Matching Items (65)

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The Big World of Nanothermodynamics

Description

Nanothermodynamics extends standard thermodynamics to facilitate finite-size effects on the scale of nanometers. A key ingredient is Hill’s subdivision potential that accommodates the non-extensive energy of independent small systems, similar

Nanothermodynamics extends standard thermodynamics to facilitate finite-size effects on the scale of nanometers. A key ingredient is Hill’s subdivision potential that accommodates the non-extensive energy of independent small systems, similar to how Gibbs’ chemical potential accommodates distinct particles. Nanothermodynamics is essential for characterizing the thermal equilibrium distribution of independently relaxing regions inside bulk samples, as is found for the primary response of most materials using various experimental techniques. The subdivision potential ensures strict adherence to the laws of thermodynamics: total energy is conserved by including an instantaneous contribution from the entropy of local configurations, and total entropy remains maximized by coupling to a thermal bath. A unique feature of nanothermodynamics is the completely-open nanocanonical ensemble. Another feature is that particles within each region become statistically indistinguishable, which avoids non-extensive entropy, and mimics quantum-mechanical behavior. Applied to mean-field theory, nanothermodynamics gives a heterogeneous distribution of regions that yields stretched-exponential relaxation and super-Arrhenius activation. Applied to Monte Carlo simulations, there is a nonlinear correction to Boltzmann’s factor that improves agreement between the Ising model and measured non-classical critical scaling in magnetic materials. Nanothermodynamics also provides a fundamental mechanism for the 1/f noise found in many materials.

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Date Created
  • 2015-01-01

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Driven-Dissipative Dynamics of the Hubbard Model Attached to a Fermionic Bath

Description

In this project, we created a code that was able to simulate the dynamics of a three site Hubbard model ring connected to an infinite dissipative bath and driven by

In this project, we created a code that was able to simulate the dynamics of a three site Hubbard model ring connected to an infinite dissipative bath and driven by an electric field. We utilized the master equation approach, which will one day be able to be implemented efficiently on a quantum computer. For now we used classical computing to model one of the simplest nontrivial driven dissipative systems. This will serve as a verification of the master equation method and a baseline to test against when we are able to implement it on a quantum computer. For this report, we will mainly focus on classifying the DC component of the current around our ring. We notice several expected characteristics of this DC current including an inverse square tail at large values of the electric field and a linear response region at small values of the electric field.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05

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1/f Noise From the Laws of Thermodynamics for Finite-Size Fluctuations

Description

Computer simulations of the Ising model exhibit white noise if thermal fluctuations are governed by Boltzmann's factor alone; whereas we find that the same model exhibits 1/f noise if Boltzmann's

Computer simulations of the Ising model exhibit white noise if thermal fluctuations are governed by Boltzmann's factor alone; whereas we find that the same model exhibits 1/f noise if Boltzmann's factor is extended to include local alignment entropy to all orders. We show that this nonlinear correction maintains maximum entropy during equilibrium fluctuations. Indeed, as with the usual way to resolve Gibbs' paradox that avoids entropy reduction during reversible processes, the correction yields the statistics of indistinguishable particles. The correction also ensures conservation of energy if an instantaneous contribution from local entropy is included. Thus, a common mechanism for 1/f noise comes from assuming that finite-size fluctuations strictly obey the laws of thermodynamics, even in small parts of a large system. Empirical evidence for the model comes from its ability to match the measured temperature dependence of the spectral-density exponents in several metals and to show non-Gaussian fluctuations characteristic of nanoscale systems.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-07-30

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Susceptor assisted microwave annealing of ion implanted silicon

Description

This thesis discusses the use of low temperature microwave anneal as an alternative technique to recrystallize materials damaged or amorphized due to implantation techniques. The work focuses on the annealing

This thesis discusses the use of low temperature microwave anneal as an alternative technique to recrystallize materials damaged or amorphized due to implantation techniques. The work focuses on the annealing of high-Z doped Si wafers that are incapable of attaining high temperatures required for recrystallizing the damaged implanted layers by microwave absorption The increasing necessity for quicker and more efficient processing techniques motivates study of the use of a single frequency applicator microwave cavity along with a Fe2O3 infused SiC-alumina susceptor/applicator as an alternative post implantation process. Arsenic implanted Si samples of different dopant concentrations and implantation energies were studied pre and post microwave annealing. A set of as-implanted Si samples were also used to assess the effect of inactive dopants against presence of electrically active dopants on the recrystallization mechanisms. The extent of damage repair and Si recrystallization of the damage caused by arsenic and Si implantation of Si is determined by cross-section transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Dopant activation is evaluated for the As implanted Si by sheet resistance measurements. For the same, secondary ion mass spectroscopy analysis is used to compare the extent of diffusion that results from such microwave annealing with that experienced when using conventional rapid thermal annealing (RTA). Results show that compared to susceptor assisted microwave annealing, RTA caused undesired dopant diffusion. The SiC-alumina susceptor plays a predominant role in supplying heat to the Si substrate, and acts as an assistor that helps a high-Z dopant like arsenic to absorb the microwave energy using a microwave loss mechanism which is a combination of ionic and dipole losses. Comparisons of annealing of the samples were done with and without the use of the susceptor, and confirm the role played by the susceptor, since the samples donot recrystallize when the surface heating mechanism provided by the susceptor is not incorporated. Variable frequency microwave annealing was also performed over the as-implanted Si samples for durations and temperatures higher than the single frequency microwave anneal, but only partial recrystallization of the damaged layer was achieved.

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Date Created
  • 2011

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Adhesion in a copper-ruthenium multilayer nano-scale structure and the use of a Miedema plot to select a diffusion barrier metal for copper metallization

Description

Miedema's plot is used to select the Cu/metal barrier for Cu metallization.The Cu/metal barrier system selected should have positive heat of formation (Hf) so that there is no intermixing between

Miedema's plot is used to select the Cu/metal barrier for Cu metallization.The Cu/metal barrier system selected should have positive heat of formation (Hf) so that there is no intermixing between the two layers. In this case, Ru is chosen as a potential candidate, and then the barrier properties of sputtered Cu/Ru thin films on thermally grown SiO2 substrates are investigated by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and electrical resistivity measurement. The Cu/Ru/SiO2 samples are analyzed prior to and after vacuum annealing at various temperatures of 400, 500, and 600 oC and at different interval of times of 0.5, 1 and 2 hrs for each temperature. Backscattering analysis indicate that both the copper and ruthenium thin films are thermally stable at high temperature of 600 oC, without any interdiffusion and chemical reaction between Cu and Ru thin films. No new phase formation is observed in any of the Cu/Ru/SiO2 samples. The XRD data indicate no new phase formation in any of the annealed Cu/Ru/SiO2 samples and confirmed excellent thermal stability of Cu on Ru layer. The electrical resistivity measurement indicated that the electrical resistivity value of the copper thin films annealed at 400, 500, and 600 oC is essentially constant and the copper films are thermally stable on Ru, no reaction occurs between copper films and Ru the layer. Cu/Ru/SiO2 multilayered thin film samples have been shown to possess good mechanical strength and adhesion between the Cu and Ru layers compared to the Cu/SiO2 thin film samples. The strength evaluation is carried out under static loading conditions such as nanoindentation testing. In this study, evaluation and comparison is donebased on the dynamic deformation behavior of Cu/Ru/SiO2 and Cu/SiO2 samples under scratch loading condition as a measure of tribological properties. Finally, the deformation behavior under static and dynamic loading conditions is understood using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the focused ionbeam imaging microscope (FIB) for topographical and cross-sectional imaging respectively.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2010

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Metal-oxide based transparent conductive oxides and thin film transistors for flexible electronics

Description

The object of this study is to investigate and improve the performance/stability of the flexible thin film transistors (TFTs) and to study the properties of metal oxide transparent conductive oxides

The object of this study is to investigate and improve the performance/stability of the flexible thin film transistors (TFTs) and to study the properties of metal oxide transparent conductive oxides for wide range of flexible electronic applications. Initially, a study has been done to improve the conductivity of ITO (indium tin oxide) films on PEN (polyethylene naphthalate) by inserting a thin layer of silver layer between two ITO layers. The multilayer with an optimum Ag mid-layer thickness, of 8 nm, exhibited excellent photopic average transmittance (~ 88 %), resistivity (~ 2.7 × 10-5 µ-cm.) and has the best Hackee figure of merit (41.0 × 10-3 Ω-1). The electrical conduction is dominated by two different scattering mechanisms depending on the thickness of the Ag mid-layer. Optical transmission is explained by scattering losses and absorption of light due to inter-band electronic transitions. A systematic study was carried out to improve the performance/stability of the TFTs on PEN. The performance and stability of a-Si:H and a-IZO (amorphous indium zinc oxide) TFTs were improved by performing a systematic low temperature (150 °C) anneals for extended times. For 96 hours annealed a-Si:H TFTs, the sub-threshold slope and off-current were reduced by a factor ~ 3 and by 2 orders of magnitude, respectively when compared to unannealed a-Si:H TFTs. For a-IZO TFTs, 48 hours of annealing is found to be the optimum time for the best performance and elevated temperature stability. These devices exhibit saturation mobility varying between 4.5-5.5 cm2/V-s, ION/IOFF ratio was 106 and a sub-threshold swing variation of 1-1.25 V/decade. An in-depth study on the mechanical and electromechanical stress response on the electrical properties of the a-IZO TFTs has also been investigated. Finally, the a-Si:H TFTs were exposed to gamma radiation to examine their radiation resistance. The interface trap density (Nit) values range from 5 to 6 × 1011 cm-2 for only electrical stress bias case. For "irradiation only" case, the Nit value increases from 5×1011 cm-2 to 2×1012 cm-2 after 3 hours of gamma radiation exposure, whereas it increases from 5×1011 cm-2 to 4×1012 cm-2 for "combined gamma and electrical stress".

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Microchannel flow boiling enhancement via cross-sectional expansion

Description

The heat transfer enhancements available from expanding the cross-section of a boiling microchannel are explored analytically and experimentally. Evaluation of the literature on critical heat flux in flow boiling and

The heat transfer enhancements available from expanding the cross-section of a boiling microchannel are explored analytically and experimentally. Evaluation of the literature on critical heat flux in flow boiling and associated pressure drop behavior is presented with predictive critical heat flux (CHF) and pressure drop correlations. An optimum channel configuration allowing maximum CHF while reducing pressure drop is sought. A perturbation of the channel diameter is employed to examine CHF and pressure drop relationships from the literature with the aim of identifying those adequately general and suitable for use in a scenario with an expanding channel. Several CHF criteria are identified which predict an optimizable channel expansion, though many do not. Pressure drop relationships admit improvement with expansion, and no optimum presents itself. The relevant physical phenomena surrounding flow boiling pressure drop are considered, and a balance of dimensionless numbers is presented that may be of qualitative use. The design, fabrication, inspection, and experimental evaluation of four copper microchannel arrays of different channel expansion rates with R-134a refrigerant is presented. Optimum rates of expansion which maximize the critical heat flux are considered at multiple flow rates, and experimental results are presented demonstrating optima. The effect of expansion on the boiling number is considered, and experiments demonstrate that expansion produces a notable increase in the boiling number in the region explored, though no optima are observed. Significant decrease in the pressure drop across the evaporator is observed with the expanding channels, and no optima appear. Discussion of the significance of this finding is presented, along with possible avenues for future work.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Synthesis and characterization of erbium compound nanowires as high gain optical materials

Description

Integrated photonics requires high gain optical materials in the telecom wavelength range for optical amplifiers and coherent light sources. Erbium (Er) containing materials are ideal candidates due to the 1.5

Integrated photonics requires high gain optical materials in the telecom wavelength range for optical amplifiers and coherent light sources. Erbium (Er) containing materials are ideal candidates due to the 1.5 μm emission from Er3+ ions. However, the Er density in typical Er-doped materials is less than 1 x 1020 cm-3, thus limiting the maximum optical gain to a few dB/cm, too small to be useful for integrated photonics applications. Er compounds could potentially solve this problem since they contain much higher Er density. So far the existing Er compounds suffer from short lifetime and strong upconversion effects, mainly due to poor quality of crystals produced by various methods of thin film growth and deposition. This dissertation explores a new Er compound: erbium chloride silicate (ECS, Er3(SiO4)2Cl ) in the nanowire form, which facilitates the growth of high quality single crystals. Growth methods for such single crystal ECS nanowires have been established. Various structural and optical characterizations have been carried out. The high crystal quality of ECS material leads to a long lifetime of the first excited state of Er3+ ions up to 1 ms at Er density higher than 1022 cm-3. This Er lifetime-density product was found to be the largest among all Er containing materials. A unique integrating sphere method was developed to measure the absorption cross section of ECS nanowires from 440 to 1580 nm. Pump-probe experiments demonstrated a 644 dB/cm signal enhancement from a single ECS wire. It was estimated that such large signal enhancement can overcome the absorption to result in a net material gain, but not sufficient to compensate waveguide propagation loss. In order to suppress the upconversion process in ECS, Ytterbium (Yb) and Yttrium (Y) ions are introduced as substituent ions of Er in the ECS crystal structure to reduce Er density. While the addition of Yb ions only partially succeeded, erbium yttrium chloride silicate (EYCS) with controllable Er density was synthesized successfully. EYCS with 30 at. % Er was found to be the best. It shows the strongest PL emission at 1.5 μm, and thus can be potentially used as a high gain material.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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Novel low temperature processing for enhanced properties of ion implanted thin films and amorphous mixed oxide thin film transistors

Description

This research emphasizes the use of low energy and low temperature post processing to improve the performance and lifetime of thin films and thin film transistors, by applying the fundamentals

This research emphasizes the use of low energy and low temperature post processing to improve the performance and lifetime of thin films and thin film transistors, by applying the fundamentals of interaction of materials with conductive heating and electromagnetic radiation. Single frequency microwave anneal is used to rapidly recrystallize the damage induced during ion implantation in Si substrates. Volumetric heating of the sample in the presence of the microwave field facilitates quick absorption of radiation to promote recrystallization at the amorphous-crystalline interface, apart from electrical activation of the dopants due to relocation to the substitutional sites. Structural and electrical characterization confirm recrystallization of heavily implanted Si within 40 seconds anneal time with minimum dopant diffusion compared to rapid thermal annealed samples. The use of microwave anneal to improve performance of multilayer thin film devices, e.g. thin film transistors (TFTs) requires extensive study of interaction of individual layers with electromagnetic radiation. This issue has been addressed by developing detail understanding of thin films and interfaces in TFTs by studying reliability and failure mechanisms upon extensive stress test. Electrical and ambient stresses such as illumination, thermal, and mechanical stresses are inflicted on the mixed oxide based thin film transistors, which are explored due to high mobilities of the mixed oxide (indium zinc oxide, indium gallium zinc oxide) channel layer material. Semiconductor parameter analyzer is employed to extract transfer characteristics, useful to derive mobility, subthreshold, and threshold voltage parameters of the transistors. Low temperature post processing anneals compatible with polymer substrates are performed in several ambients (oxygen, forming gas and vacuum) at 150 °C as a preliminary step. The analysis of the results pre and post low temperature anneals using device physics fundamentals assists in categorizing defects leading to failure/degradation as: oxygen vacancies, thermally activated defects within the bandgap, channel-dielectric interface defects, and acceptor-like or donor-like trap states. Microwave anneal has been confirmed to enhance the quality of thin films, however future work entails extending the use of electromagnetic radiation in controlled ambient to facilitate quick post fabrication anneal to improve the functionality and lifetime of these low temperature fabricated TFTs.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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Thermal processing and microwave processing of mixed-oxide thin films

Description

Amorphous oxide semiconductors are promising new materials for various optoelectronic applications. In this study, improved electrical and optical properties upon thermal and microwave processing of mixed-oxide semiconductors are reported. First,

Amorphous oxide semiconductors are promising new materials for various optoelectronic applications. In this study, improved electrical and optical properties upon thermal and microwave processing of mixed-oxide semiconductors are reported. First, arsenic-doped silicon was used as a model system to understand susceptor-assisted microwave annealing. Mixed oxide semiconductor films of indium zinc oxide (IZO) and indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) were deposited by room-temperature RF sputtering on flexible polymer substrates. Thermal annealing in different environments - air, vacuum and oxygen was done. Electrical and optical characterization was carried out before and after annealing. The degree of reversal in the degradation in electrical properties of the thin films upon annealing in oxygen was assessed by subjecting samples to subsequent vacuum anneals. To further increase the conductivity of the IGZO films, Ag layers of various thicknesses were embedded between two IGZO layers. Optical performance of the multilayer structures was improved by susceptor-assisted microwave annealing and furnace-annealing in oxygen environment without compromising on their electrical conductivity. The post-processing of the films in different environments was used to develop an understanding of mechanisms of carrier generation, transport and optical absorption. This study establishes IGZO as a viable transparent conductor, which can be deposited at room-temperature and processed by thermal and microwave annealing to improve electrical and optical performance for applications in flexible electronics and optoelectronics.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011