Matching Items (15)

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TARGETING ADIPOSE TISSUE INFLAMMATION IN THE TREATMENT OF TYPE II DIABETES

Description

Diabesity is a global epidemic affecting millions worldwide. Diabesity is the term given to the link between obesity and Type II diabetes. It is estimated that ~90% of patients diagnosed with Type II diabetes are overweight or have struggled with

Diabesity is a global epidemic affecting millions worldwide. Diabesity is the term given to the link between obesity and Type II diabetes. It is estimated that ~90% of patients diagnosed with Type II diabetes are overweight or have struggled with excess body fat in the past. Type II diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance which is an impaired response of the body to insulin that leads to high blood glucose levels. Adipose tissue, previously thought of as an inert tissue, is now recognized as a major endocrine organ with an important role in the body's immune response and the development of chronic inflammation. It is speculated that adipose tissue inflammation is a major contributor to insulin resistance particular to Type II diabetes. This literature review explores the popular therapeutic targets and marketed drugs for the treatment of Type II diabetes and their role in decreasing adipose tissue inflammation. rAGE is currently in pre-clinical studies as a possible target to combat adipose tissue inflammation due to its relation to insulin resistance. Metformin and Pioglitazone are two drugs already being marketed that use unique chemical pathways to increase the production of insulin and/or decrease blood glucose levels. Sulfonylureas is one of the first FDA approved drugs used in the treatment of Type II diabetes, however, it has been discredited due to its life-threatening side effects. Bariatric surgery is a form of invasive surgery to rid the body of excess fat and has shown to normalize blood glucose levels. These treatments are all secondary to lifestyle changes, such as diet and exercise which can help halt the progression of Type II diabetes patients.

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2019-05

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Investigating Type II Inhibitor Effects in the Heliobacterial Reaction Center

Description

The Heliobacterial Reaction Center (HbRC) is the simplest Type I Reaction Center (RC) known today. However, upon illumination it has been found to produce menaquinol, and this has led to experiments investigating the function of this reduction scheme. The goal

The Heliobacterial Reaction Center (HbRC) is the simplest Type I Reaction Center (RC) known today. However, upon illumination it has been found to produce menaquinol, and this has led to experiments investigating the function of this reduction scheme. The goal of the experiment was to investigate the mechanisms of menaquinol production through the use of Photosystem II (PSII) herbicides that are known to inhibit the QB quinone site in Type II RCs. Seven herbicides were chosen, and out of all of them terbuthylazine showed the greatest effect on the RC in isolated membranes when Transient Absorption Spectroscopy was used. In addition, terbuthylazine decreased menaquinone reduction to menaquinol by ~72%, slightly more than the reported effect of teburtryn (68%)1. In addition, terbuthylazine significantly impacted growth of whole cells under high light more than terbutryn.

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2019-05

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Investigation of Cu(II) Binding Sites in de Novo Proteins by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

Description

Circular Dichroism (CD) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) were used to investigate the metal-binding sites of five different four-helix bundles, which have slight differences in the population of their side chains. Of the four-helix bundles, three have central dinuclear metal

Circular Dichroism (CD) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) were used to investigate the metal-binding sites of five different four-helix bundles, which have slight differences in the population of their side chains. Of the four-helix bundles, three have central dinuclear metal binding sites; two of these three also have outer dinuclear metal binding sites. The other two peptides have two identical, non-central, dinuclear metal binding sites. The CD spectra showed changes in the secondary structure of the peptides, and X-band EPR spectra of these peptides revealed the unique four peak signal of Cu(II). These findings improve our understanding of the metal binding environments of these peptides.

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2016-05

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Mapping the RNA-protein interface in telomerase RNP

Description

In the 1970s James Watson recognized the inability of conventional DNA replication machinery to replicate the extreme termini of chromosomes known as telomeres. This inability is due to the requirement of a building block primer and was termed the

In the 1970s James Watson recognized the inability of conventional DNA replication machinery to replicate the extreme termini of chromosomes known as telomeres. This inability is due to the requirement of a building block primer and was termed the end replication problem. Telomerase is nature's answer to the end replication problem. Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein which extends telomeres through reverse transcriptase activity by reiteratively copying a short intrinsic RNA sequence to generate 3' telomeric extensions. Telomeres protect chromosomes from erosion of coding genes during replication, as well as differentiate native chromosome ends from double stranded breaks. However, controlled erosion of telomeres functions as a naturally occurring molecular clock limiting the replicative capacity of cells. Telomerase is over activated in many cancers, while inactivation leads to multiple lifespan limiting human diseases. In order to further study the interaction between telomerase RNA (TR) and telomerase reverse transcriptase protein (TERT), vertebrate TERT fragments were screened for solubility and purity following bacterial expression. Soluble fragments of medaka TERT including the RNA binding domain (TRBD) were identified. Recombinant medaka TRBD binds specifically to telomerase RNA CR4/CR5 region. Ribonucleotide and amino acid pairs in close proximity within the medaka telomerase RNA-protein complex were identified using photo-activated cross-linking in conjunction with mass spectrometry. The identified cross-linking amino acids were mapped on known crystal structures of TERTs to reveal the RNA interaction interface of TRBD. The identification of this RNA TERT interaction interface furthers the understanding of the telomerase complex at a molecular level and could be used for the targeted interruption of the telomerase complex as a potential cancer treatment.

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Date Created
2011

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Directed evolution of gp120 binding mutants of the lectin Cyanovirin-N

Description

Cyanovirin-N (CV-N) is a naturally occurring lectin originally isolated from the cyanobacteria Nostoc ellipsosporum. This 11 kDa lectin is 101 amino acids long with two binding sites, one at each end of the protein. CV-N specifically binds to terminal Manα1-2Manα

Cyanovirin-N (CV-N) is a naturally occurring lectin originally isolated from the cyanobacteria Nostoc ellipsosporum. This 11 kDa lectin is 101 amino acids long with two binding sites, one at each end of the protein. CV-N specifically binds to terminal Manα1-2Manα motifs on the branched, high mannose Man9 and Man8 glycosylations found on enveloped viruses including Ebola, Influenza, and HIV. wt-CVN has micromolar binding to soluble Manα1-2Manα and also inhibits HIV entry at low nanomolar concentrations. CV-N's high affinity and specificity for Manα1-2Manα makes it an excellent lectin to study for its glycan-specific properties. The long-term aim of this project is to make a variety of mutant CV-Ns to specifically bind other glycan targets. Such a set of lectins may be used as screening reagents to identify biomarkers and other glycan motifs of interest. As proof of concept, a T7 phage display library was constructed using P51G-m4-CVN genes mutated at positions 41, 44, 52, 53, 56, 74, and 76 in binding Domain B. Five CV-N mutants were selected from the library and expressed in BL21(DE3) E. coli. Two of the mutants, SSDGLQQ-P51Gm4-CVN and AAGRLSK-P51Gm4-CVN, were sufficiently stable for characterization and were examined by CD, Tm, ELISA, and glycan array. Both proteins have CD minima at approximately 213 nm, indicating largely β-sheet structure, and have Tm values greater than 40°C. ELISA against gp120 and RNase B demonstrate both proteins' ability to bind high mannose glycans. To more specifically determine the binding specificity of each protein, AAGRLSK-P51Gm4-CVN, SSDGLQQ-P51Gm4-CVN, wt-CVN, and P51G-m4-CVN were sent to the Consortium for Functional Glycomics (CFG) for glycan array analysis. AAGRLSK-P51Gm4-CVN, wt-CVN, and P51G-m4-CVN, have identical specificities for high mannose glycans containing terminal Manα1-2Manα. SSDGLQQ-P51Gm4-CVN binds to terminal GlcNAcα1-4Gal motifs and a subgroup of high mannose glycans bound by P51G-m4-CVN. SSDGLQQ-wt-CVN was produced to restore anti-HIV activity and has a high nanomolar EC50 value compared to wt-CVN's low nanomolar activity. Overall, these experiments show that CV-N Domain B can be mutated and retain specificity identical to wt-CVN or acquire new glycan specificities. This first generation information can be used to produce glycan-specific lectins for a variety of applications.

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2013

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Development of chip-based electrochemically- and light-directed peptide microarray synthesis

Description

ABSTRACT Peptide microarrays may prove to be a powerful tool for proteomics research and clinical diagnosis applications. Fodor et al. and Maurer et al. have shown proof-of-concept methods of light- and electrochemically-directed peptide microarray fabrication on glass and semiconductor microchips

ABSTRACT Peptide microarrays may prove to be a powerful tool for proteomics research and clinical diagnosis applications. Fodor et al. and Maurer et al. have shown proof-of-concept methods of light- and electrochemically-directed peptide microarray fabrication on glass and semiconductor microchips respectively. In this work, peptide microarray fabrication based on the abovementioned techniques were optimized. In addition, MALDI mass spectrometry based peptide synthesis characterization on semiconductor microchips was developed and novel applications of a CombiMatrix (CBMX) platform for electrochemically controlled synthesis were explored. We have investigated performance of 2-(2-nitrophenyl)propoxycarbonyl (NPPOC) derivatives as photo-labile protecting group. Specifically, influence of substituents on 4 and 5 positions of phenyl ring of NPPOC group on the rate of photolysis and the yield of the amine was investigated. The results indicated that substituents capable of forming a π-network with the nitro group enhanced the rate of photolysis and yield. Once such properly substituted NPPOC groups were used, the rate of photolysis/yield depended on the nature of protected amino group indicating that a different chemical step during the photo-cleavage process became the rate limiting step. We also focused on electrochemically-directed parallel synthesis of high-density peptide microarrays using the CBMX technology referred to above which uses electrochemically generated acids to perform patterned chemistry. Several issues related to peptide synthesis on the CBMX platform were studied and optimized, with emphasis placed on the reactions of electro-generated acids during the deprotection step of peptide synthesis. We have developed a MALDI mass spectrometry based method to determine the chemical composition of microarray synthesis, directly on the feature. This method utilizes non-diffusional chemical cleavage from the surface, thereby making the chemical characterization of high-density microarray features simple, accurate, and amenable to high-throughput. CBMX Corp. has developed a microarray reader which is based on electro-chemical detection of redox chemical species. Several parameters of the instrument were studied and optimized and novel redox applications of peptide microarrays on CBMX platform were also investigated using the instrument. These include (i) a search of metal binding catalytic peptides to reduce overpotential associated with water oxidation reaction and (ii) an immobilization of peptide microarrays using electro-polymerized polypyrrole.

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Date Created
2013

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Bioconjugation of Enzymes and IDPs for Development of Membraneless Organelles

Description

Typical eukaryotic organelles use membranes formed by lipid bilayers in order to compartmentalize their functions within the cell. However, cells also contain membraneless organelles formed by intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) via liquid-liquid phase separation. The organelles form localized compartments that

Typical eukaryotic organelles use membranes formed by lipid bilayers in order to compartmentalize their functions within the cell. However, cells also contain membraneless organelles formed by intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) via liquid-liquid phase separation. The organelles form localized compartments that separate their contents from the environment.1 Here, this mechanism is used to generate artificial membraneless organelles that comprise a chemical reaction. An IDP, DEAD-box helicase (Ddx4), was bioconjugated to an enzyme, horseradish peroxidase (HRP), through the use of a bifunctional chemical linker, succinimidyl 4-(N-maleimidomethyl)cyclohexane-1-carboxylate (SMCC), in order to examine if the enzyme could be incorporated in droplets and whether its activity would be affected. The conjugation of HRP-SMCC (43.4 kDa) to Ddx4 (25.6 kDa) was successful: SDS-PAGE analysis confirmed the presence of a product that was within the range of a full conjugate.

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2020-05

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Identification of structural mechanisms that modulate glycosaminoglycan affinity in various strains of decorin binding protein A

Description

Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are a class of complex biomolecules comprised of linear, sulfated polysaccharides whose presence on cell surfaces and in the extracellular matrix involve them in many physiological phenomena as well as in interactions with pathogenic microbes. Decorin binding protein

Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are a class of complex biomolecules comprised of linear, sulfated polysaccharides whose presence on cell surfaces and in the extracellular matrix involve them in many physiological phenomena as well as in interactions with pathogenic microbes. Decorin binding protein A (DBPA), a Borrelia surface lipoprotein involved in the infectivity of Lyme disease, is responsible for binding GAGs found on decorin, a small proteoglycan present in the extracellular matrix. Different DBPA strains have notable sequence heterogeneity that results in varying levels of GAG-binding affinity. In this dissertation, the structures and GAG-binding mechanisms for three strains of DBPA (B31 and N40 DBPAs from B. burgdorferi and PBr DBPA from B. garinii) are studied to determine why each strain has a different affinity for GAGs. These three strains have similar topologies consisting of five α-helices held together by a hydrophobic core as well as two long flexible segments: a linker between helices one and two and a C-terminal tail. This structural arrangement facilitates the formation of a basic pocket below the flexible linker which is the primary GAG-binding epitope. However, this GAG-binding site can be occluded by the flexible linker, which makes the linker a negative regulator of GAG-binding. ITC and NMR titrations provide KD values that show PBr DBPA binds GAGs with higher affinity than B31 and N40 DBPAs, while N40 binds with the lowest affinity of the three. Work in this thesis demonstrates that much of the discrepancies seen in GAG affinities of the three DBPAs can be explained by the amino acid composition and conformation of the linker. Mutagenesis studies show that B31 DBPA overcomes the pocket obstruction with the BXBB motif in its linker while PBr DBPA has a retracted linker that exposes the basic pocket as well as a secondary GAG-binding site. N40 DBPA, however, does not have any evolutionary modifications to its structure to enhance GAG binding which explains its lower affinity for GAGs. GMSA and ELISA assays, along with NMR PRE experiments, confirm that structural changes in the linker do affect GAG-binding and, as a result, the linker is responsible for regulating GAG affinity.

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Date Created
2015

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Insights into the role of the metal-binding sites of quercetin 2,3-dioxygenase from Bacillus subtilis

Description

The metalloenzyme quercetin 2,3-dioxygenase (QueD) catalyzes the oxidative decomposition of the aromatic compound, quercetin. The most recently characterized example is a product of the bacterium Bacillus subtilis (BsQueD); all previous examples were fungal enzymes from the genus Aspergillus (AQueD). AQueD

The metalloenzyme quercetin 2,3-dioxygenase (QueD) catalyzes the oxidative decomposition of the aromatic compound, quercetin. The most recently characterized example is a product of the bacterium Bacillus subtilis (BsQueD); all previous examples were fungal enzymes from the genus Aspergillus (AQueD). AQueD contains a single atom of Cu(II) per monomer. However, BsQueD, over expressed in Escherichia coli, contains Mn(II) and has two metal-binding sites, and therefore two possible active sites per monomer. To understand the contribution of each site to BsQueD's activity, the N-terminal and C-terminal metal-binding sites have been mutated individually in an effort to disrupt metal binding. In wild type BsQueD, each Mn(II) is ligated by three histidines (His) and one glutamate (Glu). All efforts to mutate His residues to non-ligating residues resulted in insoluble protein or completely inactive enzyme. A soluble mutant was expressed that replaced the Glu residue with a fourth His at the N-terminal domain. This mutant (E69H) has a specific activity of 0.00572 &mumol;/min/mg, which is nearly 3000-fold lower than the rate of wild type BsQueD (15.9 &mumol;/min/mg). Further analysis of E69H by inductively couple plasma mass spectrometry revealed that this mutant contains only 0.062 mol of Mn(II) per mol of enzyme. This is evidence that disabling metal-ligation at one domain influences metal-incorporation at the other. During the course of the mutagenic study, a second, faster purification method was developed. A hexahistidine tag and an enterokinase cleavage site were fused to the N-terminus of BsQueD (6xHis-BsQueD). Active enzyme was successfully expressed and purified with a nickel column in 3 hours. This is much faster than the previous multi-column purification, which took two full days to complete. However, the concentration of soluble, purified enzyme (1.8 mg/mL) was much lower than concentrations achieved with the traditional method (30 mg/mL). While the concentration of 6xHis-BsQueD is sufficient for some analyses, there are several characterization techniques that must be conducted at higher concentrations. Therefore, it will be advantageous to continue using both purification methods in the future.

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Date Created
2010

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Characterization of small metal-binding protein (SmbP) from Nitrosomonas europaea

Description

A novel small metal-binding protein (SmbP), with only 93 residues and no similarity to other known proteins, has been isolated from the periplasm of Nitrosomonas europaea. It is characterized by its high percentage (17%) of histidines, a motif of ten

A novel small metal-binding protein (SmbP), with only 93 residues and no similarity to other known proteins, has been isolated from the periplasm of Nitrosomonas europaea. It is characterized by its high percentage (17%) of histidines, a motif of ten repeats of seven residues, a four α-helix bundle structure, and a high binding affinity to about six equivalents of Cu2+. The goal of this study is to investigate the Cu2+ binding sites in SmbP and to understand how Cu2+ stabilizes the protein. Preliminary folding experiments indicated that Cu2+ greatly stabilizes SmbP. In this study, protein folding data from circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy was used to elucidate the role of Cu2+ in stabilizing SmbP structure against unfolding induced by decreased pH, increased temperature, and chemical denaturants. The significant stabilization effects of Cu2+ were demonstrated by the observation that Cu2+-SmbP remained fully folded under extreme environmental conditions, such as acidic pH, 96 °C, and 8 M urea. Also, it was shown that Cu2+ is able to induce the refolding of unfolded SmbP in acidic solutions. These findings imply that the coordination of Cu2+ to histidine residues is responsible for the stabilization effects. The crystal structure of SmbP without Cu2+ has been determined. However, attempts to crystallize Cu2+-SmbP have not been successful. In this study, multidimensional NMR experiments were conducted in order to gain additional information regarding the Cu2+-SmbP structure, in particular its metal binding sites. Unambiguous resonance assignments were successfully made. Cα secondary chemical shifts confirmed that SmbP has a four α-helical structure. A Cu2+-protein titration experiment monitored by NMR indicated a top-to-bottom, sequential metal binding pattern for SmbP. In addition, several bioinformatics tools were used to complement the experimental approach and identity of the ligands in Cu2+-binding sites in SmbP is proposed.

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Date Created
2010