Matching Items (31)

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Structural Characterization of III-V Bismide Materials Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

Description

III-V-bismide semiconductor alloys are a class of materials with applications in the mid and long wave infrared spectrum. The quaternary alloy InAsSbBi is attractive because it can be grown

III-V-bismide semiconductor alloys are a class of materials with applications in the mid and long wave infrared spectrum. The quaternary alloy InAsSbBi is attractive because it can be grown lattice-matched to commercially available GaSb substrates, and the adjustment of the Bi and Sb mole fractions enables both lattice constant and bandgap to be tuned independently. This dissertation provides a comprehensive study of the surface morphology and the structural and chemical properties of InAsSbBi alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy.

210 nm thick InAsSbBi layers grown at temperatures from 280 °C to 430 °C on (100) on-axis, (100) offcut 1° to (011), and (100) offcut 4° to (111)A GaSb substrates are investigated using Rutherford back scattering, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Nomarski optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The results indicate that the layers are coherently strained and contain dilute Bi mole fractions.

Large surface droplets with diameters and densities on the order of 3 µm and 106 cm-2 are observed when the growth is performed with As overpressures around 1%. Preferential orientation of the droplets occurs along the [011 ̅] step edges offcut (100) 1° to (011) substrate. The surface droplets are not observed when the As overpressure is increased to 4%. Small crystalline droplets with diameters and densities on the order of 70 nm and 1010 cm-2 are observed between the large droplets for the growth at 430°C. Analysis of one of the small droplets indicates a misoriented zinc blende structure composed of In, Sb, and Bi, with a 6.543 ± 0.038 Å lattice constant.

Lateral variation in the Bi mole fraction is observed in InAsSbBi grown at high temperature (400 °C, 420 °C) on (100) on-axis and (100) offcut 4° to (111)A substrates, but is not observed for growth at 280 °C or on (100) substrates that are offcut 1° to (011). Improved crystal and optical quality is observed in the high temperature grown InAsSbBi and CuPtB type atomic ordering on the {111}B planes is observed in the low temperature grown InAsSbBi. Strain induced tilt is observed in coherently strained InAsSbBi grown on offcut substrates.

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  • 2020

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Modified equivalent circuit for organic solar cells

Description

In this work a newly fabricated organic solar cell based on a composite of fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and regioregular poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) with an added

In this work a newly fabricated organic solar cell based on a composite of fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and regioregular poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) with an added interfacial layer of AgOx in between the PEDOT:PSS layer and the ITO layer is investigated. Previous equivalent circuit models are discussed and an equivalent circuit model is proposed for the fabricated device. Incorporation of the AgOx interfacial layer shows an increase in fill factor (by 33%) and power conversion efficiency (by 28%). Moreover proper correlation has been achieved between the experimental and simulated I-V plots. The simulation shows that device characteristics can be explained with accuracy by the proposed model.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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Study of doped magnetic systems

Description

Doping and alloying agents are commonly used to engineer the properties of magnetic materials. This study investigates the effects of doping manganese in thin films of Ni80Fe20 (permalloy) and Ni65Fe15Co20

Doping and alloying agents are commonly used to engineer the properties of magnetic materials. This study investigates the effects of doping manganese in thin films of Ni80Fe20 (permalloy) and Ni65Fe15Co20 magnetic systems for low power memory technologies, including those that operate at low temperature.

Elemental manganese is anti-ferromagnetic with a Neel temperature of 100 K. When used as a dopant in a magnetic material, it is found to often align its moment in an antiferromagnetic direction. Thus, the addition of manganese might be expected to reduce the overall saturation magnetization (MS) of the magnetic system. In this study, we show that the use of manganese dopants in Ni80Fe20 (permalloy) and Ni65Fe15Co20 thin films can reduce their saturation magnetization and still retain excellent switching properties.

Magnetic properties and transport properties were determined using Vibrating Sample Magnetometer. A 19% decrease in the MS of (Ni80Fe20)1-xMnx thin films and a 36% decrease for (Ni65Fe15Co20)1-xMnx thin films for dopant levels of x = 30%. The impact of depositing a ruthenium (Ru) under-layer for (Ni65Fe15Co20)1-xMnx system was also studied.

The structural (lattice parameters and phases), surface (roughness and topography) and electrical properties (resistivity and mean free path) of the Mn-doped Ni65Fe15Co20 films were determined with X-Ray Diffraction, Atomic Force Microscopy and Four-Point probe technique respectively.

The properties were analyzed and Ni65Fe15Co20 system with Ru- under-layer with 20 at. % Mn content was found to exhibit the following low-field switching properties at 10 K; MS~700 emu.cm-3, easy axis coercivity ~10 Oe and hard axis coercivity ~5 Oe, easy axis squareness ~0.9 and anisotropy field ~12 Oe, that are deemed useful for low-power memory applications that could be used at cryogenic temperatures.

To determine the transport properties thought these magnetic layers for use in superconductor/ferromagnetic memory structures, a study of the oxidation conditions of Al films was performed in order to produce a reliable aluminum oxide tunnel barrier on top of these films. The production of N-I-F-S (Normal metal-Insulator-Ferromagnet-Superconductor) tunnel junctions will allow for the investigation of the tunneling density of states as a function of ferromagnetic layer thickness, allowing for the determination of important transport parameters relevant to magnetic barrier Josephson junction devices.

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Date Created
  • 2018

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Synthesis, Characterization, and Optimization of Superconductor-Dielectric Interfaces

Description

The chemical, structural, and electrical properties of niobium-silicon, niobium-germanium, and YBCO-dielectric interfaces are characterized. Reduction in the concentration of interfacial defects in these structures can improve the performance of (i)

The chemical, structural, and electrical properties of niobium-silicon, niobium-germanium, and YBCO-dielectric interfaces are characterized. Reduction in the concentration of interfacial defects in these structures can improve the performance of (i) many devices including low-loss coplanar, microstrip, and stripline microwave resonators used in next-generation cryogenic communication, sensor, and quantum information technologies and (ii) layers used in device isolation, inter-wiring dielectrics, and passivation in microwave and Josephson junction circuit fabrication.

Methods were developed to synthesize amorphous-Ge (a-Ge) and homoepitaxial-Si dielectric thin-films with loss tangents of 1–2×10 -6 and 0.6–2×10 -5 at near single-photon powers and sub-Kelvin temperatures (≈40 mK), making them potentially a better choice over undoped silicon and sapphire substrates used in quantum devices. The Nb/Ge interface has 20 nm of chemical intermixing, which is reduced by a factor of four using 10 nm Ta diffusion layers. Niobium coplanar resonators using this structure exhibit reduced microwave losses.

The nature and concentration of defects near Nb-Si interfaces prepared with commonly-used Si surface treatments were characterized. All samples have H, C, O, F, and Cl in the Si within 50 nm of the interface, and electrically active defects with activation energies of 0.147, 0.194, 0.247, 0.339, and 0.556 eV above the valence band maximum (E vbm ), with concentrations dominated by a hole trap at E vbm +0.556 eV (presumably Nb Si ). The optimum surface treatment is an HF etch followed by an in-situ 100 eV Ar ion mill. RCA etches, and higher energy ion milling processes increase the concentration of electrically active defects.

A thin SrTiO 3 buffer layer used in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ superconductor/high-performance Ba(Zn 1/3 Ta 2/3 )O 3 and Ba(Cd 1/3 Ta 2/3 )O 3 microwave dielectric trilayers improves the structural quality of the layers and results in 90 K superconductor critical temperatures. This advance enables the production of more compact high-temperature superconductor capacitors, inductors, and microwave microstrip and stripline devices.

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Date Created
  • 2020

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Programmable metallization cell devices for flexible electronics

Description

Programmable metallization cell (PMC) technology is based on an electrochemical phenomenon in which a metallic electrodeposit can be grown or dissolved between two electrodes depending on the voltage applied between

Programmable metallization cell (PMC) technology is based on an electrochemical phenomenon in which a metallic electrodeposit can be grown or dissolved between two electrodes depending on the voltage applied between them. Devices based on this phenomenon exhibit a unique, self-healing property, as a broken metallic structure can be healed by applying an appropriate voltage between the two broken ends. This work explores methods of fabricating interconnects and switches based on PMC technology on flexible substrates. The objective was the evaluation of the feasibility of using this technology in flexible electronics applications in which reliability is a primary concern. The re-healable property of the interconnect is characterized for the silver doped germanium selenide (Ag-Ge-Se) solid electrolyte system. This property was evaluated by measuring the resistances of the healed interconnect structures and comparing these to the resistances of the unbroken structures. The reliability of the interconnects in both unbroken and healed states is studied by investigating the resistances of the structures to DC voltages, AC voltages and different temperatures as a function of time. This work also explores replacing silver with copper for these interconnects to enhance their reliability. A model for PMC-based switches on flexible substrates is proposed and compared to the observed device behavior with the objective of developing a formal design methodology for these devices. The switches were subjected to voltage sweeps and their resistance was investigated as a function of sweep voltage. The resistance of the switches as a function of voltage pulse magnitude when placed in series with a resistance was also investigated. A model was then developed to explain the behavior of these devices. All observations were based on statistical measurements to account for random errors. The results of this work demonstrate that solid electrolyte based interconnects display self-healing capability, which depends on the applied healing voltage and the current limit. However, they fail at lower current densities than metal interconnects due to an ion-drift induced failure mechanism. The results on the PMC based switches demonstrate that a model comprising a Schottky diode in parallel with a variable resistor predicts the behavior of the device.

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Date Created
  • 2011

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Novel transparent composite electrodes and mixed oxide layers for improved flexible electronics

Description

Transparent conductive oxides (TCO) comprise a class of materials that exhibit unique combination of high transparency in the visible region along with high electrical conductivity. TCOs play an important role

Transparent conductive oxides (TCO) comprise a class of materials that exhibit unique combination of high transparency in the visible region along with high electrical conductivity. TCOs play an important role as transparent electrodes for optoelectronic devices such as solar cell panels, liquid crystal displays, transparent heat mirrors and organic light emitting devices (OLED). The most commonly used transparent electrodes in optoelectronic applications is indium tin oxide (ITO) due to its low resistivity (~ 10−4 Ω-cm) and high transmittance (~ 80 %). However, the limited supply of indium and the growing demand for ITO make the resulting fabrication costs prohibitive for future industry. Thus, cost factors have promoted the search for inexpensive materials with good electric-optical properties.

The object of this work is to study the structure-property-processing relationship and optimize a suitable transparent electrode with the intent to optimize them for flexible optoelectronics applications. The work focuses on improved processing of the mixed oxide (indium gallium zinc oxide, IGZO) thin films for superior optical and electrical properties. The study focuses on two different methods of post-deposition annealing-microwave and conventional. The microwave annealing was seen to have the dual advantage of reduced time and lower temperature, as compared to conventional annealing. Another work focuses on an indium free transparent composite electrode (TCE) where a very thin metal layer is inserted between the two TCO layers. A novel Nb2O5/Ag/Nb2O5 multilayered structure can exhibit better electrical and optical properties than a single layered TCO thin film. The focus for low cost alternative leads to a TiO2/metal/TiO2 based TCE. A systematic study was done to understand the effect of metal thickness and substituting different metals (Ag, Cu or Au) on the opto-electrical properties of the TCEs. The TiO2/Ag/TiO2 with mid Ag thickness 9.5 nm has been optimized to have a sheet resistance of 5.7 Ohm/sq. average optical transmittance of 90 % at 550 nm and figure of merit with 61.4 ×10-3 Ω-1. The TCEs showed improved optical and electrical properties when annealed in forming gas and vacuum. These dielectric/metal/dielectric multilayer TCEs have lower total thickness and are more efficient than a single-layer ITO film.

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  • 2015

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Characterization of Novel Thin-Films and Structures for Integrated Circuit and Photovoltaic Applications

Description

Thin films have been widely used in various applications. This research focuses on the characterization of novel thin films in the integrated circuits and photovoltaic techniques. The ion implanted layer

Thin films have been widely used in various applications. This research focuses on the characterization of novel thin films in the integrated circuits and photovoltaic techniques. The ion implanted layer in silicon can be treated as ion implanted thin film, which plays an essential role in the integrated circuits fabrication. Novel rapid annealing methods, i.e. microwave annealing and laser annealing, are conducted to activate ion dopants and repair the damages, and then are compared with the conventional rapid thermal annealing (RTA). In terms of As+ and P+ implanted Si, the electrical and structural characterization confirms that the microwave and laser annealing can achieve more efficient dopant activation and recrystallization than conventional RTA. The efficient dopant activation in microwave annealing is attributed to ion hopping under microwave field, while the liquid phase growth in laser annealing provides its efficient dopant activation. The characterization of dopants diffusion shows no visible diffusion after microwave annealing, some extent of end range of diffusion after RTA, and significant dopant diffusion after laser annealing.

For photovoltaic applications, an indium-free novel three-layer thin-film structure (transparent composited electrode (TCE)) is demonstrated as a promising transparent conductive electrode for solar cells. The characterization of TCE mainly focuses on its optical and electrical properties. Transfer matrix method for optical transmittance calculation is validated and proved to be a desirable method for predicting transmittance of TCE containing continuous metal layer, and can estimate the trend of transmittance as the layer thickness changes. TiO2/Ag/TiO2 (TAgT) electrode for organic solar cells (OSCs) is then designed using numerical simulation and shows much higher Haacke figure of merit than indium tin oxide (ITO). In addition, TAgT based OSC shows better performance than ITO based OSC when compatible hole transfer layer is employed. The electrical and structural characterization of hole transfer layers (HTLs) in OSCs reveals MoO3 is the compatible HTL for TAgT anode. In the end, the reactive ink printed Ag film for solar cell contact application is studied by characterizing its electromigration lifetime. A percolative model is proposed and validated for predicting the resistivity and lifetime of printed Ag thin films containing porous structure.

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Date Created
  • 2017

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Mechanisms responsible for microwave properties in high performance dielectric materials

Description

Microwave properties of low-loss commercial dielectric materials are optimized by adding transition-metal dopants or alloying agents (i.e. Ni, Co, Mn) to tune the temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (τf) to

Microwave properties of low-loss commercial dielectric materials are optimized by adding transition-metal dopants or alloying agents (i.e. Ni, Co, Mn) to tune the temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (τf) to zero. This occurs as a result of the temperature dependence of dielectric constant offsetting the thermal expansion. At cryogenic temperatures, the microwave loss in these dielectric materials is dominated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) loss, which results from the spin-excitations of d-shell electron spins in exchange-coupled clusters. We show that the origin of the observed magnetically-induced shifts in the dielectric resonator frequency originates from the same mechanism, as described by the Kramers-Kronig relations. The temperature coefficient of resonator frequency, τf, is related to three material parameters according to the equation, τf = - (½ τε + ½ τµ + αL), where τε, τµ, and αL are the temperature coefficient of dielectric constant, magnetic permeability, and lattice constant, respectively. Each of these parameters for dielectric materials of interest are measured experimentally. These results, in combination with density functional simulations, developed a much improved understanding of the fundamental mechanisms responsible for τf. The same experimental methods have been used to characterize in-situ the physical nature and concentration of performance-degrading point defects in the dielectrics of superconducting planar microwave resonators.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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Characterization of HgCdTe and related materials and substrates for third generation infrared detectors

Description

HgCdTe is currently the dominant material for infrared sensing and imaging, and is usually grown on lattice-matched bulk CdZnTe (CZT) substrates. There have been significant recent efforts to identify alternative

HgCdTe is currently the dominant material for infrared sensing and imaging, and is usually grown on lattice-matched bulk CdZnTe (CZT) substrates. There have been significant recent efforts to identify alternative substrates to CZT as well as alternative detector materials to HgCdTe. In this dissertation research, a wide range of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging and analytical techniques was used in the characterization of epitaxial HgCdTe and related materials and substrates for third generation IR detectors. ZnTe layers grown on Si substrates are considered to be promising candidates for lattice-matched, large-area, and low-cost composite substrates for deposition of II-VI and III-V compound semiconductors with lattice constants near 6.1 Å. After optimizing MBE growth conditions including substrate pretreatment prior to film growth, as well as nucleation and growth temperatures, thick ZnTe/Si films with high crystallinity, low defect density, and excellent surface morphology were achieved. Changes in the Zn/Te flux ratio used during growth were also investigated. Small-probe microanalysis confirmed that a small amount of As was present at the ZnTe/Si interface. A microstructural study of HgCdTe/CdTe/GaAs (211)B and CdTe/GaAs (211)B heterostructures grown using MBE was carried out. High quality MBE-grown CdTe on GaAs(211)B substrates was demonstrated to be a viable composite substrate platform for HgCdTe growth. In addition, analysis of interfacial misfit dislocations and residual strain showed that the CdTe/GaAs interface was fully relaxed. In the case of HgCdTe/CdTe/ GaAs(211)B, thin HgTe buffer layers between HgCdTe and CdTe were also investigated for improving the HgCdTe crystal quality. A set of ZnTe layers epitaxially grown on GaSb(211)B substrates using MBE was studied using high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) measurements and TEM characterization in order to investigate conditions for defect-free growth. HRXRD results gave critical thickness estimates between 350 nm and 375 nm, in good agreement with theoretical predictions. Moreover, TEM results confirmed that ZnTe layers with thicknesses of 350 nm had highly coherent interfaces and very low dislocation densities, unlike samples with the thicker ZnTe layers.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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1-dimensional zinc oxide nanomaterial growth and solar cell applications

Description

Zinc oxide (ZnO) has attracted much interest during last decades as a functional material. Furthermore, ZnO is a potential material for transparent conducting oxide material competing with indium tin oxide

Zinc oxide (ZnO) has attracted much interest during last decades as a functional material. Furthermore, ZnO is a potential material for transparent conducting oxide material competing with indium tin oxide (ITO), graphene, and carbon nanotube film. It has been known as a conductive material when doped with elements such as indium, gallium and aluminum. The solubility of those dopant elements in ZnO is still debatable; but, it is necessary to find alternative conducting materials when their form is film or nanostructure for display devices. This is a consequence of the ever increasing price of indium. In addition, a new generation solar cell (nanostructured or hybrid photovoltaics) requires compatible materials which are capable of free standing on substrates without seed or buffer layers and have the ability introduce electrons or holes pathway without blocking towards electrodes. The nanostructures for solar cells using inorganic materials such as silicon (Si), titanium oxide (TiO2), and ZnO have been an interesting topic for research in solar cell community in order to overcome the limitation of efficiency for organic solar cells. This dissertation is a study of the rational solution-based synthesis of 1-dimentional ZnO nanomaterial and its solar cell applications. These results have implications in cost effective and uniform nanomanufacturing for the next generation solar cells application by controlling growth condition and by doping transition metal element in solution.

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Date Created
  • 2012