Matching Items (5)

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Structural stability and energetics of grain boundary triple junctions in face centered cubic materials

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We present a systematic study to elucidate the role of triple junctions (TJs) and their constituent grain boundaries on the structural stability of nanocrystalline materials. Using atomistic simulations along with

We present a systematic study to elucidate the role of triple junctions (TJs) and their constituent grain boundaries on the structural stability of nanocrystalline materials. Using atomistic simulations along with the nudge elastic band calculations, we explored the atomic structural and thermodynamic properties of TJs in three different fcc materials. We found that the magnitude of excess energy at a TJ was directly related to the atomic density of the metal. Further, the vacancy binding and migration energetics in the vicinity of the TJ were examined as they play a crucial role in the structural stability of NC materials. The resolved line tension which takes into account the stress buildup at the TJ was found to be a good measure in predicting the vacancy binding tendency near the TJ. The activation energy for vacancy migration along the TJ was directly correlated with the measured excess energy. Finally, we show that the resistance for vacancy diffusion increased for TJs with larger excess stored energy and the defect mobility at some TJs is slower than their constituent GBs. Hence, our results have general implications on the diffusional process in NC materials and provide new insight into stabilizing NC materials with tailored TJs.

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  • 2015-03-03

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The Effects of Hydrostatic Loading on Hydrogen Diffusion in Nickel

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Hydrogen diffusion causes brittleness and cracking at stresses below the yield strength of susceptible metals. The effects of hydrostatic loading on the rate of hydrogen diffusion is relatively unknown. A

Hydrogen diffusion causes brittleness and cracking at stresses below the yield strength of susceptible metals. The effects of hydrostatic loading on the rate of hydrogen diffusion is relatively unknown. A study of these effects will provide a better understanding in the design process for accounting for the resulting hydrogen embrittlement.

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  • 2013-05

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The role of grain boundary structure and crystal orientation on crack growth asymmetry in aluminum

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Atomistic simulations have shown that the grain boundary (GB) structure affects a number of physical, mechanical, thermal, and chemical properties, which can have a profound effect on macroscopic properties of

Atomistic simulations have shown that the grain boundary (GB) structure affects a number of physical, mechanical, thermal, and chemical properties, which can have a profound effect on macroscopic properties of polycrystalline materials. The research objective herein is to use atomistic simulations to explore the role that GB structure and the adjacent crystallographic orientations have on the directional asymmetry of an intergranular crack (i.e. cleavage behavior is favored along one direction, while ductile behavior along the other direction of the interface) for aluminum grain boundaries. Simulation results from seven 〈110〉 symmetric tilt grain boundaries (STGBs) show that the GB structure and the associated free volume directly influence the stress–strain response, crack growth rate, and crack tip plasticity mechanisms for middle-tension (M(T)) crack propagation specimens. In particular, the structural units present within the GB promote whether a dislocation or twinning-based mechanism operates at the crack tip during intergranular fracture along certain GBs (e.g., the ‘E’ structural unit promotes twinning at the crack tip in Al). Furthermore, the crystallography of the adjacent grains, and therefore the available slip planes, can significantly affect the crack growth rates in both directions of the crack – this creates a strong directional asymmetry in the crack growth rate in the Σ11 (113) and the Σ27 (552) STGBs. Upon comparing these results with the theoretical Rice criterion, it was found that certain GBs in this study (Σ9 (221), Σ11 (332) and Σ33 (441)) show an absence of directional asymmetry in the observed crack growth behavior, in conflict with the Rice criterion. The significance of the present research is that it provides a physical basis for the role of GB character and crystallographic orientation on intergranular crack tip deformation behavior.

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  • 2014-11-17

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Atomic scale investigation of grain boundary structure role on intergranular deformation in aluminium

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The role that grain boundary (GB) structure plays on the directional asymmetry of an intergranular crack (i.e. cleavage behaviour is favoured along one direction, while ductile behaviour along the other

The role that grain boundary (GB) structure plays on the directional asymmetry of an intergranular crack (i.e. cleavage behaviour is favoured along one direction, while ductile behaviour along the other direction of the interface) was investigated using atomistic simulations for aluminium 〈1 1 0〉 symmetric tilt GBs. Middle-tension (M(T)) and Mode-I crack propagation specimens were used to evaluate the predictive capability of the Rice criterion. The stress–strain response of the GBs for the M(T) specimens highlighted the importance of the GB structure. The observed crack tip behaviour for certain GBs (Σ9 (2 2 1), Σ11 (3 3 2) and Σ33 (4 4 1)) with the M(T) specimen displayed an absence of directional asymmetry which is in disagreement with the Rice criterion. Moreover, in these GBs with the M(T) specimen, the dislocation emission from a GB source at a finite distance ahead of the crack tip was observed rather than from the crack tip, as suggested by the Rice criterion. In an attempt to understand discrepancy between the theoretical predictions and atomistic observations, the effect of boundary conditions (M(T), Mode-I and the edge crack) on the crack tip events was examined and it was concluded that the incipient plastic events observed were strongly influenced by the boundary conditions (i.e. activation of dislocation sources along the GB, in contrast to dislocation nucleation directly from the crack tip). In summary, these findings provide new insights into crack growth behaviour along GB interfaces and provide a physical basis for examining the role of the GB character on incipient event ahead of a crack tip and interface properties, as an input to higher scale models.

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  • 2014-10-23

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Role of defects interactions with embrittlement species in iron: a multiscale perspective

Description

Hydrogen embrittlement (HE) is a phenomenon that affects both the physical and chemical properties of several intrinsically ductile metals. Consequently, understanding the mechanisms behind HE has been of particular interest

Hydrogen embrittlement (HE) is a phenomenon that affects both the physical and chemical properties of several intrinsically ductile metals. Consequently, understanding the mechanisms behind HE has been of particular interest in both experimental and modeling research. Discrepancies between experimental observations and modeling results have led to various proposals for HE mechanisms. Therefore, to gain insights into HE mechanisms in iron, this dissertation aims to investigate several key issues involving HE such as: a) the incipient crack tip events; b) the cohesive strength of grain boundaries (GBs); c) the dislocation-GB interactions and d) the dislocation mobility.

The crack tip, which presents a preferential trap site for hydrogen segregation, was examined using atomistic methods and the continuum based Rice-Thompson criterion as sufficient concentration of hydrogen can alter the crack tip deformation mechanism. Results suggest that there is a plausible co-existence of the adsorption induced dislocation emission and hydrogen enhanced decohesion mechanisms. In the case of GB-hydrogen interaction, we observed that the segregation of hydrogen along the interface leads to a reduction in cohesive strength resulting in intergranular failure. A methodology was further developed to quantify the role of the GB structure on this behavior.

GBs play a fundamental role in determining the strengthening mechanisms acting as an impediment to the dislocation motion; however, the presence of an unsurmountable barrier for a dislocation can generate slip localization that could further lead to intergranular crack initiation. It was found that the presence of hydrogen increases the strain energy stored within the GB which could lead to a transition in failure mode. Finally, in the case of body centered cubic metals, understanding the complex screw dislocation motion is critical to the development of an accurate continuum description of the plastic behavior. Further, the presence of hydrogen has been shown to drastically alter the plastic deformation, but the precise role of hydrogen is still unclear. Thus, the role of hydrogen on the dislocation mobility was examined using density functional theory and atomistic simulations. Overall, this dissertation provides a novel atomic-scale understanding of the HE mechanism and development of multiscale tools for future endeavors.

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Date Created
  • 2015