Matching Items (6)

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Preschool and kindergarten teachers’ beliefs about early school competencies: Misalignment matters for kindergarten adjustment

Description

Early Childhood Longitudinal-Birth Cohort data were used to examine the extent to which preschool and kindergarten teachers aligned in their beliefs regarding the importance of school competencies at kindergarten entry,

Early Childhood Longitudinal-Birth Cohort data were used to examine the extent to which preschool and kindergarten teachers aligned in their beliefs regarding the importance of school competencies at kindergarten entry, whether misalignment in beliefs predicted academic and sociobehavioral adjustment in kindergarten, and if relations were moderated by children's socioeconomic status. Preschool and kindergarten teachers rated the importance of 12 skills categorized into domains of academic, self-regulatory, and interpersonal competence. In the fall of kindergarten, children were directly assessed on reading and math skills, and kindergarten teachers rated children's approaches to learning, disruptive behavior, and social behavior. Findings revealed (a) misalignment was greatest for teachers’ beliefs about the importance of academic competence (b) greater misalignment in beliefs pertaining to all three domains of competence predicted poorer ratings of approaches to learning, social skills, and lower math achievement, and (c) children from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds were more susceptible to the negative influence of misalignment, across adjustment outcomes, compared to their more-advantaged peers. Results are discussed in relation to efforts aimed at promoting alignment within children's early educational contexts.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Using Indices of Fidelity to Intervention Core Components to Identify Program Active Ingredients

Description

Measures of intervention fidelity can be used to identify specific intervention components promoting desired change—the active ingredients—yet such applications are rare. In the context of a social-emotional learning intervention, we

Measures of intervention fidelity can be used to identify specific intervention components promoting desired change—the active ingredients—yet such applications are rare. In the context of a social-emotional learning intervention, we illustrate how fidelity measures can be used to identify program active ingredients. We applied one customary and two novel approaches to creating indices of fidelity. In the customary approach, we averaged fidelity ratings across all core components. In the novel approaches, we computed fidelity indices for specific components by (a) averaging responses from like-items and (b) deriving factor scores from a multitrait, multimethod factor analysis. We then tested indices in relation to achievement gains (N = 1442). Indices derived using novel approaches explained more outcome variance than indices from the customary approach. Further, novel approaches revealed one component as a potential active ingredient. Discussion highlights strengths and limitations of the indices and implications for identifying program active ingredients.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-09-01

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The home impact on self-efficacy for self-regulated learning during mid-to-late adolescence

Description

School and educational psychologists have a shared imperative to understand the complex inter-play of a student’s home life and perceived self-efficacy. Self-efficacy is the central facet of Bandura’s social cognitive

School and educational psychologists have a shared imperative to understand the complex inter-play of a student’s home life and perceived self-efficacy. Self-efficacy is the central facet of Bandura’s social cognitive theory (SCT, 1986, 1997). The current study improved upon the extant literature by exploring how home life in Arizona, Arkansas, California, and Oklahoma impacts the self-efficacy for self-regulated learning of mid-to-late adolescents. Although it is difficult to identify how specific aspects of life (including home life) matter for particular areas of functioning, the present study explored self-efficacy for self-regulated learning through the lens of three scales of the Late Adolescence version of the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment Inventory (LA-HOME) (Caldwell & Bradley, 2016). The LA-HOME documents actions, objects, events and conditions connected with the home environment of children ages 16 to 20, who are still residing at home with parents or guardians (Caldwell & Bradley, 2016). This paper addresses the following research question: How are various aspects of the home life of mid-to-late adolescents, namely (1) modeling and encouragement of maturity, (2) family companionship and investment in adolescent, and (3) warmth, acceptance, and responsiveness, associated with self-efficacy for self-regulated learning? The sample of 333 adolescents is quite diverse demographically; it includes variations in family composition, race/ethnicity, household SES, language spoken in the home, and geography (rural, urban, suburban). The study utilizes a sub-sample of adolescents from the larger study who were 15 to 19 years of age (N = 333). Descriptive statistics, means, and standard deviations are reported for continuous variables, frequencies are reported for categorical variables, and correlations are presented. A hierarchical regression model was estimated in two steps. The first step included the complete set of control variables (household income, ethnicity, gender, and adolescent general health and depressive symptoms), and the second step included the set of three home life indicators. The hierarchical regression model had good fit. Study assets and limitations, as well as alternate theories for consideration and directions for future research, are discussed.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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The Social Behavior Competencies of Self-Identified Bullies as Assessed by Students Themselves Plus Parents and Teachers

Description

This two-study investigation examined the social behavior competencies of a sample of students ages 8 to 18 who identified themselves as either bullies or non-bullies based on ratings of items

This two-study investigation examined the social behavior competencies of a sample of students ages 8 to 18 who identified themselves as either bullies or non-bullies based on ratings of items on a comprehensive behavior rating scale. Specifically, the purpose of Study 1 was to establish criteria using the Social Skills Improvement System – Student Rating Scale (SSIS-S) to identify students from a nationally representative standardization sample who displayed high frequencies of bullying behaviors. The social behavior ratings for these self-identified bullies were then compared with all other students in the national sample and analyzed to determine differences among various domains of social skills and problem behaviors. In Study 2, the same students’ social behaviors were rated by adult informants to determine if there was added value in including parents and teachers in the assessment of the self-identified bullies. Finally, the extent of concurrent agreement was examined for all students among the teachers, parents, and students’ ratings of social skills and problem behavior domains. Study 1 revealed that self-identified bullies are not a homogeneous group. The main findings from Study 2 showed parents and teachers may add to the overall predictive validity of the student self-report assessment, but not the accuracy of classifying the students as bullies. Study 2 showed differences and similarities exist across the ratings provided by each rater. The relative value of including adult reports in the self-assessment likely lies in the reported differences from each rater, as they provide a more complete social behavior profile for each student. These findings are discussed in terms of existing research and theories regarding children and youths’ bullying behavior. Limitations and recommendations for future research conclude the report.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Promoting High Quality Teacher-Child Interactions: Examining the Role of Teachers' Depression, Perceptions of Children’s Peer Relationships, and Contextual Factors

Description

The overall goal of this dissertation was to examine teacher characteristics, teachers’ beliefs, and contextual factors that may motivate teachers’ decisions to engage in high quality teacher-child interactions. I use

The overall goal of this dissertation was to examine teacher characteristics, teachers’ beliefs, and contextual factors that may motivate teachers’ decisions to engage in high quality teacher-child interactions. I use two complementary studies to meet this goal. These two studies provide insight into several aspects of early childhood teachers’ and children’s interactions including the complexity of the conversations and teachers’ supportive practices. Findings from both studies reveal that teachers are selective in how they distribute their time and attention across various types of high-quality interactions with children. Study 1suggests that teachers’ perception of how often children interact with one another motivates their decisions to engage in high quality teacher-child interactions (i.e., facilitate children’s peer interactions). Study 2 suggests that teacher well-being, specifically teacher depression, limits the extent to which teachers engage in high quality interactions (i.e., complex conversations with children). Importantly, this dissertation also showed that teachers’ motivation for engaging in teacher-child interactions does not stem from their own characteristics or perceptions alone. In addition to these factors, contextual aspects of teacher-child interactions also appear to influence teachers’ motivation to engage in high-quality teacher child interactions. Study 1 revealed that the gender composition of the children involved in each teacher-child interaction was associated with the extent to which teachers use facilitative practices, as well as with the direction and magnitude of both quality and frequency effects on teachers’ facilitation. Moreover, Study 2 revealed that the relation between teacher depression and complex conversations is changed when teachers and children are engaged in academic activities (e.g., math, books, language) relative to play or routine activities. In both Study 1 and 2, I used a teacher-focused observational coding system. Use of this observational coding system contributes novel, objective information about teacher-child interactions, as prior work on teacher-child interactions has most often relied on teachers’ self-reports of how often they interact with students. Findings from this dissertation will contribute new knowledge about teacher and contextual classroom characteristics and teacher-child interactions that will inform efforts to promote positive teacher child interactions and, in turn, student and teacher well-being.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Children's academic experiences during first grade as precursors of later academic performance

Description

Children's academic experiences during first grade have substantial implications for their academic performance both concurrently and longitudinally. Using two complementary studies, this dissertation utilizing data from the National Institute of

Children's academic experiences during first grade have substantial implications for their academic performance both concurrently and longitudinally. Using two complementary studies, this dissertation utilizing data from the National Institute of Child Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development helps create a better understanding of the importance of first-grade experiences for children's academic performance. The first study expands upon current literature by focusing on how children's academic experiences simultaneously influence children's academic performance through behavioral engagement. Specifically, study one examined the mediating role of first-grade behavioral engagement between first-grade academic experiences (i.e. parental involvement, positive peer interactions, student-teacher relationship, and instructional support) and second-grade academic performance. Using a panel model, results showed that behavioral engagement mediates relations between peer interactions and academic performance and relations between instructional support and academic performance. Implications for interventions focusing on children's positive peer interactions and teacher's high-quality instructional support in order to promote behavioral engagement during early elementary school are discussed.

The second study expands the current literature regarding instructional quality thresholds. Limited research has addressed the question of whether there is a minimum level of instructional quality that must be experienced in order to see significant changes in children's academic performance, and the limited research has focused primarily on preschoolers. The goal of study two was to determine if high-quality first-grade instructional support predicted children's first-, third-, and fifth-grade academic performance. Using piecewise regression analyses, results did not show evidence of a relation between first-grade instructional support quality and children's academic performance at any grade. Possible reasons for inconsistencies in findings from this study and previous research are discussed, including differences in sample characteristics and measurement tools. Because instructional quality remains at the forefront of discussions by educators and policy makers, the inconsistencies in research findings argue for further research that may clarify thresholds of instructional support quality that must be met in order for various subgroups of children to gain the skills needed for long-term academic success.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015