Matching Items (10)

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Galam's Voting Systems and Public Debate Models Revisited

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Serge Galams voting systems and public debate models are used to model voting behaviors of two competing opinions in democratic societies. Galam assumes that individuals in the population are independently

Serge Galams voting systems and public debate models are used to model voting behaviors of two competing opinions in democratic societies. Galam assumes that individuals in the population are independently in favor of one opinion with a fixed probability p, making the initial number of that type of opinion a binomial random variable. This analysis revisits Galams models from the point of view of the hypergeometric random variable by assuming the initial number of individuals in favor of an opinion is a fixed deterministic number. This assumption is more realistic, especially when analyzing small populations. Evolution of the models is based on majority rules, with a bias introduced when there is a tie. For the hier- archical voting system model, in order to derive the probability that opinion +1 would win, the analysis was done by reversing time and assuming that an individual in favor of opinion +1 wins. Then, working backwards we counted the number of configurations at the next lowest level that could induce each possible configuration at the level above, and continued this process until reaching the bottom level, i.e., the initial population. Using this method, we were able to derive an explicit formula for the probability that an individual in favor of opinion +1 wins given any initial count of that opinion, for any group size greater than or equal to three. For the public debate model, we counted the total number of individuals in favor of opinion +1 at each time step and used this variable to define a random walk. Then, we used first-step analysis to derive an explicit formula for the probability that an individual in favor of opinion +1 wins given any initial count of that opinion for group sizes of three. The spatial public debate model evolves based on the proportional rule. For the spatial model, the most natural graphical representation to construct the process results in a model that is not mathematically tractable. Thus, we defined a different graphical representation that is mathematically equivalent to the first graphical representation, but in this model it is possible to define a dual process that is mathematically tractable. Using this graphical representation we prove clustering in 1D and 2D and coexistence in higher dimensions following the same approach as for the voter model interacting particle system.

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  • 2013-05

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Optimal degree conditions for spanning subgraphs

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In a large network (graph) it would be desirable to guarantee the existence of some local property based only on global knowledge of the network. Consider the following classical example:

In a large network (graph) it would be desirable to guarantee the existence of some local property based only on global knowledge of the network. Consider the following classical example: how many connections are necessary to guarantee that the network contains three nodes which are pairwise adjacent? It turns out that more than n^2/4 connections are needed, and no smaller number will suffice in general. Problems of this type fall into the category of ``extremal graph theory.'' Generally speaking, extremal graph theory is the study of how global parameters of a graph are related to local properties. This dissertation deals with the relationship between minimum degree conditions of a host graph G and the property that G contains a specified spanning subgraph (or class of subgraphs). The goal is to find the optimal minimum degree which guarantees the existence of a desired spanning subgraph. This goal is achieved in four different settings, with the main tools being Szemeredi's Regularity Lemma; the Blow-up Lemma of Komlos, Sarkozy, and Szemeredi; and some basic probabilistic techniques.

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Date Created
  • 2011

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Coloring graphs from almost maximum degree sized palettes

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Every graph can be colored with one more color than its maximum degree. A well-known theorem of Brooks gives the precise conditions under which a graph can be colored with

Every graph can be colored with one more color than its maximum degree. A well-known theorem of Brooks gives the precise conditions under which a graph can be colored with maximum degree colors. It is natural to ask for the required conditions on a graph to color with one less color than the maximum degree; in 1977 Borodin and Kostochka conjectured a solution for graphs with maximum degree at least 9: as long as the graph doesn't contain a maximum-degree-sized clique, it can be colored with one fewer than the maximum degree colors. This study attacks the conjecture on multiple fronts. The first technique is an extension of a vertex shuffling procedure of Catlin and is used to prove the conjecture for graphs with edgeless high vertex subgraphs. This general approach also bears more theoretical fruit. The second technique is an extension of a method Kostochka used to reduce the Borodin-Kostochka conjecture to the maximum degree 9 case. Results on the existence of independent transversals are used to find an independent set intersecting every maximum clique in a graph. The third technique uses list coloring results to exclude induced subgraphs in a counterexample to the conjecture. The classification of such excludable graphs that decompose as the join of two graphs is the backbone of many of the results presented here. The fourth technique uses the structure theorem for quasi-line graphs of Chudnovsky and Seymour in concert with the third technique to prove the Borodin-Kostochka conjecture for claw-free graphs. The fifth technique adds edges to proper induced subgraphs of a minimum counterexample to gain control over the colorings produced by minimality. The sixth technique adapts a recoloring technique originally developed for strong coloring by Haxell and by Aharoni, Berger and Ziv to general coloring. Using this recoloring technique, the Borodin-Kostochka conjectured is proved for graphs where every vertex is in a large clique. The final technique is naive probabilistic coloring as employed by Reed in the proof of the Borodin-Kostochka conjecture for large maximum degree. The technique is adapted to prove the Borodin-Kostochka conjecture for list coloring for large maximum degree.

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  • 2013

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Design, analysis and resource allocations in networks in presence of region-based faults

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Communication networks, both wired and wireless, are expected to have a certain level of fault-tolerance capability.These networks are also expected to ensure a graceful degradation in performance when some of

Communication networks, both wired and wireless, are expected to have a certain level of fault-tolerance capability.These networks are also expected to ensure a graceful degradation in performance when some of the network components fail. Traditional studies on fault tolerance in communication networks, for the most part, make no assumptions regarding the location of node/link faults, i.e., the faulty nodes and links may be close to each other or far from each other. However, in many real life scenarios, there exists a strong spatial correlation among the faulty nodes and links. Such failures are often encountered in disaster situations, e.g., natural calamities or enemy attacks. In presence of such region-based faults, many of traditional network analysis and fault-tolerant metrics, that are valid under non-spatially correlated faults, are no longer applicable. To this effect, the main thrust of this research is design and analysis of robust networks in presence of such region-based faults. One important finding of this research is that if some prior knowledge is available on the maximum size of the region that might be affected due to a region-based fault, this piece of knowledge can be effectively utilized for resource efficient design of networks. It has been shown in this dissertation that in some scenarios, effective utilization of this knowledge may result in substantial saving is transmission power in wireless networks. In this dissertation, the impact of region-based faults on the connectivity of wireless networks has been studied and a new metric, region-based connectivity, is proposed to measure the fault-tolerance capability of a network. In addition, novel metrics, such as the region-based component decomposition number(RBCDN) and region-based largest component size(RBLCS) have been proposed to capture the network state, when a region-based fault disconnects the network. Finally, this dissertation presents efficient resource allocation techniques that ensure tolerance against region-based faults, in distributed file storage networks and data center networks.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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On-line coloring of partial orders, circular arc graphs, and trees

Description

A central concept of combinatorics is partitioning structures with given constraints. Partitions of on-line posets and on-line graphs, which are dynamic versions of the more familiar static structures posets and

A central concept of combinatorics is partitioning structures with given constraints. Partitions of on-line posets and on-line graphs, which are dynamic versions of the more familiar static structures posets and graphs, are examined. In the on-line setting, vertices are continually added to a poset or graph while a chain partition or coloring (respectively) is maintained. %The optima of the static cases cannot be achieved in the on-line setting. Both upper and lower bounds for the optimum of the number of chains needed to partition a width $w$ on-line poset exist. Kierstead's upper bound of $\frac{5^w-1}{4}$ was improved to $w^{14 \lg w}$ by Bosek and Krawczyk. This is improved to $w^{3+6.5 \lg w}$ by employing the First-Fit algorithm on a family of restricted posets (expanding on the work of Bosek and Krawczyk) . Namely, the family of ladder-free posets where the $m$-ladder is the transitive closure of the union of two incomparable chains $x_1\le\dots\le x_m$, $y_1\le\dots\le y_m$ and the set of comparabilities $\{x_1\le y_1,\dots, x_m\le y_m\}$. No upper bound on the number of colors needed to color a general on-line graph exists. To lay this fact plain, the performance of on-line coloring of trees is shown to be particularly problematic. There are trees that require $n$ colors to color on-line for any positive integer $n$. Furthermore, there are trees that usually require many colors to color on-line even if they are presented without any particular strategy. For restricted families of graphs, upper and lower bounds for the optimum number of colors needed to maintain an on-line coloring exist. In particular, circular arc graphs can be colored on-line using less than 8 times the optimum number from the static case. This follows from the work of Pemmaraju, Raman, and Varadarajan in on-line coloring of interval graphs.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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A fun way to help students discover discrete mathematics

Description

This thesis focuses on sequencing questions in a way that provides students with manageable steps to understand some of the fundamental concepts in discrete mathematics. The questions are aimed at

This thesis focuses on sequencing questions in a way that provides students with manageable steps to understand some of the fundamental concepts in discrete mathematics. The questions are aimed at younger students (middle and high school aged) with the goal of helping young students, who have likely never seen discrete mathematics, to learn through guided discovery. Chapter 2 is the bulk of this thesis as it provides questions, hints, solutions, as well as a brief discussion of each question. In the discussions following the questions, I have attempted to illustrate some relationships between the current question and previous questions, explain the learning goals of that question, as well as point out possible flaws in students' thinking or point out ways to explore this topic further. Chapter 3 provides additional questions with hints and solutions, but no discussion. Many of the questions in Chapter 3 contain ideas similar to questions in Chapter 2, but also illustrate how versatile discrete mathematics topics are. Chapter 4 focuses on possible future directions. The overall framework for the questions is that a student is hosting a birthday party, and all of the questions are ones that might actually come up in party planning. The purpose of putting it in this setting is to make the questions seem more coherent and less arbitrary or forced.

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  • 2014

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On tiling directed graphs with cycles and tournaments

Description

A tiling is a collection of vertex disjoint subgraphs called tiles. If the tiles are all isomorphic to a graph $H$ then the tiling is an $H$-tiling. If a graph

A tiling is a collection of vertex disjoint subgraphs called tiles. If the tiles are all isomorphic to a graph $H$ then the tiling is an $H$-tiling. If a graph $G$ has an $H$-tiling which covers all of the vertices of $G$ then the $H$-tiling is a perfect $H$-tiling or an $H$-factor. A goal of this study is to extend theorems on sufficient minimum degree conditions for perfect tilings in graphs to directed graphs. Corrádi and Hajnal proved that every graph $G$ on $3k$ vertices with minimum degree $delta(G)ge2k$ has a $K_3$-factor, where $K_s$ is the complete graph on $s$ vertices. The following theorem extends this result to directed graphs: If $D$ is a directed graph on $3k$ vertices with minimum total degree $delta(D)ge4k-1$ then $D$ can be partitioned into $k$ parts each of size $3$ so that all of parts contain a transitive triangle and $k-1$ of the parts also contain a cyclic triangle. The total degree of a vertex $v$ is the sum of $d^-(v)$ the in-degree and $d^+(v)$ the out-degree of $v$. Note that both orientations of $C_3$ are considered: the transitive triangle and the cyclic triangle. The theorem is best possible in that there are digraphs that meet the minimum degree requirement but have no cyclic triangle factor. The possibility of added a connectivity requirement to ensure a cycle triangle factor is also explored. Hajnal and Szemerédi proved that if $G$ is a graph on $sk$ vertices and $delta(G)ge(s-1)k$ then $G$ contains a $K_s$-factor. As a possible extension of this celebrated theorem to directed graphs it is proved that if $D$ is a directed graph on $sk$ vertices with $delta(D)ge2(s-1)k-1$ then $D$ contains $k$ disjoint transitive tournaments on $s$ vertices. We also discuss tiling directed graph with other tournaments. This study also explores minimum total degree conditions for perfect directed cycle tilings and sufficient semi-degree conditions for a directed graph to contain an anti-directed Hamilton cycle. The semi-degree of a vertex $v$ is $min{d^+(v), d^-(v)}$ and an anti-directed Hamilton cycle is a spanning cycle in which no pair of consecutive edges form a directed path.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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Monotonicity and manipulability of ordinal and cardinal social choice functions

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Borda's social choice method and Condorcet's social choice method are shown to satisfy different monotonicities and it is shown that it is impossible for any social choice method to satisfy

Borda's social choice method and Condorcet's social choice method are shown to satisfy different monotonicities and it is shown that it is impossible for any social choice method to satisfy them both. Results of a Monte Carlo simulation are presented which estimate the probability of each of the following social choice methods being manipulable: plurality (first past the post), Borda count, instant runoff, Kemeny-Young, Schulze, and majority Borda. The Kemeny-Young and Schulze methods exhibit the strongest resistance to random manipulability. Two variations of the majority judgment method, with different tie-breaking rules, are compared for continuity. A new variation is proposed which minimizes discontinuity. A framework for social choice methods based on grades is presented. It is based on the Balinski-Laraki framework, but doesn't require aggregation functions to be strictly monotone. By relaxing this restriction, strategy-proof aggregation functions can better handle a polarized electorate, can give a societal grade closer to the input grades, and can partially avoid certain voting paradoxes. A new cardinal voting method, called the linear median is presented, and is shown to have several very valuable properties. Range voting, the majority judgment, and the linear median are also simulated to compare their manipulability against that of the ordinal methods.

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Date Created
  • 2010

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Erdős-Ko-Rado theorems: new generalizations, stability analysis and Chvátal's Conjecture

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The primary focus of this dissertation lies in extremal combinatorics, in particular intersection theorems in finite set theory. A seminal result in the area is the theorem of Erdos, Ko

The primary focus of this dissertation lies in extremal combinatorics, in particular intersection theorems in finite set theory. A seminal result in the area is the theorem of Erdos, Ko and Rado which finds the upper bound on the size of an intersecting family of subsets of an n-element set and characterizes the structure of families which attain this upper bound. A major portion of this dissertation focuses on a recent generalization of the Erdos--Ko--Rado theorem which considers intersecting families of independent sets in graphs. An intersection theorem is proved for a large class of graphs, namely chordal graphs which satisfy an additional condition and similar problems are considered for trees, bipartite graphs and other special classes. A similar extension is also formulated for cross-intersecting families and results are proved for chordal graphs and cycles. A well-known generalization of the EKR theorem for k-wise intersecting families due to Frankl is also considered. A stability version of Frankl's theorem is proved, which provides additional structural information about k-wise intersecting families which have size close to the maximum upper bound. A graph-theoretic generalization of Frankl's theorem is also formulated and proved for perfect matching graphs. Finally, a long-standing conjecture of Chvatal regarding structure of maximum intersecting families in hereditary systems is considered. An intersection theorem is proved for hereditary families which have rank 3 using a powerful tool of Erdos and Rado which is called the Sunflower Lemma.

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Date Created
  • 2011

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PEBBLING IN SPLIT GRAPHS

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Graph pebbling is a network optimization model for transporting discrete resources that are consumed in transit: the movement of 2 pebbles across an edge consumes one of the pebbles. The

Graph pebbling is a network optimization model for transporting discrete resources that are consumed in transit: the movement of 2 pebbles across an edge consumes one of the pebbles. The pebbling number of a graph is the fewest number of pebbles t so that, from any initial configuration of t pebbles on its vertices, one can place a pebble on any given target vertex via such pebbling steps. It is known that deciding whether a given configuration on a particular graph can reach a specified target is NP-complete, even for diameter 2 graphs, and that deciding whether the pebbling number has a prescribed upper bound is Π[P over 2]-complete. On the other hand, for many families of graphs there are formulas or polynomial algorithms for computing pebbling numbers; for example, complete graphs, products of paths (including cubes), trees, cycles, diameter 2 graphs, and more. Moreover, graphs having minimum pebbling number are called Class 0, and many authors have studied which graphs are Class 0 and what graph properties guarantee it, with no characterization in sight. In this paper we investigate an important family of diameter 3 chordal graphs called split graphs; graphs whose vertex set can be partitioned into a clique and an independent set. We provide a formula for the pebbling number of a split graph, along with an algorithm for calculating it that runs in O(n[superscript β]) time, where β = 2ω/(ω + 1) [= over ∼] 1.41 and ω [= over ∼] 2.376 is the exponent of matrix multiplication. Furthermore we determine that all split graphs with minimum degree at least 3 are Class 0.

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  • 2013-11-30