Matching Items (7)

135023-Thumbnail Image.png

The Trajectory of Thought: Lévy Flight Patterns and Dynamical Systems in Human Memory Foraging

Description

Recent work in free-recall tasks suggest that human memory foraging may follow a Lévy flight distribution – a random walk procedure that is common in other activities of cognitive agents,

Recent work in free-recall tasks suggest that human memory foraging may follow a Lévy flight distribution – a random walk procedure that is common in other activities of cognitive agents, such as animal and human food foraging. This study attempts to draw parallels between memory search and physical search, with the assumption that humans follow similar search patterns in both. To date, research merely equates the two processes (foraging in memory and the physical world) based on a similarity in statistical structure. This study starts with demonstrating a relationship between physical distance traveled and IRIs by having participants list countries. An IRI, inter-retrieval interval, is the time interval between items recalled. The next experiment uses multidimensional scaling (MDS) to derive a Euclidean perceptual space from similarity ratings of freely-recalled items and then maps the trajectory of human thought through this perceptual space. This trajectory can offer a much more compelling comparison to physical foraging behavior. Finally, a possible correlate of Lévy flight foraging is explored called critical slowing down. Statistically significant evidence was found in all three experiments. The discussion connects all three experiments and what their results mean for human memory foraging.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

134003-Thumbnail Image.png

Effects of Videotaped and/or Written Instructions on Learning to Slackline

Description

The human body is a complex system that links mental learning processes and developed muscular capabilities to produce novel movements or refine existing movements. It is well known that skills

The human body is a complex system that links mental learning processes and developed muscular capabilities to produce novel movements or refine existing movements. It is well known that skills are learned and become more refined with practice, however motor skills can develop by watching others perform an action. The current study aims to test the utility of videotaped and/or written instructional methods in teaching novice slackliners. Results showed a significant interaction between group and trial. The video+word group had significantly longer balance times than the control and video groups in trial two. The word group had significantly longer balance times than the control and video groups in trials three and four. A cumulative skill score was not found to be significantly correlated with balance times. Limitations of the current study are discussed, as well as recommendations for future study and applications.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

135049-Thumbnail Image.png

Sit-to-stand task with physical and cognitive perturbations: A comparison of linear and nonlinear methods of analyzing postural data

Description

Variability is inherent in human movement, and poses a challenge to researchers attempting to measure balance. Human movement variability was analyzed using two methods: standard deviation and largest Lyapunov exponent.

Variability is inherent in human movement, and poses a challenge to researchers attempting to measure balance. Human movement variability was analyzed using two methods: standard deviation and largest Lyapunov exponent. The experiment was a sit-to-stand task with physical and cognitive perturbations. The physical perturbation consisted of stable and unstable platform conditions, while the cognitive perturbation consisted of a counting task. The data were collected from 24 healthy young adults. The purpose of this study was to compare the standard deviation and largest Lyapunov exponent as measures of stability, and to determine the Lyapunov exponent's sensitivity to cognitive perturbation. Evidence suggests that the Lyapunov exponent serves as a more accurate indicator of stability than standard deviation, and that it lacks sensitivity to the counting task.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

134593-Thumbnail Image.png

The Rhythm of Running: An Analysis of Preferred Running Tempo

Description

The action of running is difficult to measure, but well worth it to receive valuable information about one of our most basic evolutionary functions. In the context of modern day,

The action of running is difficult to measure, but well worth it to receive valuable information about one of our most basic evolutionary functions. In the context of modern day, recreational runners typically listen to music while running, and so the purpose of this experiment is to analyze the influence of music on running from a more dynamical approach. The first experiment was a running task involving running without a metronome and running with one while setting one's own preferred running tempo. The second experiment sought to manipulate the participant's preferred running tempo by having them listen to the metronome set at their preferred tempo, 20% above their preferred tempo, or 20% below. The purpose of this study is to analyze whether or not rhythmic perturbations different to one's preferred running tempo would interfere with one's preferred running tempo and cause a change in the variability of one's running patterns as well as a change in one's running performance along the measures of step rate, stride length, and stride pace. The evidence suggests that participants naturally entrained to the metronome tempo which influenced them to run faster or slower as a function of metronome tempo. However, this change was also accompanied by a shift in the variability of one's step rate and stride length.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

130910-Thumbnail Image.png

Exploring Intentional and Unintentional Coordination Within Dyads

Description

Humans achieve coordination within and across themselves through the use of coupling. Coupling is the term for an informational linkage that allows two independent processes to eventually coordinate together. Coupling

Humans achieve coordination within and across themselves through the use of coupling. Coupling is the term for an informational linkage that allows two independent processes to eventually coordinate together. Coupling between the motor and respiratory system is evident within people through the signaling of the nervous system. However, little has been known about the degree of coordination that can be attained across two people regarding their respiratory patterns. The current study tested whether unintentional coordination of respiration across two people could be achieved when both people were intentionally coordinating their motor movements. Participants were assigned the position of leader or follower, where the leader followed the rhythm of a metronome to lift their leg to and the follower coordinated their leg-lift with the leader’s using their vision, as instructed. During the experiment the movements of each participant’s knee and their respiration were recorded. Relative phase was used as a measure of coordination. Results show that motor coordination was achieved, consistent with past studies, but that there was no coordination of respiration across the participants. This is most likely due to individual differences in physiology and the lack of coupling between the two separate respiratory systems. Although internal motor-respiratory patterns may have coordinated in a multi-frequency manner within each participant, the outward phasing of their respiration showed no such relationship. This study highlights the importance of a multi-frequency approach when observing coordination within and across physiological systems.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-12

157322-Thumbnail Image.png

Modeling relationships between cycles in psychology: potential limitations of sinusoidal and mass-spring models

Description

With improvements in technology, intensive longitudinal studies that permit the investigation of daily and weekly cycles in behavior have increased exponentially over the past few decades. Traditionally, when data have

With improvements in technology, intensive longitudinal studies that permit the investigation of daily and weekly cycles in behavior have increased exponentially over the past few decades. Traditionally, when data have been collected on two variables over time, multivariate time series approaches that remove trends, cycles, and serial dependency have been used. These analyses permit the study of the relationship between random shocks (perturbations) in the presumed causal series and changes in the outcome series, but do not permit the study of the relationships between cycles. Liu and West (2016) proposed a multilevel approach that permitted the study of potential between subject relationships between features of the cycles in two series (e.g., amplitude). However, I show that the application of the Liu and West approach is restricted to a small set of features and types of relationships between the series. Several authors (e.g., Boker & Graham, 1998) proposed a connected mass-spring model that appears to permit modeling of more general cyclic relationships. I showed that the undamped connected mass-spring model is also limited and may be unidentified. To test the severity of the restrictions of the motion trajectories producible by the undamped connected mass-spring model I mathematically derived their connection to the force equations of the undamped connected mass-spring system. The mathematical solution describes the domain of the trajectory pairs that are producible by the undamped connected mass-spring model. The set of producible trajectory pairs is highly restricted, and this restriction sets major limitations on the application of the connected mass-spring model to psychological data. I used a simulation to demonstrate that even if a pair of psychological time-varying variables behaved exactly like two masses in an undamped connected mass-spring system, the connected mass-spring model would not yield adequate parameter estimates. My simulation probed the performance of the connected mass-spring model as a function of several aspects of data quality including number of subjects, series length, sampling rate relative to the cycle, and measurement error in the data. The findings can be extended to damped and nonlinear connected mass-spring systems.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

151748-Thumbnail Image.png

Psychology of a superorganism

Description

For over a century, researchers have been investigating collective cognition, in which a group of individuals together process information and act as a single cognitive unit. However, I still know

For over a century, researchers have been investigating collective cognition, in which a group of individuals together process information and act as a single cognitive unit. However, I still know little about circumstances under which groups achieve better (or worse) decisions than individuals. My dissertation research directly addressed this longstanding question, using the house-hunting ant Temnothorax rugatulus as a model system. Here I applied concepts and methods developed in psychology not only to individuals but also to colonies in order to investigate differences of their cognitive abilities. This approach is inspired by the superorganism concept, which sees a tightly integrated insect society as the analog of a single organism. I combined experimental manipulations and models to elucidate the emergent processes of collective cognition. My studies show that groups can achieve superior cognition by sharing the burden of option assessment among members and by integrating information from members using positive feedback. However, the same positive feedback can lock the group into a suboptimal choice in certain circumstances. Although ants are obligately social, my results show that they can be isolated and individually tested on cognitive tasks. In the future, this novel approach will help the field of animal behavior move towards better understanding of collective cognition.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013