Matching Items (4)

128415-Thumbnail Image.png

Endogenous Repair Signaling after Brain Injury and Complementary Bioengineering Approaches to Enhance Neural Regeneration

Description

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects 5.3 million Americans annually. Despite the many long-term deficits associated with TBI, there currently are no clinically available therapies that directly address the underlying pathologies

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects 5.3 million Americans annually. Despite the many long-term deficits associated with TBI, there currently are no clinically available therapies that directly address the underlying pathologies contributing to these deficits. Preclinical studies have investigated various therapeutic approaches for TBI: two such approaches are stem cell transplantation and delivery of bioactive factors to mitigate the biochemical insult affiliated with TBI. However, success with either of these approaches has been limited largely due to the complexity of the injury microenvironment. As such, this review outlines the many factors of the injury microenvironment that mediate endogenous neural regeneration after TBI and the corresponding bioengineering approaches that harness these inherent signaling mechanisms to further amplify regenerative efforts.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05-12

135506-Thumbnail Image.png

Investigating the Effect of a Hyaluronic Acid-Laminin Hydrogel on Inflammation After Traumatic Brain Injury

Description

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death in individuals under the age of 45, resulting in over 50,000 deaths each year. Over 80,000 TBI patients report long-term

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death in individuals under the age of 45, resulting in over 50,000 deaths each year. Over 80,000 TBI patients report long-term deficits consisting of motor or cognitive dysfunctions due to TBI pathophysiology. The biochemical secondary injury triggers a harmful inflammatory cascade, gliosis, and astrocyte activation surrounding the injury lesion, and no current treatments exist to alleviate these underlying pathologies. In order to mitigate the negative inflammatory effects of the secondary injury, we created a hydrogel comprised of hyaluronic acid (HA) and laminin, and we hypothesized that the anti-inflammatory properties of HA will decrease astrocyte activation and inflammation after TBI. C57/BL6 mice were subjected to mild-to-moderate CCI. Three days following injury, mice were treated with injection of vehicle or HA-Laminin hydrogel. Mice were sacrificed at three and seven days post injection and analyzed for astrocyte and inflammatory responses. In mice treated with vehicle injections, astrocyte activation was significantly increased at three days post-transplantation in the injured cortex and injury lesion. However, mice treated with the HA-Laminin hydrogel experienced significantly reduced acute astrocyte activation at the injury site three days post transplantation. Interestingly, there were no significant differences in astrocyte activation at seven days post treatment in either group. Although the microglial and macrophage response remains to be investigated, our data suggest that the HA-Laminin hydrogel demonstrates potential for TBI therapeutics targeting inflammation, including acute modulation of the astrocyte, microglia, and macrophage response to TBI.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

136253-Thumbnail Image.png

The Effect of VEGF-ECM Crosstalk on Neural Stem Cell Behavior

Description

The endogenous response of neural stem cell/progenitor (NPSC) recruitment to the brain injury environment following a traumatic brain injury (TBI) is currently under heavy investigation. Mechanisms controlling NPSC proliferation and

The endogenous response of neural stem cell/progenitor (NPSC) recruitment to the brain injury environment following a traumatic brain injury (TBI) is currently under heavy investigation. Mechanisms controlling NPSC proliferation and migration to the brain injury environment remain unclear; however, it is thought that the vascular extracellular matrix proteins (e.g. laminin, fibronectin, and vitronectin) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) play a role in mediating NPSC behavior through vasophillic interactions. This project attempts to uncover potential VEGF-ECM crosstalk in mediating migration and proliferation. To investigate migration, neurospheres were seeded on ECM-coated wells supplemented with VEGF and without VEGF, and neural outgrowth was measured at days 0, 1, 3, and 8 using differential interference contrast microscopy. Furthermore, single-cell NPSCs were seeded on ECM-coated Transwell membranes with VEGF supplemented media on one side and without VEGF to look at chemotactic migration. Migrated NPSCs were visualized with DAPI nuclear stain and imaged with an inverted fluorescent microscope. To investigate NPSC proliferation, NPSCs were seeded on ECM coated plates as in the radial migration assay and visualized with EdU on day 8. Total proliferation was measured by seeding NPSCs on ECM coated 96-well plates and incubating them with MTT on days 3 and 6. Proliferation was measured using a spectrophotometer at 630nm and 570nm wavelengths. It was found that VEGF-laminin crosstalk synergistically increased radial migration, but may not play a role in chemotactic migration. Understanding the mechanisms behind VEGF-laminin crosstalk in NPSC proliferation and migration may provide crucial information for the design of stem cell transplantation therapies in the future.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

154106-Thumbnail Image.png

Modulating chemokine receptor expression in neural stem cell transplants to promote migration after traumatic brain injury

Description

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant public health concern in the U.S., where approximately 1.7 million Americans sustain a TBI annually, an estimated 52,000 of which lead to death.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant public health concern in the U.S., where approximately 1.7 million Americans sustain a TBI annually, an estimated 52,000 of which lead to death. Almost half (43%) of all TBI patients report experiencing long-term cognitive and/or motor dysfunction. These long-term deficits are largely due to the expansive biochemical injury that underlies the mechanical injury traditionally associated with TBI. Despite this, there are currently no clinically available therapies that directly address these underlying pathologies. Preclinical studies have looked at stem cell transplantation as a means to mitigate the effects of the biochemical injury with moderate success; however, transplants suffer very low retention and engraftment rates (2-4%). Therefore, transplants need better tools to dynamically respond to the injury microenvironment.

One approach to develop new tools for stem cell transplants may be to look towards the endogenous repair response for inspiration. Specifically, activated cell types surrounding the injury secrete the chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α), which has been shown to play a critical role in recruiting endogenous neural progenitor/stem cells (NPSCs) to the site of injury. Therefore, it was hypothesized that improving NPSC response to SDF-1α may be a viable mechanism for improving NPSC transplant retention and migration into the surrounding host tissue. To this end, work presented here has 1. identified critical extracellular signals that mediate the NPSC response to SDF-1α, 2. incorporated these findings into the development of a transplantation platform that increases NPSC responsiveness to SDF-1α and 3. observed increased NPSC responsiveness to local exogenous SDF-1α signaling following transplantation within our novel system. Future work will include studies investigating NSPC response to endogenous, injury-induced SDF-1α and the application of this work to understanding differences between stem cell sources and their implications in cell therapies.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015