Matching Items (22)

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The Effect of Exercise Therapy on Cognitive Function in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

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This study examines the effect of exercise therapy on a stationary bike on cognitive function, specifically inhibition and set-switching, in adolescents with Down syndrome. 44 participants were randomly divided between

This study examines the effect of exercise therapy on a stationary bike on cognitive function, specifically inhibition and set-switching, in adolescents with Down syndrome. 44 participants were randomly divided between the voluntary cycling therapy group (VCT) (i.e., self-selected cadence), assisted cycling therapy group (ACT) (i.e., 30% faster than self-selected cadence accomplished by a motor), and a control group (NC) in which the participants did not undergo any exercise therapy. Both cycling groups rode a stationary bicycle, for 30 minutes, three times a week, for eight-weeks. At the beginning (i.e., pretest) and end (i.e., posttest) of the eight-week session the participants completed tasks to evaluate their cognitive function. They completed three trials of the card sort test (i.e., set-switching) and three trials of the knock-tap test (i.e, inhibition) before and after eight-weeks of cycling therapy. The scores of these tests were analyzed using one-way ANOVA between groups and paired samples t-tests. The results showed that after eight-weeks of cycling therapy the participants in the VCT group performed worse in the knock-tap test, but improved in two trials of the card sort test. The results also showed that the participants in the ACT group performed worse after eight-weeks of exercise therapy in one trial of the card sort test. No significant changes were seen for the control group. Due to the fact that on average the participants in the VCT group cycled with a higher heart rate, our results suggest exercise that significantly elevates heart rate can improve cognitive function, specifically set-switching, in adolescents with Down syndrome.

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  • 2015-05

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Is daily activity and exercise related to physical fitness, obesity, and mental health in adolescents with Down syndrome?

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The aim of this study is to understand the relationship among physical fitness, leisure-time activity levels, measures of body composition, and assessments of emotion toward physical activity in individuals with

The aim of this study is to understand the relationship among physical fitness, leisure-time activity levels, measures of body composition, and assessments of emotion toward physical activity in individuals with Down syndrome (DS). This is important because it could help individuals understand the importance of physical activity in this population. The BMI, waist circumference, height, weight, body fat percentage, and non-exercise estimation of aerobic capacity along with the temporary state of emotion toward physical activity of thirty participants with DS were measured. The results of our study show that individuals with DS who are more physically fit have less body fat and a lower BMI. They also took part in more leisure-time activity and expressed more effort during physical activity.

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  • 2013-05

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Is the six minute walk test effective and reliable for determining the fitness of young adults with Down syndrome?

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The aim of this study is to evaluate whether or not fitness can be determined using a well-researched six minute walk test (6MWT) in a young adult population with Down

The aim of this study is to evaluate whether or not fitness can be determined using a well-researched six minute walk test (6MWT) in a young adult population with Down syndrome (DS). This holds importance in today's health industry because this particular target group is at high risk for several cardiovascular, cognitive and clinical factors that contribute to their well-being and longevity. As well, the findings of this research could potentially contribute to the low volume of research that currently exists regarding fitness and the DS population and provide pertinent knowledge towards intervention programs. Fourteen participants with DS performed one 6MWT at a self-selected rate during an exercise intervention study to assess physical fitness. The results showed that walk distance increased with decreased BMI and walk distance increased with increased walking speed and increased leisure activity. These findings are clear indicators of physical fitness relating to healthy physical behavior. All results were consistent with past research in specific at-risk health related populations. This data suggests that this physical test is an adequate indicator of fitness levels in populations with DS, which may additionally provide explicit avenues for intervention and treatment to improve health.

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Date Created
  • 2013-05

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DANCE AND THE SENSE OF TOUCH

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The goal of this study was to look at touch and dance from different views to gain a better perspective on the benefits of touch, mainly when used in dance

The goal of this study was to look at touch and dance from different views to gain a better perspective on the benefits of touch, mainly when used in dance and also perhaps in broader contexts. Part of this investigation also looked at the stigmatized view of touch in the American culture and in turn the lack of knowledge about, and comfort with touch in our society. A personal research component involved the creation of a solo reflecting about the question of why I connect with touch so intensely. The bulk of the study involved facilitating touch experiences in two introductory level dance classes for high school students. Daily journal entries were collected from each of the eighty students that focused on their personal experiences with touch in a series of six movement sessions. The study shows that bringing touch to the dance classroom has multiple benefits, including promoting a greater understanding and acceptance of the sense of touch, a positive impact on students' views about dance, and a break down of preconceived notions about the mind and the body.

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  • 2013-05

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Examination of One Month Retention of Executive Function in Assisted Cycling Therapy on Adolescents with Down Syndrome

Description

This study examines the one month retention of executive function benefits gained by adolescents with Down syndrome after an 8-week aerobic exercise intervention. Sixteen participants were randomly divided between voluntary

This study examines the one month retention of executive function benefits gained by adolescents with Down syndrome after an 8-week aerobic exercise intervention. Sixteen participants were randomly divided between voluntary (VC) (i.e., self-selected cadence) and assisted (AC) (i.e., 30% faster than self-selected cadence accomplished by a motor) cycling groups, with one participant used as a control (NC). Both cycling groups rode a stationary bicycle, for 30 minutes, three times a week, for eight weeks. At the beginning (i.e., pretest) and end (posttest) of the 8-week session, three executive functions including: set-switching, inhibition, and cognitive planning, were tested. Approximately one month after the posttest, all participants underwent the cognitive testing again. The results showed that for the AC group cognitive planning improved after eight weeks of assisted cycling and these improvements were maintained after one month of no cycling. However, no significant differences were found between the cycling groups for our measure of inhibition. Set-switching appeared to be improved by both types of exercise, rather than only assisted, but the improvements were not maintained during the one month retention period for either group. Thus, our results suggest that Assisted Cycling causes potentially permanent changes in the brain in regards to cognitive planning.

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  • 2014-05

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The Rhythm of Running: An Analysis of Preferred Running Tempo

Description

The action of running is difficult to measure, but well worth it to receive valuable information about one of our most basic evolutionary functions. In the context of modern day,

The action of running is difficult to measure, but well worth it to receive valuable information about one of our most basic evolutionary functions. In the context of modern day, recreational runners typically listen to music while running, and so the purpose of this experiment is to analyze the influence of music on running from a more dynamical approach. The first experiment was a running task involving running without a metronome and running with one while setting one's own preferred running tempo. The second experiment sought to manipulate the participant's preferred running tempo by having them listen to the metronome set at their preferred tempo, 20% above their preferred tempo, or 20% below. The purpose of this study is to analyze whether or not rhythmic perturbations different to one's preferred running tempo would interfere with one's preferred running tempo and cause a change in the variability of one's running patterns as well as a change in one's running performance along the measures of step rate, stride length, and stride pace. The evidence suggests that participants naturally entrained to the metronome tempo which influenced them to run faster or slower as a function of metronome tempo. However, this change was also accompanied by a shift in the variability of one's step rate and stride length.

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Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Sit-to-stand task with physical and cognitive perturbations: A comparison of linear and nonlinear methods of analyzing postural data

Description

Variability is inherent in human movement, and poses a challenge to researchers attempting to measure balance. Human movement variability was analyzed using two methods: standard deviation and largest Lyapunov exponent.

Variability is inherent in human movement, and poses a challenge to researchers attempting to measure balance. Human movement variability was analyzed using two methods: standard deviation and largest Lyapunov exponent. The experiment was a sit-to-stand task with physical and cognitive perturbations. The physical perturbation consisted of stable and unstable platform conditions, while the cognitive perturbation consisted of a counting task. The data were collected from 24 healthy young adults. The purpose of this study was to compare the standard deviation and largest Lyapunov exponent as measures of stability, and to determine the Lyapunov exponent's sensitivity to cognitive perturbation. Evidence suggests that the Lyapunov exponent serves as a more accurate indicator of stability than standard deviation, and that it lacks sensitivity to the counting task.

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Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Assisted Cycling Therapy Improves Cognitive Planning in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

Description

This study examines cognitive planning in adolescents with Down syndrome (DS) following an 8-week assisted cycling therapy intervention. Forty-three participants were randomly assigned to assisted cycling (AC) (i.e., at least

This study examines cognitive planning in adolescents with Down syndrome (DS) following an 8-week assisted cycling therapy intervention. Forty-three participants were randomly assigned to assisted cycling (AC) (i.e., at least 30% faster than self-selected cadence accomplished by a motor), voluntary cycling (VC) (self-selected cadence), and no cycling (NC) control group. Both AC and VC rode a stationary bicycle three times/week, 30 minutes/session, for eight weeks in duration. Participants completed cognitive testing that assessed cognitive planning at the beginning (i.e., pretest) and end (i.e., posttest) of the 8-week intervention. Consistent with our hypothesis, the results showed that cognitive planning improved following eight weeks of cycling for the AC group. The same results were not seen for individuals in the VC or NC groups. Our results suggest that assisted cycling therapy may induce permanent changes in the prefrontal cortex in adolescents with DS.

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Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Effects of Assisted Cycle Therapy on Short Term and Working Memory in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

Description

To examine the effect of an 8-week cycling intervention on short term and working memory in adolescents with Down syndrome (DS), participants were divided into Assisted Cycling Therapy (ACT), Voluntary

To examine the effect of an 8-week cycling intervention on short term and working memory in adolescents with Down syndrome (DS), participants were divided into Assisted Cycling Therapy (ACT), Voluntary Cycling (VC), or No Cycling (NC) groups. Forward and backward digit span assessments were administered prior to and after the intervention to evaluate short term and working memory respectively. 8 weeks of exercise via ACT showed a trend toward conventional levels of significance in the number of levels completed in the backward direction.

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Date Created
  • 2015-05

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The Importance of University Level Psychology Education for the Incarcerated

Description

Education is a fundamental human right. However, when groups of people are subjugated to systematic violence and institutionalization, the importance of education often is often forgotten. A team of students

Education is a fundamental human right. However, when groups of people are subjugated to systematic violence and institutionalization, the importance of education often is often forgotten. A team of students and faculty at Arizona State University (ASU) currently teach an Introduction to Psychology course within a minimum-security unit in conjunction with both the Arizona Department of Corrections and the Prison Education Program at ASU. This course aims to enhance the current educational programs offered by the prison by fostering an environment where inmates can practice literacy skills and are introduced to standard classroom procedures for the typical university class. In addition, the course introduces students to an academic field previously unknown to them, specifically, psychology. However, the most important aspect of this educational endeavor is to provide an environment where people who have been deemed inhuman and outside of the human experience can come together and learn. By doing so, the curriculum sought to instill confidence in the students by demonstrating that they are in fact capable of learning and comprehending university level material. As of 2016, numerous studies have been conducted from across the nation that have reaffirmed the validity and efficacy of prison education on reducing recidivism levels of the previously incarcerated (ADC 2005, Kim & Clark 2013, Nuttal et al. 2003). Additionally, studies have determined that the benefits that students receive from education while incarcerated are, over time, shared with the family members (Erisman & Contardo, 2005). These benefits, while not strictly educational, are incredibly important within the realm of reduction in crime as they pertain to "reduction of costs, reduction of strain of offenders on their families, and an economic boost for society" (Erisman & Contardo, 2005). Teaching within any prison unit, regardless of the security level, provides a variety of unique challenges. Some of these include the lack of technological resources within most classrooms, prohibition of outside material unless vetted and approved by prison education staff, and rigid restrictions on student-teacher interactions. Also, because of the nature of psychology and the students within the class, certain sensitive topics must be either handled with extreme care or will not be covered at all. However, particular achievements were made in regards to increasing in class participation and encouraging the students to continue to pursue academics. Most importantly, it provides an environment where the humanity of the prisoner is restored, if but for only a few hours a week. It allows them to be seen as more than numbers, allows them to think and voice their opinions in a space that respects them for their beliefs. And the restoration of humanity to an inherently inhumane system is far more important than any other educational goal.

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  • 2016-12