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Ensayistas contemporáneas latinoamericanas: testimonios como estrategia discursiva del nuevo periodismo

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El presente estudio examina cuatro ensayistas periodistas latinoamericanas, Patricia Verdugo de Chile, Viviana Gorbato de la Argentina, Alma Guillermoprieto de México y Zoé Valdés de Cuba, para entender cómo cada

El presente estudio examina cuatro ensayistas periodistas latinoamericanas, Patricia Verdugo de Chile, Viviana Gorbato de la Argentina, Alma Guillermoprieto de México y Zoé Valdés de Cuba, para entender cómo cada autora transcribe sus investigaciones en el campo en forma narrativa. A través de un examen del uso del procedimiento de la entrevista, analizamos cómo todas estas periodistas de investigación utilizan el testimonio de sus personajes para crear historias que intentan, por un lado, reportar sobre temas culturales de manera objetiva, y por otra parte, captar las emociones de los que viven y que son testigos a los eventos de sus ensayos. Implementamos, por consiguiente, las estrategias discursivas del nuevo periodismo, las cuales proporcionan una manera de diseccionar la estructura de los textos. Al entender la forma de los ensayos en vinculación con probar la importancia del testimonio respecto al elemento emocional, se provoca una búsqueda de lo que significa cada obra. Debido al gran empleo del testimonio, se encuentra con una pluralidad de voces que en su conjunto tienen un mayor propósito: representar una comunidad con una causa pertinente. En el proceso de presentar su causa, se evidencia una posible conexión entre los textos y el género híbrido de la novela testimonial. Finalmente, al considerar el peligro de ser periodista en América Latina, hacemos hincapié en la importancia de esta labor literaria y la gran cantidad de mujeres de esta región mundial que corren tanto riesgo para facilitar a sus lectores esta diversidad de temas culturales.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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Hacia una lectura visual del poema visual figurativo en la vanguardia Hispanoamericana

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In the first thirty years of the XX century, an old literary visual tradition was reborn in a series of new striking visual texts better known as calligrams. They were

In the first thirty years of the XX century, an old literary visual tradition was reborn in a series of new striking visual texts better known as calligrams. They were produced by some avant-garde poets such as Vicente Huidobro, José Juan Tablada, Alberto Hidalgo and Carlos Oquendo de Amat in Latin America, and Juan Larrea, Guillermo de Torre, Francisco Vighi, Luis Mosquera, and others in Spain. However, with few exceptions, the interpretation of those written drawings has caught little attention from literary critics. This research, contrasted to that of Willard Bohn's, is a contribution to the deciphering of such literary art form, designated here as the figurative visual poem. It is a proposal for its visual reading which draws from the fact that this type of text is concretely a drawing formed by written verses. As such, it can be regarded as a plastic writing, combining pictorial and verbal signs in one perceptible configuration on the page. The result of this semiotic operation is a hybrid product in which the iconic forms become symbolic and vice versa. It is in fact, an art object which should be approached as a text that can be seen as well as read. The study leads to the conclusion that Willard Bohn misreads the order in which language and image are articulated in the visual poem identified with the second order semiological system proposed by Roland Barthes, placing preeminence on language over image. This results in reading the avant-garde visual figurative poem in an ekphrastic fashion. Consequently, the role of the image in the system is left in an ambiguous realm at the time of deciphering this hybrid text. Our contribution to re-conducting this undertaking has been equally drawn from a semiotic stance taken from Louis Hjemslev that balances language and image as correlates of a semiotic function. Due to the signaling nature of both, language and figure, a visual poem becomes an iconic metaphor as well as a metaphoric icon, and moreover a self-referential sign, thus justifying its status of an autonomous art.

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  • 2011

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Literatura infantil decimonónica en México: instruir, formar, deleitar y/o recrear a un sujeto educando

Description

En esta disertación se exploró el desarrollo del sistema de la literatura infantil decimonónica en México. La investigación se inscribió dentro de una perspectiva interdisciplinaria, exploratoria y descriptiva (e interpretativa,

En esta disertación se exploró el desarrollo del sistema de la literatura infantil decimonónica en México. La investigación se inscribió dentro de una perspectiva interdisciplinaria, exploratoria y descriptiva (e interpretativa, aunque en menor medida) de los aspectos histórico-culturales y literarios a los que pertenece el sistema, autor y obra. En la búsqueda de una todavía limitada pretensión interpretativa, en este estudio se trazó una periodización para caracterizar el desarrollo que la literatura infantil adquiere en los dos períodos delimitados para el siglo XIX: sujeto educando de la divina revelación y sujeto educando de la ciudadanía. Se concluyó que en la fábula compleja de la literatura infantil se introduce y construye un discurso integrador de la nación mexicana. En esta formación identitaria, las publicaciones periódicas y los libros para niños fueron un discurso formativo de fundamental soporte a las políticas sociales que guiaban al país, la joven nación republicana. De igual forma, se recopiló una valiosa información sobre el estado del arte de la literatura infantil latinoamericana y mexicana; se exploraron los textos precursores del haz de escritores fundacionales de la literatura infantil latinoamericana; se delimitó el surgimiento, desarrollo y consolidación de la LI en México y, por último, se compiló una lista de publicaciones sobre historia, consulta y crítica de la literatura infantil y juvenil en Latinoamérica con el propósito de establecer líneas futuras de investigación.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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Los subordinados y los dominantes: la jerarquía social en la ficción de Jorge Franco

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ABSTRACT Of all the writers associated with the McOndo movement, a literary movement that focuses on the reality of urban life for millions of young Latin Americans, Jorge Franco is

ABSTRACT Of all the writers associated with the McOndo movement, a literary movement that focuses on the reality of urban life for millions of young Latin Americans, Jorge Franco is perhaps the most distinguished. As the author of Paraíso Travel and Rosario Tijeras, Franco has expertly shown his international audience the brutal conditions under which so many residents of his birth city of Medellín, Colombia, live. In both novels the reader is introduced to a world in which various factors have set up a society characterized by victims and predators. This study will attempt to show how economics, violence, machismo, racism and class discrimination all play a role in establishing a social hierarchy that facilitates anti-social behavior, and how these social institutions perpetuate themselves to the detriment of those caught in the cycle.

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  • 2012

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Martín Fierro, Revista de avance y Amauta: hacia una literaturización vanguardista de la identidad latinoamericana

Description

The 1920s have played a key role in the formation of the Latin American consciousness of its own cultural identity. In approaching the selected three heterogeneous regions of Latin America,

The 1920s have played a key role in the formation of the Latin American consciousness of its own cultural identity. In approaching the selected three heterogeneous regions of Latin America, the Southern Cone, the Andean Zone and the Afroantillan Caribbean, this research focuses on Latin American identity issues as a literary avant-garde construct found in the poetics and in the programmatic texts of the leading avant-garde journals of each corresponding region: Martín Fierro (1924-1927) in Argentina; revista de avance (1927-1930) in Cuba, and Amauta (1926-1930) in Perú. To carry out this kind of analysis and to fully understand the historic implications characteristics of each region, one of the initial tasks of the study has been to contextualize the period in each country in which the journals were published. After that, an analysis of each region's avant-garde production has been performed in order to categorize and situate the underlying questions of identity expressed in corresponding journals. Each region has been studied separately, yet all in view of contributing to a comprehensive and comparative study of the regions selected. The final result has been an organization of diverse principal semantic and ideological fields overlapping in and cross-crossing different regions as represented by the selected literary journals. Starting from the very same literature, which was inspired by the spirit of its time, this research has aimed at reconstructing the notions of identity that were common within the intellectual circles of the avant-garde times as expressed in the journals Martín Fierro, revista de avance, and Amauta, and, in the end, played a signal role in the development of national and continental cultural identity consciousness throughout Latin America from the beginning of the 20th century until today.

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  • 2012

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Terrorismo, ética y compromiso en la obra de J.Á. González Sainz

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The subject of this study is the work of Spanish novelist J. Á. González Sainz, comprised of Los encuentros (1989), Un mundo exasperado (1995), Volver al mundo (2003) y Ojos

The subject of this study is the work of Spanish novelist J. Á. González Sainz, comprised of Los encuentros (1989), Un mundo exasperado (1995), Volver al mundo (2003) y Ojos que no ven (2010). His work, which is structurally demanding, treats themes such as morality, terrorism, the nostos or return to one's homeland, and nature. He has been connected to the "dehumanized novel" of Juan Benet, though his career demonstrates an attempt to make clear references to historical reality. González Sainz has acquired a measure of prestige in the estimation of important critics. With his latest book, he has furthermore gained recognition for his moral commitment in opposing the terrorism of ETA, and his work has entered debates on current events. In my study I argue that this formally rigorous narrative has a singular capacity for political engagement. I argue that González Sainz is an example of the integration of ethics in a narrative discourse whose semantic density allows a commitment with moral conflicts. To situate it in the context of contemporary Spanish fiction, I relate Pierre Bourdieu's notion of the literary field to the proposals concerning the history of literature of Pablo Gil Casado, Gonzalo Sobejano, Ramón Buckley, Ignacio Soldevila Durante and others. I follow three lines of investigation: terrorism in literature; ethics; and the political engagement of the writer. Ethics, whose relation to literature has been studied by Zachary Newton, Wolfgang Hallet or Nina Rosenstand, has allowed the author a political engagement in opposition to terrorism in general and in particular in opposition to ETA. González Sainz exhibits an equilibrium between aesthetic and ethical values of literature. In the plural context of the latest fiction in Spain, his novels have found a place in the tradition that since the middle of the twentieth century has been characterized by a dialectic between political engagement and the autonomy of literature. The theme of ETA terrorism and his structural rigor situate González Sainz's work in a position that maintains the validity of this dialectic.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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Las: semiosferas de la cultura norteña mexicana según Luis Humberto Crosthwaite y Carlos Adolfo Gutiérrez Vidal

Description

La frontera entre México y Estados Unidos es un territorio que se ha conceptualizado y construido por el centralismo mexicano y por el discurso chicano dominante: el de Borderlands.

La frontera entre México y Estados Unidos es un territorio que se ha conceptualizado y construido por el centralismo mexicano y por el discurso chicano dominante: el de Borderlands. Estos dos focos equidistantes establecen sus perspectivas a partir del contacto que la región fronteriza tiene con los Estados Unidos en términos de intercambios económicos y culturales. La tradición de definir la zona fronteriza se inicia a partir de 1848 con el Tratado de Guadalupe Hidalgo. Más tarde, dicha región estaría en indiferencia por su distancia geográfica con el centro mexicano, excepto durante la Revolución mexicana. Sin embargo, la región fronteriza empieza a recibir gran atención hacia finales del Siglo XX, cuando nuevas formas de intercambio económico entre México y Estados Unidos se empiezan a desarrollar. La frontera, entonces experimenta un crecimiento económico que se refleja, a su vez, en el resurgimiento y crecimiento de la cultura fronteriza. El antropólogo cultural, Nestor García Canclini intentó definir la cultura fronteriza al analizar el uso del idioma inglés en Tijuana. En sus estudios, tanto Tijuana: la casa de toda la gente (1989) como Culturas híbridas: Cómo entrar y salir de la modernidad (1992), García Canclini sostiene que la frontera es un espacio de hibridación cultural. Por otro lado, las teorías dominantes dentro del campo chicano definen la frontera en términos metafísicos. Para Gloria Anzaldúa, el espacio fronterizo es el Borderlands: un área geográfica en donde los paradigmas de la psicología del individuo están en constante conflicto. Considerando estos antecedentes como punto de partida, esta investigación se enfoca en el estudio de la cultura fronteriza como múltiples universos de signos que entran en contacto unos con otros. Tal como lo establece Iury Lotman en su estudio teórico La semiosfera (1996), una semiosfera es un espacio delimitado por una frontera que, a su vez, tiene la función de traducir información de otras semiosferas. De manera que dicho concepto se muestra adecuado para analizar El gran preténder (1992) de Luis Humberto Crosthwaite y Berlín 77 (y otros relatos) (2003) de Carlos Adolfo Gutiérrez Vidal. En última instancia, al establecer los espacios fronterizos como universos culturales (semiosferas) se devela el nivel de contacto entre éstas, especialmente entre las semiosferas mexicana/americana y la fronteriza.

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Date Created
  • 2011

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Cinco episodios realistas: narrativas del Cono Sur (1965-1985)

Description

In Angel Rama's La Novela Latinoamericana 1920-1980 (1982), the influential critic discloses a map of 20th century Latin American narrative. Rama stresses three literary styles merging into the phenomenon called

In Angel Rama's La Novela Latinoamericana 1920-1980 (1982), the influential critic discloses a map of 20th century Latin American narrative. Rama stresses three literary styles merging into the phenomenon called Boom: fantastic, regional and realistic. On the other hand, another influential critic such as Nestor Garcia Canclini, in his article "Aesthetic Moments of Latin Americanism" suggests the 60's and 70's as a period in which art worked as a herald of utopia, trying to include in the present a future that seemed feasible. Rama's narrative map does not even mention writers as Manuel Puig and Rubem Fonseca. Both, the Argentine and the Brazilian, were censored by authoritarian governments. At the same time, their works deliver plastic representations of crime; therefore, I argue that these literary works, along with those created by Armonia Somers (Uruguay), Dalton Trevisan (Brazil) and Rodolfo Fogwill (Argentina) provides a representation of reality that confronts two mainstream discourses: one concerned with nationalism (authoritarian discourse) and another concerned with utopia (Boom discourse). The narratives I study disclose body and crime representations that do not address a symbolic conflict with modernity like the authoritarian and the Boom discourse do; yet modern elements are integrated into these narratives. This study focuses on Un Retrato para Dickens (1967) by Armonia Somers; O Vampiro de Curitiba by Dalton Trevisan; Feliz Ano Novo (1976) by Rubem Fonseca; The Buenos Aires Affair (1973) by Manuel Puig; and Los Pichy-cyegos (1983) by Rodolfo Fogwill. This study assumes that the technological/digital development has modified the perception of last sixty years in Latin American Literature. This work is engaged in developing a new perspective over 20th Century Southern Cone Narrative and it interprets the Boom as a symptom of a wider picture: the development of a global cultural market. Accordingly, this perspective might explain partially the rise of new identities and the present status of Southern Cone Narratives.

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Date Created
  • 2010

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Pablo Parellada, fustigador del modernismo

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ABSTRACT This research aims to investigate the work and impact of the prolific and popular Pablo Parellada y Molas. Although the author is now forgotten, he is an important figure

ABSTRACT This research aims to investigate the work and impact of the prolific and popular Pablo Parellada y Molas. Although the author is now forgotten, he is an important figure regarding the struggles between Modernist writers and their critics. Pablo Parellada was one the key detractors of literary Modernism, a movement which he attacked through his parodies as evinced in his poetry, drama and short stories. His works contain the main pejorative features that would become the standard critique of these young poets of Spain in the early 1900's. Through the work of Pablo Parellada, this study seeks to understand the literary debates of Modernism in Spain that took place in the early twentieth century. Through this understanding, this study becomes important for it reveals the many personal characteristics that were attributed to the young Modernist poets. Some of these characteristics continued to be used by literary critics and as well became part of the collective imagination at the time and were still circulating several decades later.

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  • 2012

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El triunfo del catolicismo sobre el pecado nefando en la comedia hagiográfica Los lagos de San Vicente de Tirso de Molina

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The hagiographic comedy written by Tirso de Molina Los lagos de San Vicente (1607) presents the journey of Santa Casilda in search of the cure of an illness in her

The hagiographic comedy written by Tirso de Molina Los lagos de San Vicente (1607) presents the journey of Santa Casilda in search of the cure of an illness in her blood that affects her. Casilda rejects the medical assistance offered to her by Muslim doctors and miraculously she finds the cure in the Christian world. In this quest, the intellectual and theological evolution of the future saint in defense of the Christian faith is presented. This dissertation will study the resources that Tirso de Molina employs to show the rejection and displacement against the Islamic world represented by a series of erotic behaviors that, in the effort of dramatizing these impertinences they are characterized within a second discourse. Tirso de Molina takes advantage of the hagiographic comedy's discourse nature and the baroque's obscure literary characteristics to express his messages. This dissertation will study in detail how the combination of hagiographic theatrical elements with linguistic expressions are used to convey a subversive discourse that therefore suggests the application of queer theory as a frame of reference. As a result of this investigation it is concluded that Tirso de Molina promotes the hagiographic model and in order to contrast the triumph of the moral Catholic world over the immoral Muslim world the play writer makes references to the nefarious sin.

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Date Created
  • 2011