Matching Items (24)

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Spectral Analysis of Four Times Ionized Iron and Nickel in the Vacuum Ultraviolet with Applications in Astrophysics

Description

Observations of four times ionized iron and nickel (Fe V & Ni V) in the G191-B2B white dwarf spectrum have been used to test for variations in the fine structure constant, α, in the presence of strong gravitational fields. The

Observations of four times ionized iron and nickel (Fe V & Ni V) in the G191-B2B white dwarf spectrum have been used to test for variations in the fine structure constant, α, in the presence of strong gravitational fields. The laboratory wavelengths for these ions were thought to be the cause of inconsistent conclusions regarding the
variation of α as observed through the white dwarf spectrum. This thesis presents 129 revised Fe V wavelengths (1200 Å to 1600 Å) and 161 revised Ni V wavelengths (1200 Å to 1400 Å) with uncertainties of approximately 3 mÅ. A systematic calibration error
is identified in the previous Ni V wavelengths and is corrected in this work. The evaluation of the fine structure variation is significantly improved with the results
found in this thesis.

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Date Created
2016-05

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Implementation of a Prototype Aerogel RICH detector for Testing the Performance of Aerogels

Description

Our group has constructed a ring-imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector with the goal of testing the performance of aerogel tiles in charged particle detectors. In previous work, tiles produced by Aspen Aerogels were tested as radiators in Cherenkov threshold counters and

Our group has constructed a ring-imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector with the goal of testing the performance of aerogel tiles in charged particle detectors. In previous work, tiles produced by Aspen Aerogels were tested as radiators in Cherenkov threshold counters and compared to commercial-grade samples. As an extension of this work we built a counter of the RICH type, which is used in practice to extract more particle identification information than threshold counters, and we have studied the images resulting from various aerogel samples.
The detector was designed for use in table-top experiments in which our particle source would be cosmic rays. Due to the vast energy range of cosmic rays, the window in which we can discriminate velocities is relatively small. Since the particles we do detect generally have β≈1, the relativistic limit β→1 motivates imaging by the Focusing Aerogel RICH (FARICH) technique, in which photons from multiple tiles are focused together at a detection plane.
Our detection plane is an array of flat-panel, multi-anode photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). Readout consists of multiplexing the anode outputs, recording the digitized signal, and converting this into a matrix of integrated charge values. The charge distribution in that matrix should directly imply the particle's speed; however, in practice, final recorded images are the influenced by many intermediate processes, so we have attempted to make meaningful measurements by averaging over numerous events.
For a given configuration and data collection, we produce the spatial distribution of observed signals relative to the cosmic ray's point of impact. These distributions have the expected form of a ring and their characteristics compare favorably with the predictions of geometric optics. Our confidence in the images is increased by verifying that changes to the configuration are reflected by the changes in the rings. We find that FARICH improves the sharpness of our ring images, but tiles must be used individually for actual aerogel analysis. So far we have shown that the Aspen tiles behave as one would expect for the purposes of RICH. Their images do resemble those produced by commercial-grade tiles, but we do not have tiles sufficiently similar for side-by-side comparison. A method of quantifying tile performance has proven difficult and is the only remaining task for our group.

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Date Created
2014-05

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Precision measurement of the radiative decay mode of the free neutron

Description

The theory of quantum electrodynamics predicts that beta decay of the neutron into a proton, electron, and anti-neutrino should be accompanied by a continuous spectrum of photons. A recent experiment, RDK I, reported the first detection of radiative decay photons

The theory of quantum electrodynamics predicts that beta decay of the neutron into a proton, electron, and anti-neutrino should be accompanied by a continuous spectrum of photons. A recent experiment, RDK I, reported the first detection of radiative decay photons from neutron beta decay with a branching ratio of (3.09 ± 0.32) × 10-3 in the energy range of 15 keV to 340 keV. This was achieved by prompt coincident detection of an electron and photon, in delayed coincidence with a proton. The photons were detected by using a single bar of bismuth germanate scintillating crystal coupled to an avalanche photodiode. This thesis deals with the follow-up experiment, RDK II, to measure the branching ratio at the level of approximately 1% and the energy spectrum at the level of a few percent. The most significant improvement of RDK II is the use of a photon detector with about an order of magnitude greater solid angle coverage than RDK I. In addition, the detectable energy range has been extended down to approximately 250 eV and up to the endpoint energy of 782 keV. This dissertation presents an overview of the apparatus, development of a new data analysis technique for radiative decay, and results for the ratio of electron-proton-photon coincident Repg to electron-proton coincident Rep events.

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Created

Date Created
2012

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Astrophysical neutrinos at the low and high energy frontiers

Description

For this project, the diffuse supernova neutrino background (DSNB) has been calculated based on the recent direct supernova rate measurements and neutrino spectrum from SN1987A. The estimated diffuse electron antineutrino flux is ∼ 0.10 – 0.59 /cm2/s at 99% confidence

For this project, the diffuse supernova neutrino background (DSNB) has been calculated based on the recent direct supernova rate measurements and neutrino spectrum from SN1987A. The estimated diffuse electron antineutrino flux is ∼ 0.10 – 0.59 /cm2/s at 99% confidence level, which is 5 times lower than the Super-Kamiokande 2012 upper limit of 3.0 /cm2/s, above energy threshold of 17.3 MeV. With a Megaton scale water detector, 40 events could be detected above the threshold per year. In addition, the detectability of neutrino bursts from direct black hole forming collapses (failed supernovae) at Megaton detectors is calculated. These neutrino bursts are energetic and with short time duration, ∼ 1s. They could be identified by the time coincidence of N ≥2 or N ≥3 events within 1s time window from nearby (4 – 5 Mpc) failed supernovae. The detection rate of these neutrino bursts could get up to one per decade. This is a realistic way to detect a failed supernova and gives a promising method for studying the physics of direct black hole formation mechanism. Finally, the absorption of ultra high energy (UHE) neutrinos by the cosmic neutrino background, with full inclusion of the effect of the thermal distribution of the background on the resonant annihilation channel, is discussed. Results are applied to serval models of UHE neutrino sources. Suppression effects are strong for sources that extend beyond z ∼ 10. This provides a fascinating probe of the physics of the relic neutrino background in the unexplored redshift interval z ∼ 10 – 100. Ultimately this research will examine the detectability of DSNB, neutrino bursts from failed supernovae and absorption effects in the neutrino spectrum.

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Created

Date Created
2013

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Determination of Renal Stone Composition with Dual-Energy CT

Description

This research evaluates the capabilities of typical radiological measures and dual-energy systems to differentiate common kidney stones materials: uric acid, oxalates, phosphates, struvite, and cystine. Two different X-ray spectra (80 kV and 120 kV) were applied and the dual-energy ratio

This research evaluates the capabilities of typical radiological measures and dual-energy systems to differentiate common kidney stones materials: uric acid, oxalates, phosphates, struvite, and cystine. Two different X-ray spectra (80 kV and 120 kV) were applied and the dual-energy ratio of individual kidney stones was used to figure out the discriminability of different materials. A CT cross-section with a prospective kidney stone was analyzed to see the capabilities of such a technique. Typical radiological measures suggested that phosphates and oxalate stones can be distinguished from uric acid stones while dual-energy seemed to prove similar effectiveness.

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Created

Date Created
2020-05

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Analysis of Different Detector Layouts for Proton Beam Tomography

Description

Professor Alarcon’s lab is producing proton beam detectors, and this project is focused on informing the decision as to which layout of detector is more effective at producing an accurate backprojection for an equal number of data channels. The comparison

Professor Alarcon’s lab is producing proton beam detectors, and this project is focused on informing the decision as to which layout of detector is more effective at producing an accurate backprojection for an equal number of data channels. The comparison is between “square pad” detectors and “wire pad” detectors. The square pad detector consists of a grid of square pads all of identical size, that each collect their own data. The wire pad detector consists of large rectangular pads that span the entire detector in one direction, with 2 additional layers of identical pads each rotated by 60° from the previous. In order to test each design Python was used to simulate Gaussian beams of varying amplitudes, position and size and integrate them in each of the two methods. They were then backprojected and fit to a Gaussian function and the error between the backprojected parameters and the original parameters of the beam were measured.

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Created

Date Created
2019-05

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True muonium on the light front

Description

The muon problem of flavor physics presents a rich opportunity to study beyond standard model physics. The as yet undiscovered bound state (μ+μ-), called true muonium, presents a unique opportunity to investigate the muon problem. The near-future experimental searches for

The muon problem of flavor physics presents a rich opportunity to study beyond standard model physics. The as yet undiscovered bound state (μ+μ-), called true muonium, presents a unique opportunity to investigate the muon problem. The near-future experimental searches for true muonium will produce it relativistically, preventing the easy application of non-relativistic quantum mechanics. In this thesis, quantum field theory methods based on light-front quantization are used to solve an effective Hamiltonian for true muonium in the Fock space of |μ+μ-> , |μ+μ-γ> , |e+e->, |e+e-γ>, |τ+τ-> , and |τ+τ-γ> . To facilitate these calculations a new parallel code, True Muonium Solver With Front-Form Techniques (TMSWIFT), has been developed. Using this code, numerical results for the wave functions, energy levels, and decay constants of true muonium have been obtained for a range of coupling constants α. Work is also presented for deriving the effective interaction arising from the |γγ sector’s inclusion into the model.

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Created

Date Created
2016

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Parity violation in the hadronic weak interaction

Description

This thesis deals with the first measurements done with a cold neutron beam at the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The experimental technique consisted of capturing polarized cold neutrons by nuclei to measure parity-violation in the angular

This thesis deals with the first measurements done with a cold neutron beam at the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The experimental technique consisted of capturing polarized cold neutrons by nuclei to measure parity-violation in the angular distribution of the gamma rays following neutron capture. The measurements presented here for the nuclei Chlorine ( 35Cl) and Aluminum ( 27Al ) are part of a program with the ultimate goal of measuring the asymmetry in the angular distribution of gamma rays emitted in the capture of neutrons on protons, with a precision better than 10-8, in order to extract the weak hadronic coupling constant due to pion exchange interaction with isospin change equal with one ( hπ 1). Based on theoretical calculations asymmetry in the angular distribution of the gamma rays from neutron capture on protons has an estimated size of 5·10-8. This implies that the Al parity violation asymmetry and its uncertainty have to be known with a precision smaller than 4·10-8. The proton target is liquid Hydrogen (H2) contained in an Aluminum vessel. Results are presented for parity violation and parity-conserving asymmetries in Chlorine and Aluminum. The systematic and statistical uncertainties in the calculation of the parity-violating and parity-conserving asymmetries are discussed.

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Created

Date Created
2012

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Proton Therapy Patient Log File Analysis for Machine Performance Evaluation

Description

Treatment log files for spot scanning proton therapy provide a record of delivery accuracy, but they also contain diagnostic information for machine performance. A collection of patient log files can identify machine performance trends over time. This facilitates the identification

Treatment log files for spot scanning proton therapy provide a record of delivery accuracy, but they also contain diagnostic information for machine performance. A collection of patient log files can identify machine performance trends over time. This facilitates the identification of machine issues before they cause downtime or degrade treatment quality. At Mayo Clinic Arizona, all patient treatment logs are stored in a database. These log files contain information including the gantry, beam position, monitor units (MUs), and gantry angle. This data was analyzed to identify trends, which were then correlated with quality assurance measurements and maintenance records.

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Date Created
2021-05

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Two-flavor color superconductivity in magnetic field

Description

Quark matter at sufficiently high density and low temperature is expected to be a color superconductor, and may exist in the interior of neutron stars. The properties of two simplest possible color-superconducting phases, i.e., the color-flavor-locked (CFL) and two-flavor superconducting

Quark matter at sufficiently high density and low temperature is expected to be a color superconductor, and may exist in the interior of neutron stars. The properties of two simplest possible color-superconducting phases, i.e., the color-flavor-locked (CFL) and two-flavor superconducting (2SC) phases, are reviewed. The effect of a magnetic field on the pairing dynamics in two-flavor color-superconducting dense quark matter is investigated. A universal form of the gap equation for an arbitrary magnetic field is derived in the weakly coupled regime of QCD at asymptotically high density, using the framework of Schwinger-Dyson equation in the improved rainbow approximation. The results for the gap in two limiting cases, weak and strong magnetic fields, are obtained and discussed. It is shown that the superconducting gap function in the weak magnetic field limit develops a directional dependence in momentum space. This property of the gap parameter is argued to be a consequence of a long-range interaction in QCD.

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Date Created
2012