Matching Items (16)

Diet and Health: A Look into Naturopathic Healing

Description

In my creative project, I decided to shadow a naturopathic doctor to experience what the process of naturopathic treatment entails. I conducted interviews with patients and Dr. Raisanen to explore

In my creative project, I decided to shadow a naturopathic doctor to experience what the process of naturopathic treatment entails. I conducted interviews with patients and Dr. Raisanen to explore their backgrounds and motivations, and read studies he recommended that explained some of the science behind his methods of treatment, such as fasting, dietary adjustment (a plant based diet), sodium and saturated/trans fats reduction, caffeine reduction, exercise, stress modulation, supplements, and sleep adjustments. I wrote small expositional summaries on these studies. I also took measurements recorded by Dr. Raisanen through the course of treatments with different patients to produce visuals of changes in body composition. I finally produced a small handout with Dr. Raisanen's help that summarized on a page the basics of lifestyle changes that a naturopathic doctor would want a patient to undertake.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-12

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The Effects of Sumac on Saturated Fat-induced Inflammation in Human Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells and Isolated Mesenteric Arteries from Rats

Description

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is characterized by impaired vasodilation and the development of atherosclerosis.78 A diet high in saturated fat, such as palmitate, contributes to this by promoting inflammation and oxidative

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is characterized by impaired vasodilation and the development of atherosclerosis.78 A diet high in saturated fat, such as palmitate, contributes to this by promoting inflammation and oxidative stress in human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). 11,12,84,88 The inflammation cascade that occurs increases pro-inflammatory cytokines, like tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and increases proinflammatory enzymes like cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) contributing to inflammation, oxidative stress, blood pressure shifts, and atherosclerosis.11,12,69,84 Palmitate has been found to upregulate TNF-alpha,85 and COX-2. 11,12, 84

In various studies, sumac, a Mediterranean spice and known antioxidant,39,7,66,67 has been shown to have antioxidant properties through its ability to inhibit reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide.39,7,66,67 Sumac has also been found to reduce TNF-alpha.100 Results from a study of hypertensive human subjects fed a sumac supplement showed a decrease in blood pressure.59

In the current study, COX-2 levels were determined to evaluate the level of inflammation in response to palmitate when primary aortic human vascular smooth muscle cells (HAoVSM) were treated with sumac. The treatments included: vehicle (bovine serum albumin), 100 µM palmitate, and 10, 20, 40, 60, and 80 µg/mL sumac. Sumac did not alter COX-2 protein levels between vehicle and sumac groups. Additional studies were designed to examine whether 80 µg/mL sumac could reverse impaired vasodilation caused by 10 weeks of high fat intake, consisting of 60% of total calories from fat, in Sprague-Dawley rats. Mesenteric arteries were isolated and exposed to sumac. High fat diet (HFD) arteries had impaired vasodilation compared to arteries from chow-fed fats. HFD arteries exposed to sumac had similar endothelium-dependent vasodilation responses as those not exposed to sumac, however, there were trends for improved vasodilation. I suggest that sumac likely exhibits antioxidant capabilities that prevent superoxide from decreasing the bioavailability of nitric oxide in the vasculature, thus promoting endothelium-dependent vasodilation and preventing the creation of more harmful reactive oxygen species. Isolated arteries from chow fed rats developed irreversible vasodilation when exposed to sumac and were therefore not responsive to pre-constriction with phenylephrine (PE) likely related to nitrates and gallic acid naturally present in sumac whereby inhibiting PE.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Is a Dynamic Measurement of Exposure to the Retail Food Environment Associated with Fiber Intake of Adults Residing in San Diego County, California?

Description

The Adequate Intake (AI) level for total fiber for adults is 14 grams per 1,000 kilocalories per day; however, only 12.9% of Americans met their total fiber needs according to

The Adequate Intake (AI) level for total fiber for adults is 14 grams per 1,000 kilocalories per day; however, only 12.9% of Americans met their total fiber needs according to the 2015-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). A lower frequency of home-cooked meals and a higher frequency of restaurant meals have been cited as a possible explanation for the low dietary fiber intake among Americans, and according to the Social-Ecological Model, the retail food environment can influence our food choices such as the choice to eat at home or eat out. The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between a dynamic measurement of exposure to the retail food environment and fiber intake (total fiber, soluble fiber, insoluble fiber, and pectin). This is a secondary analysis of data from the Community of Mine study, a cross-sectional study of 602 adults residing in San Diego County, California. Dynamic exposure to the retail food environment was assessed using Global Positioning Systems (GPS) data collected by the Qstarz GPS device worn by each participant. Fiber intake was assessed using two 24-hour dietary recalls. Multivariate regression analysis was used to assess correlations. Descriptive results showed no significant differences in dynamic exposure to the retail food environment by sex, Hispanic ethnicity, and income. There were significant differences in fiber intake by sex and ethnicity. The results of the multivariate regression analysis suggest that exposure to the retail food environment is not associated with fiber intake among a subset of American adults.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Relationship between resting energy expenditure and sleep parameters on gestational weight gain and the mediation effect of macronutrient composition

Description

No studies have evaluated the impact of tracking resting energy expenditure (REE) and modifiable health behaviors on gestational weight gain (GWG). In this controlled trial, pregnant women aged >18 years

No studies have evaluated the impact of tracking resting energy expenditure (REE) and modifiable health behaviors on gestational weight gain (GWG). In this controlled trial, pregnant women aged >18 years (X=29.8±4.9 years) with a gestational age (GA) <17 weeks were randomized to Breezing™ (N=16) or control (N=12) for 13 weeks. The Breezing™ group used a real-time metabolism tracker to obtain REE. Anthropometrics, diet, and sleep data were collected every 2 weeks. Rate of GWG was calculated as weight gain divided by total duration. Early (GA weeks 14-21), late (GA weeks 21-28), and overall (GA week 14-28) changes in macronutrients, sleep, and GWG were calculated. Mediation models were constructed using SPSS PROCESS macro using a bootstrap estimation approach with 10,000 samples. The majority of women were non-Hispanic Caucasian (78.6%). A total of 35.7% (n=10), 35.7% (n=10), and 28.6% (n=8) were normal weight, overweight, and obese, respectively, with 83.3% (n=10) and 87.5% (n=14) of the Control and Breezing™ groups gaining above IOM GWG recommendations. At baseline, macronutrient consumption did not differ. Overall (Breezing™ vs. Control; M diff=-349.08±150.77, 95% CI: -660.26 to -37.90, p=0.029) and late (M diff=-379.90±143.89, 95% CI:-676.87 to -82.93, p=0.014) changes in energy consumption significantly differed between the groups. Overall (M diff=-22.45±11.03, 95% CI: -45.20 to 0.31, p=0.053), late (M diff=-23.16±11.23, 95% CI: -46.33 to 0.01, p=0.05), and early (M diff=20.3±10.19, 95% CI: -0.74 to 41.34, p=0.058) changes in protein differed by group. Nocturnal total sleep time differed by study group (Breezing vs. Control; M diff=-32.75, 95% CI: -68.34 to 2.84, p=0.069). There was a 11.5% increase in total REE throughout the study. Early changes in REE (72±211 kcals) were relatively small while late changes (128±294 kcals) nearly doubled. Interestingly, early changes in REE demonstrated a moderate, positive correlation with rates of GWG later in pregnancy (r=0.528, p=0.052), suggesting that REE assessment early in pregnancy may help predict changes in GWG. Changes in macronutrients did not mediate the relationship between the intervention and GWG, nor did sleep mediate relationships between dietary intake and GWG. Future research evaluating REE and dietary composition throughout pregnancy may provide insight for appropriate GWG recommendations.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Will a novel organometallic complex mitigate the effects of hypertension in rats fed a high fat diet?

Description

Background: Nearly 95% of Americans will develop hypertension, and 67% will not seek treatment. Furthermore, hypertension is the leading risk factor for coronary heart disease. While previous studies have increased

Background: Nearly 95% of Americans will develop hypertension, and 67% will not seek treatment. Furthermore, hypertension is the leading risk factor for coronary heart disease. While previous studies have increased the use of blood pressure medication among patients that have received hypertension education, medications may not work for everyone. Due to the life-threatening nature of this condition, it is essential to find an effective alternative for treatment. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of organometallic complex supplementation on hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy in 6-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats that were fed either standard rodent chow or a high fat diet for 10 weeks at a university in Arizona.

Methods: Forty-two healthy six-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of three groups: plain water control, 0.6 mg/ml organometallic complex or 3.0 mg/ml organometallic complex as soon as they arrived. Each rat was then housed individually to prevent the sharing of microbiota through coprophagia. Rats in each treatment group were further divided into two dietary groups that were fed either a high fat diet containing 60% kcal fat that was changed every three days or standard rodent chow. Researchers were not blind to which rat was in each group. At the end of the 10-week study, rats were euthanized with an overdose of sodium pentobarbital (200 mg/kg, i.p.). Heart, left ventricle of the heart, liver, and spleen masses were recorded for each animal. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA using SigmaPlot 10.0 software.

Results: At the conclusion of this study, the left ventricle mass of the rats in the high fat diet group were significantly larger than those in the chow group. Neither dose of the organometallic complex supplement prevented these effects induced by high fat feeding.

Conclusion: The organometallic complex supplement was not effective at mitigating the effects of a high fat diet on cardiac hypertrophy in rats. Therefore, this supplement should not be used to treat cardiac hypertrophy.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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The flavor station: a pilot salad bar trial to increase fruit and vegetable consumption in elementary school children

Description

Most American children consume less than the recommend amount of fruits and vegetables (F&V), 74% and 84%, respectively. Eating too few F&V in childhood is associated with increased risk of

Most American children consume less than the recommend amount of fruits and vegetables (F&V), 74% and 84%, respectively. Eating too few F&V in childhood is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, respiratory symptoms, and some cancers later in life. Adequate F&V consumption favorably impacts antioxidant status, gut flora, mood, and cognitive functioning. Nutrients such as vitamin C and fiber are only naturally occurring in plant foods. For many children, school lunches are an important source of F&V. This pilot study assessed the feasibility of providing condiments to increase children’s consumption of salad bar F&V in an elementary school cafeteria at lunchtime. The trial site was a single Title 1 elementary school in a large, urban district in the greater Phoenix metropolitan area. Taste tests were conducted on three convenience samples of children in grades 3 – 7, aged 8 – 12 years (n=57) to identify the most popular condiment flavors. The five highest rated flavors were made available daily at a “flavor station” in the school’s lunchroom for three consecutive weeks during the Fall 2018 semester. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze data. A cost analysis was conducted for capital outlays related to the flavor station. School employee perceptions of F&V and the flavor station were assessed via posttest online surveys. Peanut butter was rated the best tasting condiment by children and was the only condiment that increased in popularity throughout the intervention. Overall, daily F&V consumption increased 17 g per child. There was a linear increase in F&V consumption during the study (r=0.986; P=0.014). As a proportion of the total F&V selected, F&V waste decreased by nearly 3%. The average daily cost of providing the flavor station was $0.09 per student. Sixty-five percent of school staff felt that the flavor station should continue at their school. Peanut butter is an affordable, nutrient-dense food that accommodates the USDA Food and Nutrition Service meal patterns and nutrition standards, and thus, is a viable strategy for increasing F&V consumption and decreasing F&V waste. The results herein inform the development of future interventions to improve the palatability of F&V for children.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Longitudinal social networks impacts on weight and weight-related behaviors assessed using mobile-based ecological momentary assessments: Study Protocols for the SPARC study

Description

Background

The transition from the home to college is a phase in which emerging adults shift toward more unhealthy eating and physical activity patterns, higher body mass indices, thus increasing

Background

The transition from the home to college is a phase in which emerging adults shift toward more unhealthy eating and physical activity patterns, higher body mass indices, thus increasing risk of overweight/obesity. Currently, little is understood about how changing friendship networks shape weight gain behaviors. This paper describes the recruitment, data collection, and data analytic protocols for the SPARC (Social impact of Physical Activity and nutRition in College) study, a longitudinal examination of the mechanisms by which friends and friendship networks influence nutrition and physical activity behaviors and weight gain in the transition to college life.

Methods

The SPARC study aims to follow 1450 university freshmen from a large university over an academic year, collecting data on multiple aspects of friends and friendship networks. Integrating multiple types of data related to student lives, ecological momentary assessments (EMAs) are administered via a cell phone application, devilSPARC. EMAs collected in four 1-week periods (a total of 4 EMA waves) are integrated with linked data from web-based surveys and anthropometric measurements conducted at four times points (for a total of eight data collection periods including EMAs, separated by ~1 month). University databases will provide student card data, allowing integration of both time-dated data on food purchasing, use of physical activity venues, and geographical information system (GIS) locations of these activities relative to other students in their social networks.

Discussion

Findings are intended to guide the development of more effective interventions to enhance behaviors among college students that protect against weight gain during college.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-08-30

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Effects of a fat-sugar supplemented diet, with and without exercise training, on body fat mass and selected cardiometabolic risk markers in overweight and obese, sedentary males

Description

The winter holiday period has been highlighted as a major risk period for weight gain due to excess caloric intake in the form of fat and sugar. Furthermore, diets high

The winter holiday period has been highlighted as a major risk period for weight gain due to excess caloric intake in the form of fat and sugar. Furthermore, diets high in fat and sugar have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Exercise aids in the prevention of weight/fat gain, and prevents deleterious changes in cardiometabolic function. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a fat-sugar supplemented diet, with and without two different exercise training protocols, on body composition, glycemic control and other markers of cardiovascular disease in an at-risk population of overweight and obese males. Twenty-seven, healthy overweight/obese (BMI >25 kg/m2) males were fed 2 donuts per day, 6 days/week, for four weeks, while maintaining their current diet. In addition, all subjects were randomized to one of the following conditions: sedentary control, 1,000 kcal/week moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) (50% of peak oxygen consumption), or 1,000 kcal/week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) (90-95% of peak heart rate). Supervised exercise training was performed 4 days/week on a cycle ergometer. Changes in body weight and composition, endothelial function, arterial stiffness, glycemic control, blood lipids and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) were assessed before and after the intervention. Body weight, lean mass and visceral fat increased significantly in HIIT (p<0.05) and were unchanged in MICT. There was a trend for a significant increase in body weight (p=0.07) and lean mass (p=0.11) in control. Glycemic control during the 2-h OGTT improved significantly in MICT and control, with no change in HIIT. Hepatic insulin resistance index (IRI) and 30-min insulin during the OGTT improved significantly after MICT and worsened following control (p=0.03), while HIIT was unchanged. CRF increased significantly in both HIIT and MICT, with no change in control (p<0.001). There were no significant changes in other markers of cardiovascular disease. The addition of a fat-sugar supplement (~14,500 kcal) over a 4-week period was not sufficient to induce deleterious changes in body composition and cardiometabolic health in overweight/obese young males. Exercise training did not afford overweight/obese males additional health benefits, with the exception of improvements in fitness and hepatic IRI.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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An Investigation into the Effects of Time-restricted Feeding on Mood State in College Students: A Randomized 8-Week Trial

Description

Mood disorders are prevalent within the college student population, increasing the potential for poor academic performance among those students. Intermittent fasting, particularly time-restricted feeding (TRF) regimens, have shown promising results

Mood disorders are prevalent within the college student population, increasing the potential for poor academic performance among those students. Intermittent fasting, particularly time-restricted feeding (TRF) regimens, have shown promising results associated with improvements in health outcomes related to weight loss, cardiovascular health, glucose and insulin regulation, and breast cancer; however, very limited research exits for the impact on mood states. The objective of this eight-week randomized, controlled trial was to examine the effects of a daily fasting regimen of 18 hours (six hour feeding window), compared to a daily fasting regimen of eight hours (16 hour feeding window), on the mood state of healthy college students attending Arizona State University or University of Arizona. Twenty nine students were recruited and randomized into the TRF group (n = 16) following a 16-hour fast or the control (CON) group (n = 13) following an eight-hour fast. Participants in each group were instructed to consume their first meal within an hour of waking, which would then begin their assigned feeding window. Participants were also allowed one ‘cheat day’ per week in which they were not required to follow their assigned fasting protocol, otherwise no additional dietary instructions were given; participants were permitted to consume food and beverages ad libitum throughout their feeding window. Mood state was assessed at baseline, week four, and week eight using the Profile of Mood States questionnaire and the GAD-7, specific to generalized anxiety. Of the initial 29 participants recruited, 18 completed the trial (TRF group n = 8; CON group n = 10). Data were reported through week four only, due to inconsistencies with week eight data as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. The mood state measures did not show any statistically significant changes after four weeks. The results of this study suggest that a TRF regimen of 18 hours does not significantly impact overall or individual mood states among college students.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2021

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The Effects of Dietary Vinegar on Salivary pH and Dental Erosion

Description

Vinegar is gaining popularity as a natural and proven treatment for common diseases and conditions ranging from high blood pressure to diabetes. While the evidence to support the benefits

Vinegar is gaining popularity as a natural and proven treatment for common diseases and conditions ranging from high blood pressure to diabetes. While the evidence to support the benefits of vinegar is growing, few studies have considered possible negative consequences. One concern relates to the effect of vinegar on saliva pH and dental erosion. The aim of this study is to explore this relationship as well as unsubstantiated claims that vinegar, although acidic, has an alkalizing effect on the overall body, specifically looking at its effect on resting saliva pH. Healthy adults aged 18-45 were recruited for this trial. Twenty-two participants completed this eight-week, parallel-arm, randomized, double blinded study that looked at the effect that regular consumption of red wine vinegar (two tablespoons taken two times per day before a meal) had on resting salivary pH and dental erosion compared to a control (low dosage vinegar pill taken two times a day before a meal). Resting saliva pH was measured at home using the pH20H application and pH strips at week 0 and 8 of the trial. Erosion was noted using the Basic Erosive Wear Examination (BEWE) by a registered dental hygienist at week 1 and 8 of trial. Results indicate no mean difference in resting salivary pH in either treatment group after eight weeks (p value, 0.49). However, there was a statistical significant mean difference in dental erosion between the VIN and CON group (p value, 0.05). Statistical significance in dental erosion, typically a gradual process, in just eight weeks is a significant finding and warrants concern about long time use of vinegar and dental health. Further exploration into this relationship is needed.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019