Matching Items (43)

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Neurolinguistic Revelations of Logographic Scripts

Description

Language, as an abstract, is one of the most sophisticated inventions even devised by human beings. Reading alone is a multi-faceted problem, and understanding how the brain solves it can

Language, as an abstract, is one of the most sophisticated inventions even devised by human beings. Reading alone is a multi-faceted problem, and understanding how the brain solves it can offer enormous benefits for scientists and language-enthusiasts alike. In order to gain a more complete picture of how language and the brain relate, Chinese, an East Asian logographic language, and English, an alphabetic language, were compared and contrasted using all available scientific literature in both psychology and neuroimaging. Taken together, these findings are used to generalize the processing of written language. It was found that the hypothesis of a neuroplastically adaptable network that recruits brain areas based on the demands of a specific language has stronger support in current research than does the model of a fixed language network that is merely tuned for different languages. These findings reiterate the need for meticulous control of variables in order to reasonably compare language tasks and also demands more precise localization and labeling of brain regions for the purpose of determining function of individual areas.

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Date Created
  • 2014-05

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EFFECTS OF STIMULATION THERAPY THROUGH THE USE OF A CRAFT BOOK

Description

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of a craft book used for stimulation therapy on the phonetic sounds /ŋ/, /r/, /s/, /ʃ/, /tʃ/, and /θ/. The

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of a craft book used for stimulation therapy on the phonetic sounds /ŋ/, /r/, /s/, /ʃ/, /tʃ/, and /θ/. The book is specifically geared toward children who do not qualify for speech remediation services but who may be at risk of a speech sound disorder. Four children participated in the study with ages ranging from 4;3-7;6. The study lasted for four weeks in which data was collected on a weekly basis via Likert Scale surveys in accordance with two conversational speech samples. The speech samples were phonetically transcribed with minimal differences pre and post use of the craft book. Data from the surveys give insight to the children’s favorite crafts, the level of difficulty of each craft, and the likelihood of the craft book to be used as part of a remediation program. The study had limitations in sample size, duration, and number of craft activities. Future revisions should include increasing the number of crafts available per chapter and incorporating into the introduction an educational component for parents.

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Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Self-Reported Cognitive Symptoms in Military Veteran College Students

Description

An increasing number of military veterans are enrolling in college, primarily due to the Post-9/11 GI Bill, which provides educational benefits to veterans who served on active duty since September

An increasing number of military veterans are enrolling in college, primarily due to the Post-9/11 GI Bill, which provides educational benefits to veterans who served on active duty since September 11, 2001. With rigorous training, active combat situations, and exposure to unexpected situations, the veteran population is at a higher risk for traumatic brain injury (TBI), Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), and depression. All of these conditions are associated with cognitive consequences, including attention deficits, working memory problems, and episodic memory impairments. Some conditions, particularly mild TBI, are not diagnosed or treated until long after the injury when the person realizes they have cognitive difficulties. Even mild cognitive problems can hinder learning in an academic setting, but there is little data on the frequency and severity of cognitive deficits in veteran college students. The current study examines self-reported cognitive symptoms in veteran students compared to civilian students and how those symptoms relate to service-related conditions. A better understanding of the pattern of self-reported symptoms will help researchers and clinicians determine the veterans who are at higher risk for cognitive and academic difficulties.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05

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The neurobiology of sentence comprehension: an fMRI study of late American Sign Language acquisition

Description

Language acquisition is a phenomenon we all experience, and though it is well studied many questions remain regarding the neural bases of language. Whether a hearing speaker or Deaf signer,

Language acquisition is a phenomenon we all experience, and though it is well studied many questions remain regarding the neural bases of language. Whether a hearing speaker or Deaf signer, spoken and signed language acquisition (with eventual proficiency) develop similarly and share common neural networks. While signed language and spoken language engage completely different sensory modalities (visual-manual versus the more common auditory-oromotor) both languages share grammatical structures and contain syntactic intricacies innate to all languages. Thus, studies of multi-modal bilingualism (e.g. a native English speaker learning American Sign Language) can lead to a better understanding of the neurobiology of second language acquisition, and of language more broadly. For example, can the well-developed visual-spatial processing networks in English speakers support grammatical processing in sign language, as it relies heavily on location and movement? The present study furthers the understanding of the neural correlates of second language acquisition by studying late L2 normal hearing learners of American Sign Language (ASL). Twenty English speaking ASU students enrolled in advanced American Sign Language coursework participated in our functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) study. The aim was to identify the brain networks engaged in syntactic processing of ASL sentences in late L2 ASL learners. While many studies have addressed the neurobiology of acquiring a second spoken language, no previous study to our knowledge has examined the brain networks supporting syntactic processing in bimodal bilinguals. We examined the brain networks engaged while perceiving ASL sentences compared to ASL word lists, as well as written English sentences and word lists. We hypothesized that our findings in late bimodal bilinguals would largely coincide with the unimodal bilingual literature, but with a few notable differences including additional attention networks being engaged by ASL processing. Our results suggest that there is a high degree of overlap in sentence processing networks for ASL and English. There also are important differences in regards to the recruitment of speech comprehension, visual-spatial and domain-general brain networks. Our findings suggest that well-known sentence comprehension and syntactic processing regions for spoken languages are flexible and modality-independent.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05

Track eye movement of human listeners in a spatial localization task

Description

To localize different sound sources in an environment, the auditory system analyzes acoustic properties of sounds reaching the ears to determine the exact location of a sound source. Successful sound

To localize different sound sources in an environment, the auditory system analyzes acoustic properties of sounds reaching the ears to determine the exact location of a sound source. Successful sound localization is important for improving signal detection and speech intelligibility in a noisy environment. Sound localization is not a uni-sensory experience, and can be influenced by visual information (e.g., the ventriloquist effect). Vision provides contexts and organizes the auditory space for the auditory system. This investigation tracks eye movement of human subjects using a non-invasive eye-tracking system and evaluates the impact of visual stimulation on localization of a phantom sound source generated through timing-based stereophony. It was hypothesized that gaze movement could reveal the way in which visual stimulation (LED lights) shifts the perception of a sound source. However, the results show that subjects do not always move their gaze towards the light direction even when they experience strong visual capture. On average, the gaze direction indicates the perceived sound location with and without light stimulation.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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A Case Study: Speech recognition ability in noise for a U.S. military veteran with traumatic brain injury (TBI)

Description

The increase of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) cases in recent war history has increased the urgency of research regarding how veterans are affected by TBIs. The purpose of this study

The increase of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) cases in recent war history has increased the urgency of research regarding how veterans are affected by TBIs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of TBI on speech recognition in noise. The AzBio Sentence Test was completed for signal-to-noise ratios (S/N) from -10 dB to +15 dB for a control group of ten participants and one US military veteran with history of service-connected TBI. All participants had normal hearing sensitivity defined as thresholds of 20 dB or better at frequencies from 250-8000 Hz in addition to having tympanograms within normal limits. Comparison of the data collected on the control group versus the veteran suggested that the veteran performed worse than the majority of the control group on the AzBio Sentence Test. Further research with more participants would be beneficial to our understanding of how veterans with TBI perform on speech recognition tests in the presence of background noise.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Do amnestic MCI subjects have different neuropsychological profiles if they are amyloid PET positive or negative?

Description

Objective
The objective of this study is to compare amyloid β (Aβ) PET positive and negative patients to their neuropsychological profiles. There is a definitive link between Aβ deposits

Objective
The objective of this study is to compare amyloid β (Aβ) PET positive and negative patients to their neuropsychological profiles. There is a definitive link between Aβ deposits and cognitive disorders such as MCI or Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but does its presence justify the costly imaging tests based on its clinical context?
Background
Amnestic MCI is largely considered prodromal to AD/dementia in a high majority of cases. [1] Many studies have shown a positive correlation between Aβ PET positive individuals and their likelihood to progress to AD. Aβ deposits in the brain are not always a sign of AD or even MCI, and many elderly people live normal lives with elevated levels. The presence of Aβ in the brain should be carefully considered alongside other tests before making a clinical diagnosis of MCI or AD.
Methods
130 subjects from Barrow Neurological Institute (Phoenix, AZ) were included in this study. Amyloid PET report data was pulled from Dignity Health St. Joseph’s Hospital and Medical Center Outpatient Imaging. Amyloid PET scans obtained by using F-18 florbetapir compound and reviewed by an expert radiologist providing a qualitative status of amyloid-beta positive (+) or negative (-). All data was anonymized and categorized into positive amyloid PET, negative amyloid PET, and clinical diagnosis based on neuropsychological profiles.
Results
The demographic data indicated that 38.5% of the 91 patients diagnosed as amnestic MCI were amyloid PET negative while 61.5% were amyloid PET positive. Of the 39 patients diagnosed as Dementia or AD 15.4% were amyloid PET negative and 84.6% were amyloid PET positive. Correlational analysis between diagnosis and neuropsychological variables suggests that some variables correlate well while others do not. There is a significant correlation between diagnosis and dementia rating scale (DRS) r(24) = -.762, between diagnosis and TrailsB Test r(39) = .397, between diagnosis and phonetic fluency r(30) = -.383, between diagnosis and semantic fluency r(29) = -.369, and between diagnosis and the Boston Naming Test (BNT) r(36) = -.312. Comparing the PET positive and PET negative groups there is a marginal significance in the Boston Naming Test (T=1.945, P=.060) suggesting PET positive individuals test lower than PET negative.
Conclusion
Based on all the results of this study, amyloid PET is still a clinical indicator that an individual might be MCI or dementia/AD, but it has its exceptions. A small number of patients diagnosed as dementia/AD had a negative amyloid PET suggesting that beta amyloid plaques are not the only cause of the disease. There is a strong suggestion that amyloid plaques are a major factor in the progression of dementia or AD, however the results from an amyloid PET cannot be directly related to a diagnosis.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Relations Between Central Executive Function and Scores on an ADHD Rating Scale in Second Grade Children

Description

Purpose: Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been found to have central executive deficits in working memory as well as less academic success than children with typical development. The purpose

Purpose: Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been found to have central executive deficits in working memory as well as less academic success than children with typical development. The purpose of this study was to determine which components of central executive function were most closely related to parental rating scores of attention.
Method: Two hundred twenty three 2nd graders with typical development, dyslexia, developmental language disorder (DLD), or dyslexia/DLD completed three central executive tasks from the Comprehensive Assessment Battery for Children–Working Memory (Gray, Alt, Hogan, Green, & Cowan, n.d.). Parents of the children completed the ADHD Rating Scale-IV: Home Version for their child. None of the participants had been diagnosed with ADD/ADHD
Results: When diagnostic group performance was compared we found significant differences on each central executive task. When ADHD group performance was compared we found a significant between-group performance only on the n-back visual task with the high-risk group scoring lower than the other two groups. ADHD rating scores predicted a significant amount of variance for each central executive task, but percentages were small (3%-6%).
Discussion: Working memory is known to be related to attention control. Stronger attentional control is associated with a higher working memory performance. Our study showed that children most at risk for ADD/ADHD based on parent ratings scored lowest on the visuospatial task, likely because rehearsal of visuospatial information is not possible so relies more heavily on attention. This study is a step toward considering how attention affects working memory performance so that both can be considered when designing instruction and interventions.

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Date Created
  • 2019-12

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Interactions Between Prosody and Cognition During Sentence Comprehension: A Behavioral Study

Description

Previous research has determined that sentence comprehension is affected when taxing an individual’s cognitive resources, such as attentional control and working memory. This can be done by manipulating the prosody

Previous research has determined that sentence comprehension is affected when taxing an individual’s cognitive resources, such as attentional control and working memory. This can be done by manipulating the prosody of simple and complex sentences, by allowing irregular rhythm and pitch changes to occur within speech. In the present thesis, neurotypical adults were asked to comprehend sentences with normal and monotone prosody in three different versions of a sentence-picture matching task. A no-load version served as a control with the other two taxing cognitive resources in these individuals. In addition, individuals completed four other tasks that are known to reliably measure working memory. Our results indicate a possible relationship between high accuracy in complex sentences spoken in a monotone prosody with working memory when time restraints are placed on individuals. Collectively, these results may lead to a new way of working with individuals in speech therapy who have suffered a stroke by better understanding the cognitive resources that are taxed in different types of sentence comprehension settings.

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Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Examining New Vocabulary Knowledge in Adults with Hearing Loss using a Generationally Neutral Vocabulary Test

Description

The purpose of the present study was to determine if vocabulary knowledge is related to degree of hearing loss. A 50-question multiple-choice vocabulary test comprised of old and new words

The purpose of the present study was to determine if vocabulary knowledge is related to degree of hearing loss. A 50-question multiple-choice vocabulary test comprised of old and new words was administered to 43 adults with hearing loss (19 to 92 years old) and 51 adults with normal hearing (20 to 40 years old). Degree of hearing loss ranged from mild to moderately-severe as determined by bilateral pure-tone thresholds. Education levels ranged from some high school to graduate degrees. It was predicted that knowledge of new words would decrease with increasing hearing loss, whereas knowledge of old words would be unaffected. The Test of Contemporary Vocabulary (TCV) was developed for this study and contained words with old and new definitions. The vocabulary scores were subjected to repeated-measures ANOVA with definition type (old and new) as the within-subjects factor. Hearing level and education were between-subjects factors, while age was entered as a covariate. The results revealed no main effect of age or education level, while a significant main effect of hearing level was observed. Specifically, performance for new words decreased significantly as degree of hearing loss increased. A similar effect was not observed for old words. These results indicate that knowledge of new definitions is inversely related to degree of hearing loss.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05