Matching Items (5)

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The Role of Sex Education Curricula in Informing Personal Definitions of Virginity

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This study examined differences in personal definitions of virginity among college students who had received either abstinence-stressing sex education or comprehensive sex education. It was hypothesized that participants who received

This study examined differences in personal definitions of virginity among college students who had received either abstinence-stressing sex education or comprehensive sex education. It was hypothesized that participants who received abstinence-education would be more likely to perceive virginity as a gift, to be unsure about what specific sexual activities result in virginity loss, to have taken formal or personal virginity promises, to define their own non-vaginal sexual activity as abstinent, and to have pretended to be a virgin when they were not. Two surveys were distributed online to students at a large Southwestern university, and responses from 352 quantitative surveys and 75 qualitative surveys were analyzed. Participants in the abstinence group were more likely to be unsure about what sexual activities count as virginity loss and were more likely to have pretended they were a virgin when they were not. Women in the abstinence group were more likely to perceive virginity as a gift than those in the comprehensive group, though men were not. No differences were discerned between the abstinence group and the comprehensive group in rates of formal virginity promises or in tendency to define their own sexual activity as abstinent.

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  • 2017-05

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Divine Providence Can Provide, Will Provide, Did Provide: An Examination of Emotional Labor in a Non-Profit Organization

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This study examines the nature of emotion work in a nonprofit organization through qualitative inquiry. The mission of the organization is to provide houses of hospitality and ongoing support to

This study examines the nature of emotion work in a nonprofit organization through qualitative inquiry. The mission of the organization is to provide houses of hospitality and ongoing support to help pregnant and parenting women in need reach their goals, and welcomes them into a community filled with love and dignity. Field observations and participant interviews were analyzed alongside organizational documents to determine if participants were experiencing emotional labor and the ways in which they are compensated for this labor. By extending the concepts of emotional labor to jobs and volunteer positions that do not receive significant financial compensation, the findings suggest that emotional labor is not always performed for a wage. Further, volunteers of nonprofit organizations may find compensation through the fulfillment of personal motivations, unrelated to financial gain.

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Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Combat to Classroom: Communication Barriers Veteran-Students Face Returning to College

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As the United States' military presences in Afghanistan and Iraq are being minimized, an increasing number of veterans are transitioning from the military to pursue higher education opportunities. Due to

As the United States' military presences in Afghanistan and Iraq are being minimized, an increasing number of veterans are transitioning from the military to pursue higher education opportunities. Due to the military's organizational characteristics, socialization procedures, and performance requirements, this population of students likely faces unique barriers to success in traditional models of higher education. The increase of this unique population necessitates research to evaluate their educationally related social and relational needs so that institutions of higher education will be better able to assist in achieving their academic goals. The student-teacher relationship is a key predictor in students' academic success (Yoon, J. S., 2002). Using survey research, this project examines veteran students' perceptions of their relationships with instructors, characteristics of the organization, communication apprehension with professors and peers, and perceived self-esteem. With the assistance of the Pat Tillman Veterans Center at Arizona State University, approximately 3800 veteran students, in both undergraduate and graduate programs, were invited to participate in the research. The study identified significant relationships between a veteran-student's length of time since separating from military service, their feelings of success as a student, self-esteem, and apprehension of communication with professors. There was also a significant relationships on length of military service, self-esteem, and apprehension of communication with professors.

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Date Created
  • 2015-05

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The theory of narrative conflict

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Speculation regarding interstate conflict is of great concern to many, if not, all people. As such, forecasting interstate conflict has been an interest to experts, scholars, government officials, and concerned

Speculation regarding interstate conflict is of great concern to many, if not, all people. As such, forecasting interstate conflict has been an interest to experts, scholars, government officials, and concerned citizens. Presently, there are two approaches to the problem of conflict forecasting with divergent results. The first tends to use a bird’s eye view with big data to forecast actions while missing the intimate details of the groups it is studying. The other opts for more grounded details of cultural meaning and interpretation, yet struggles in the realm of practical application for forecasting. While outlining issues with both approaches, an important question surfaced: are actions causing interpretations and/or are the interpretations driving actions? In response, the Theory of Narrative Conflict (TNC) is proposed to begin answering these questions. To properly address the complexity of forecasting and of culture, TNC draws from a number of different sources, including narrative theory, systems theory, nationalism, and the expression of these in strategic communication.

As a case study, this dissertation examines positions of both the U.S. and China in the South and East China Seas over five years. Methodologically, this dissertation demonstrates the benefit of content analysis to identify local narratives and both stabilizing and destabilizing events contained in thousands of news articles over a five-year period. Additionally, the use of time series and a Markov analysis both demonstrate usefulness in forecasting. Theoretically, TNC displays the usefulness of narrative theory to forecast both actions driven by narrative and common interpretations after events.

Practically, this dissertation demonstrates that current efforts in the U.S. and China have not resulted in an increased understanding of the other country. Neither media giant demonstrates the capacity to be critical of their own national identity and preferred interpretation of world affairs. In short, the battle for the hearts and minds of foreign persons should be challenged.

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Date Created
  • 2017

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Blurring safety between online and offline worlds: archival, correlational, and experimental evidence of generalized threat in the digital age

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Decades of research in cyberpsychology and human-computer interaction has pointed to a strong distinction between the online and offline worlds, suggesting that attitudes and behaviors in one domain do not

Decades of research in cyberpsychology and human-computer interaction has pointed to a strong distinction between the online and offline worlds, suggesting that attitudes and behaviors in one domain do not necessarily generalize to the other. However, as humans spend increasing amounts of time in the digital world, psychological understandings of safety may begin to influence human perceptions of threat while online. This dissertation therefore examines whether perceived threat generalizes between domains across archival, correlational, and experimental research methods. Four studies offer insight into the relationship between objective indicators of physical and online safety on the levels of nation and state; the relationship between perceptions of these forms of safety on the individual level; and whether experimental manipulations of one form of threat influence perceptions of threat in the opposite domain. In addition, this work explores the impact of threat perception-related personal and situational factors, as well as the impact of threat type (i.e., self-protection, resource), on this hypothesized relationship.

Collectively, these studies evince a positive relationship between physical and online safety in macro-level actuality and individual-level perception. Among individuals, objective indicators of community safety—as measured by zip code crime data—were a positive reflection of perceptions of physical safety; these perceptions, in turn, mapped onto perceived online safety. The generalization between perceived physical threat and online threat was stronger after being exposed to self-protection threat manipulations, possibly underscoring the more dire nature of threats to bodily safety than those to valuable resources. Most notably, experimental findings suggest that it is not the physical that informs the digital, but rather the opposite: Online threats blur more readily into physical domains, possibly speaking to the concern that dangers specific to the digital world will bleed into the physical one. This generalization of threat may function as a strategy to prepare oneself for future dangers wherever they might appear; and indeed, perceived threat in either world positively influenced desires to act on recommended safety practices. Taken together, this research suggests that in the realm of threat perception, the boundaries between physical and digital are less rigid than may have been previously believed.

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Date Created
  • 2017