue. PBK has been implicated as an oncogene in several other systems, and its expression has been shown to negatively impact patient survival. Initial experiments have confirmed the upregulation of PBK in H295R cells, a human ACC cell line. We effectively silenced PBK (>95% reduction in protein content) in H295R cells using lentiviral shRNA constructs. Using high and low PBK expressing cells, we performed soft agar assays for colony formation, and found that the PBK-silenced cells produced two-fold fewer colonies than the vector control (p<0.05). This indicates that PBK likely plays a role in tumorigenicity. We further conducted functional studies for apoptosis and proliferation to elucidate the mechanism by which PBK increases tumorigenicity. Preliminary results from MTS assays showed that after 9 days, PBK-silenced cells proliferated significantly less than the vector control, so PBK likely increases proliferation. Together these data identify PBK as a kinase implicated in ACC tumorigenesis. Further in vitro and in vivo studies will be conducted to evaluate PBK as a potential therapeutic target in adrenocortical carcinoma.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Understanding the Biochemistry of Different P53 Mutants Having Different Sensitivities to Simvastatin

Description

The p53 gene functions as a tumor suppressor that inhibits proliferation, regulates apoptosis, DNA repair, and normal cell cycle arrest. Mutation of the p53 gene is linked to be prevalent

The p53 gene functions as a tumor suppressor that inhibits proliferation, regulates apoptosis, DNA repair, and normal cell cycle arrest. Mutation of the p53 gene is linked to be prevalent in 50% of all human cancers. In this paper, we are exploring triple negative breast cancer and the effects of simvastatin on tumor growth and survival. Simvastatin is a drug that is primarily used to treat high cholesterol and heart disease. Simvastatin is unique because it is able to inhibit protein prenylation through regulation of the mevalonate pathway. This makes it a potential targeted drug for therapy against p53 mutant cancer. The mechanism behind this is hypothesized to be correlated to aberrant activation of the Ras pathway. The Ras subfamily functions to transcriptionally regulate cell growth and survival, and will therefore allow for a tumor to thrive if the pathway is continually and abnormally activated. The Ras protein has to be prenylated in order for activation of this pathway to occur, making statin drug treatment a viable option as a cancer treatment. This is because it acts as a regulator of the mevalonate pathway which is upstream of protein prenylation. It is thus vital to understand these pathways at both the gene and protein level in different p53 mutants to further understand if simvastatin is indeed a drug with anti-cancer properties and can be used to target cancers with p53 mutation. The goal of this project is to study the biochemistry behind the mutation of p53's sensitivity to statin. With this information we can create a possible signature for those who could benefit from Simvastatin drug treatment as a possible targeted treatment for p53 mutant cancers.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

High-Throughput Antigen Screening via an Invariant Chain Fusion Protein & the MHC Class II Receptor

Description

The human body’s immune system utilizes many different cell types, signaling proteins, and receptors to thwart an infectious pathogen from an individual. Adaptive immunity, particularly with CD4+ T cell lymphocytes

The human body’s immune system utilizes many different cell types, signaling proteins, and receptors to thwart an infectious pathogen from an individual. Adaptive immunity, particularly with CD4+ T cell lymphocytes & the MHC II receptor, was the focus of this paper by creating a custom destination vector plasmid, pFLIiP, which would contain a gateway cloning site and the nucleotides encoding the first 85 amino acids of the invariant chain protein upstream to provide a means of high-throughput antigen screening via the MHC II receptor and peptide processing pathway. The plasmid pFLIiP was successfully created and sequence verified. Both GFP and mCherry fluorescent proteins were inserted into pFLIiP via LR Clonase and successfully transfected into K562 cancer cells. Fluorescent activity read of a flow cytometer in conjunction with the differing pKa values of the two different fluorescent proteins suggested the fusion protein was in-frame and pFLIiP was successfully targeting the protein to the endosome.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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EXPRESSION DETECTION OF HPV-16 mRNA USING RT-qPCR IN HEAD AND NECK CANCER

Description

Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the cause of 99.7% of cervical cancers. Research of cervical cancer has made this disease mostly curable in the developing world. Head and neck cancer,

Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the cause of 99.7% of cervical cancers. Research of cervical cancer has made this disease mostly curable in the developing world. Head and neck cancer, which is increasingly caused by HPV, still is associated with a mortality rate of 50,000 in the US annually. This study proposed to evaluate the biology of HPV-16 in head and neck tumors by using RT-qPCR to measure the RNA expression and its relation to physical status of the virus. Methods: This study was to develop an assay that uses RT-qPCR to determine the quantitative expression of HPV-16 RNA coding for proteins E1, E2, E4, E5, E6, and E7 in tumor samples. The assay development started with creation of primers. It went on to test the primers on template DNA through traditional PCR and then on DNA from HPV-16 positive cell lines, SiHa and CaSki, using RT-qPCR. This paper also describes the troubleshooting methods taken for the PCR reaction. Once the primers are verified, the RT-qPCR process can be carried out on RNA purified from tumor samples. Results: No primer sets have been confirmed to produce a product through PCR or RT-qPCR. The primer sequences match up correctly with known sequences for HPV-16 E1, E2, E4, E5, E6, and E7. RT-qPCR showed results consistent with the hypothesis. Conclusion: The RT-qPCR protocol must be optimized to confirm the primer sequences work as desired. Then primers will be used to study physical status and RNA expression in HPV-positive and HPV-negative head and neck tumor samples. This assay can help shed light on which proteins are expressed most in tumors of the head and neck and will aid in the development of future screening and treatment options.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05