Matching Items (34)

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Magneto-dielectric wire antennas theory and design

Description

There is a pervasive need in the defense industry for conformal, low-profile, efficient and broadband (HF-UHF) antennas. Broadband capabilities enable shared aperture multi-function radiators, while conformal antenna profiles minimize physical

There is a pervasive need in the defense industry for conformal, low-profile, efficient and broadband (HF-UHF) antennas. Broadband capabilities enable shared aperture multi-function radiators, while conformal antenna profiles minimize physical damage in army applications, reduce drag and weight penalties in airborne applications and reduce the visual and RF signatures of the communication node. This dissertation is concerned with a new class of antennas called Magneto-Dielectric wire antennas (MDWA) that provide an ideal solution to this ever-present and growing need. Magneto-dielectric structures (μr>1;εr>1) can partially guide electromagnetic waves and radiate them by leaking off the structure or by scattering from any discontinuities, much like a metal antenna of the same shape. They are attractive alternatives to conventional whip and blade antennas because they can be placed conformal to a metallic ground plane without any performance penalty. A two pronged approach is taken to analyze MDWAs. In the first, antenna circuit models are derived for the prototypical dipole and loop elements that include the effects of realistic dispersive magneto-dielectric materials of construction. A material selection law results, showing that: (a) The maximum attainable efficiency is determined by a single magnetic material parameter that we term the hesitivity: Closely related to Snoek's product, it measures the maximum magnetic conductivity of the material. (b) The maximum bandwidth is obtained by placing the highest amount of μ" loss in the frequency range of operation. As a result, high radiation efficiency antennas can be obtained not only from the conventional low loss (low μ") materials but also with highly lossy materials (tan(δm)>>1). The second approach used to analyze MDWAs is through solving the Green function problem of the infinite magneto-dielectric cylinder fed by a current loop. This solution sheds light on the leaky and guided waves supported by the magneto-dielectric structure and leads to useful design rules connecting the permeability of the material to the cross sectional area of the antenna in relation to the desired frequency of operation. The Green function problem of the permeable prolate spheroidal antenna is also solved as a good approximation to a finite cylinder.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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Application of effective medium modeling to plasmonic nanosphere waveguides

Description

A proposed visible spectrum nanoscale imaging method requires material with permittivity values much larger than those available in real world materials to shrink the visible wavelength to attain the desired

A proposed visible spectrum nanoscale imaging method requires material with permittivity values much larger than those available in real world materials to shrink the visible wavelength to attain the desired resolution. It has been proposed that the extraordinarily slow propagation experienced by light guided along plasmon resonant structures is a viable approach to obtaining these short wavelengths. To assess the feasibility of such a system, an effective medium model of a chain of Noble metal plasmonic nanospheres is developed, leading to a straightforward calculation of the waveguiding properties. Evaluation of other models for such structures that have appeared in the literature, including an eigenvalue problem nearest neighbor approximation, a multi- neighbor approximation with retardation, and a method-of-moments method for a finite chain, show conflicting expectations of such a structure. In particular, recent publications suggest the possibility of regions of invalidity for eigenvalue problem solutions that are considered far below the onset of guidance, and for solutions that assume the loss is low enough to justify perturbation approximations. Even the published method-of-moments approach suffers from an unjustified assumption in the original interpretation, leading to overly optimistic estimations of the attenuation of the plasmon guided wave. In this work it is shown that the method of moments approach solution was dominated by the radiation from the source dipole, and not the waveguiding behavior claimed. If this dipolar radiation is removed the remaining fields ought to contain the desired guided wave information. Using a Prony's-method-based algorithm the dispersion properties of the chain of spheres are assessed at two frequencies, and shown to be dramatically different from the optimistic expectations in much of the literature. A reliable alternative to these models is to replace the chain of spheres with an effective medium model, thus mapping the chain problem into the well-known problem of the dielectric rod. The solution of the Green function problem for excitation of the symmetric longitudinal mode (TM01) is performed by numerical integration. Using this method the frequency ranges over which the rod guides and the associated attenuation are clearly seen. The effective medium model readily allows for variation of the sphere size and separation, and can be taken to the limit where instead of a chain of spheres we have a solid Noble metal rod. This latter case turns out to be the optimal for minimizing the attenuation of the guided wave. Future work is proposed to simulate the chain of photonic nanospheres and the nanowire using finite-difference time-domain to verify observed guided behavior in the Green's function method devised in this thesis and to simulate the proposed nanosensing devices.

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  • 2013

Bluetooth low energy for use with MEM sensors

Description

ABSTRACT

Designers creating the next generation remote sensing enabled smart devices need to overcome the challenges of prevailing ventures including time to market and expense.

To reduce the time and effort involved

ABSTRACT

Designers creating the next generation remote sensing enabled smart devices need to overcome the challenges of prevailing ventures including time to market and expense.

To reduce the time and effort involved in initial prototyping, a good reference design is often desired and warranted. This paper provides the necessary reference materials for Designers to implement a wireless solution efficiently and effectively.

This document is intended for users with limited Bluetooth technology experience.

Many sensing-enabled devices require a ‘hard-wire’ or cable link to a host monitoring system. This can limit the potential for product advancements by anchoring the system to a single location preventing portability and the convenience of a remote system. By removing the “wired” or cabled portion from a design, a broader scope of devices becomes feasible.

One common problematic area for these types of sensors is within the internal medicine field. Proximity sensing is far more practical and less invasive to implement than surgical implantation. Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) systems solve the hard wired problem by decoupling the physical sensor from the host system through a BLE transceiver that can send information to an external monitoring system. This wireless link enables new sensor technology to be leveraged into previously unobtainable markets; such as, internal medicine, wearable devices, and Infotainment to name a few. Wireless technology for sensor systems are a potentially disruptive technology changing the way environmental monitoring is implemented and considered.

With this BLE design reference, products can be created with new capabilities to advance current technologies for military, commercial, industrial and medical sectors in rapid succession.

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  • 2015

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Fast numerical algorithms for 3-D scattering from PEC and dielectric random rough surfaces in microwave remote sensing

Description

We present fast and robust numerical algorithms for 3-D scattering from perfectly electrical conducting (PEC) and dielectric random rough surfaces in microwave remote sensing. The Coifman wavelets or Coiflets are

We present fast and robust numerical algorithms for 3-D scattering from perfectly electrical conducting (PEC) and dielectric random rough surfaces in microwave remote sensing. The Coifman wavelets or Coiflets are employed to implement Galerkin’s procedure in the method of moments (MoM). Due to the high-precision one-point quadrature, the Coiflets yield fast evaluations of the most off-diagonal entries, reducing the matrix fill effort from O(N^2) to O(N). The orthogonality and Riesz basis of the Coiflets generate well conditioned impedance matrix, with rapid convergence for the conjugate gradient solver. The resulting impedance matrix is further sparsified by the matrix-formed standard fast wavelet transform (SFWT). By properly selecting multiresolution levels of the total transformation matrix, the solution precision can be enhanced while matrix sparsity and memory consumption have not been noticeably sacrificed. The unified fast scattering algorithm for dielectric random rough surfaces can asymptotically reduce to the PEC case when the loss tangent grows extremely large. Numerical results demonstrate that the reduced PEC model does not suffer from ill-posed problems. Compared with previous publications and laboratory measurements, good agreement is observed.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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FDTD Simulation Techniques for Simulation of Very Large 2D and 3D Domains Applied to Radar Propagation over the Ocean

Description

A domain decomposition method for analyzing very large FDTD domains, hundreds of thousands of wavelengths long, is demonstrated by application to the problem of radar scattering in the maritime environment.

A domain decomposition method for analyzing very large FDTD domains, hundreds of thousands of wavelengths long, is demonstrated by application to the problem of radar scattering in the maritime environment. Success depends on the elimination of artificial scattering from the “sky” boundary and is ensured by an ultra-high-performance absorbing termination which eliminates this reflection at angles of incidence as shallow as 0.03 degrees off grazing. The two-dimensional (2D) problem is used to detail the features of the method. The results are cross-validated by comparison to a parabolic equation (PE) method and surface integral equation method on a 1.7km sea surface problem, and to a PE method on propagation through an inhomogeneous atmosphere in a 4km-long space, both at X-band. Additional comparisons are made against boundary integral equation and PE methods from the literature in a 3.6km space containing an inhomogeneous atmosphere above a flat sea at S-band. The applicability of the method to the three-dimensional (3D) problem is shown via comparison of a 2D solution to the 3D solution of a corridor of sea. As a technical proof of the scalability of the problem with computational power, a 5m-wide, 2m-tall, 1050m-long 3D corridor containing 321.8 billion FDTD cells has been simulated at X-band. A plane wave spectrum analysis of the (X-band) scattered fields produced by a 5m-wide, 225m-long realistic 3D sea surface, and the 2D analog surface obtained by extruding a 2D sea along the width of the corridor, reveals the existence of out-of-plane 3D phenomena missed by the traditional 2D analysis. The realistic sea introduces random strong flashes and nulls in addition to a significant amount of cross-polarized field. Spatial integration using a dispersion-corrected Green function is used to reconstruct the scattered fields outside of the computational FDTD space which would impinge on a 3D target at the end of the corridor. The proposed final approach is a hybrid method where 2D FDTD carries the signal for the first tens of kilometers and the last kilometer is analyzed in 3D.

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Date Created
  • 2018

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High-Efficiency Doherty-Based Power Amplifiers Using GaN Technology For Wireless Infrastructure Applications

Description

The continuing advancement of modulation standards with newer generations of cellular technology, promises ever increasing data rate and bandwidth efficiency. However, these modulation schemes present high peak to average power

The continuing advancement of modulation standards with newer generations of cellular technology, promises ever increasing data rate and bandwidth efficiency. However, these modulation schemes present high peak to average power ratio (PAPR) even after applying crest factor reduction. Being the most power-hungry component in the radio frequency (RF) transmitter, power amplifiers (PA) for infrastructure applications, need to operate efficiently at the presence of these high PAPR signals while maintaining reasonable linearity performance which could be improved by moderate digital pre-distortion (DPD) techniques. This strict requirement of operating efficiently at average power level while being capable of delivering the peak power, made the load modulated PAs such as Doherty PA, Outphasing PA, various Envelope Tracking PAs, Polar transmitters and most recently the load modulated balanced PA, the prime candidates for such application. However, due to its simpler architecture and ability to deliver RF power efficiently with good linearity performance has made Doherty PA (DPA) the most popular solution and has been deployed almost exclusively for wireless infrastructure application all over the world.

Although DPAs has been very successful at amplifying the high PAPR signals, most recent advancements in cellular technology has opted for higher PAPR based signals at wider bandwidth. This lead to increased research and development work to innovate advanced Doherty architectures which are more efficient at back-off (BO) power levels compared to traditional DPAs. In this dissertation, three such advanced Doherty architectures and/or techniques are proposed to achieve high efficiency at further BO power level compared to traditional architecture using symmetrical devices for carrier and peaking PAs. Gallium Nitride (GaN) based high-electron-mobility (HEMT) technology has been used to design and fabricate the DPAs to validate the proposed advanced techniques for higher efficiency with good linearity performance at BO power levels.

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Date Created
  • 2018

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Refinement of a novel compact waveguide

Description

Presented is a design approach and test of a novel compact waveguide that demonstrated the outer dimensions of a rectangular waveguide through the introduction of parallel raised strips, or flanges,

Presented is a design approach and test of a novel compact waveguide that demonstrated the outer dimensions of a rectangular waveguide through the introduction of parallel raised strips, or flanges, which run the length of the rectangular waveguide along the direction of wave propagation. A 10GHz waveguide was created with outer dimensions of a=9.0mm and b=3.6mm compared to a WR-90 rectangular waveguide with outer dimensions of a=22.86mm and b=10.16mm which the area is over 7 times the area. The first operating bandwidth for a hollow waveguide of dimensions a=9.0mm and b=3.6mm starts at 16.6GHz a 40% reduction in cutoff frequency.

The prototyped and tested compact waveguide demonstrated an operating close to the predicted 2GHz with predicted vs measured injection loss generally within 0.25dB and an overall measured injection loss of approximately 4.67dB/m within the operating bandwidth.

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  • 2019

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Energy efficient RF transmitter design using enhanced breakdown voltage SOI-CMOS compatible MESFETs

Description

The high cut-off frequency of deep sub-micron CMOS technologies has enabled the integration of radio frequency (RF) transceivers with digital circuits. However, the challenging point is the integration of RF

The high cut-off frequency of deep sub-micron CMOS technologies has enabled the integration of radio frequency (RF) transceivers with digital circuits. However, the challenging point is the integration of RF power amplifiers, mainly due to the low breakdown voltage of CMOS transistors. Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) metal semiconductor field effect transistors (MESFETs) have been introduced to remedy the limited headroom concern in CMOS technologies. The MESFETs presented in this thesis have been fabricated on different SOI-CMOS processes without making any change to the standard fabrication steps and offer 2-30 times higher breakdown voltage than the MOSFETs on the same process. This thesis explains the design steps of high efficiency and wideband RF transmitters using the proposed SOI-CMOS compatible MESFETs. This task involves DC and RF characterization of MESFET devices, along with providing a compact Spice model for simulation purposes. This thesis presents the design of several SOI-MESFET RF power amplifiers operating at 433, 900 and 1800 MHz with ~40% bandwidth. Measurement results show a peak power added efficiency (PAE) of 55% and a peak output power of 22.5 dBm. The RF-PAs were designed to operate in Class-AB mode to minimize the linearity degradation. Class-AB power amplifiers lead to poor power added efficiency, especially when fed with signals with high peak to average power ratio (PAPR) such as wideband code division multiple access (W-CDMA). Polar transmitters have been introduced to improve the efficiency of RF-PAs at backed-off powers. A MESFET based envelope tracking (ET) polar transmitter was designed and measured. A low drop-out voltage regulator (LDO) was used as the supply modulator of this polar transmitter. MESFETs are depletion mode devices; therefore, they can be configured in a source follower configuration to have better stability and higher bandwidth that MOSFET based LDOs. Measurement results show 350 MHz bandwidth while driving a 10 pF capacitive load. A novel polar transmitter is introduced in this thesis to alleviate some of the limitations associated with polar transmitters. The proposed architecture uses the backgate terminal of a partially depleted transistor on SOI process, which relaxes the bandwidth and efficiency requirements of the envelope amplifier in a polar transmitter. The measurement results of the proposed transmitter demonstrate more than three times PAE improvement at 6-dB backed-off output power, compared to the traditional RF transmitters.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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Medical implant receiver system

Description

The medical industry has benefited greatly by electronic integration resulting in the explosive growth of active medical implants. These devices often treat and monitor chronic health conditions and require very

The medical industry has benefited greatly by electronic integration resulting in the explosive growth of active medical implants. These devices often treat and monitor chronic health conditions and require very minimal power usage. A key part of these medical implants is an ultra-low power two way wireless communication system. This enables both control of the implant as well as relay of information collected. This research has focused on a high performance receiver for medical implant applications. One commonly quoted specification to compare receivers is energy per bit required. This metric is useful, but incomplete in that it ignores Sensitivity level, bit error rate, and immunity to interferers. In this study exploration of receiver architectures and convergence upon a comprehensive solution is done. This analysis is used to design and build a system for validation. The Direct Conversion Receiver architecture implemented for the MICS standard in 0.18 µm CMOS process consumes approximately 2 mW is competitive with published research.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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Environmental sensing applications of zinc oxide based film bulk acoustic resonator

Description

Different environmental factors, such as ultraviolet radiation (UV), relative humidity (RH) and the presence of reducing gases (acetone and ethanol), play an important role in the daily life of human

Different environmental factors, such as ultraviolet radiation (UV), relative humidity (RH) and the presence of reducing gases (acetone and ethanol), play an important role in the daily life of human beings. UV is very important in a number of areas, such as astronomy, resin curing of polymeric materials, combustion engineering, water purification, flame detection and biological effects with more recent proposals like early missile plume detection, secure space-to-space communications and pollution monitoring. RH is a very common parameter in the environment. It is essential not only for human comfort, but also for a broad spectrum of industries and technologies. There is a substantial interest in the development of RH sensors for applications in monitoring moisture level at home, in clean rooms, cryogenic processes, medical and food science, and so on. The concentration of acetone and other ketone bodies in the exhaled air can serve as an express noninvasive diagnosis of ketosis. Meanwhile, driving under the influence of alcohol is a serious traffic violation and this kind of deviant behavior causes many accidents and deaths on the highway. Therefore, the detection of ethanol in breath is usually used as a quick and reliable screening method for the sobriety checkpoint. Traditionally, semiconductor metal oxide sensors are the major candidates employed in the sensing applications mentioned above. However, they suffer from the low sensitivity, poor selectivity and huge power consumption. In this dissertation, Zinc Oxide (ZnO) based Film Bulk Acoustic Resonator (FBAR) was developed to monitor UV, RH, acetone and ethanol in the environment. FBAR generally consists of a sputtered piezoelectric thin film (ZnO/AlN) sandwiched between two electrodes. It has been well developed both as filters and as high sensitivity mass sensors in recent years. FBAR offers high sensitivity and excellent selectivity for various environment monitoring applications. As the sensing signal is in the frequency domain, FABR has the potential to be incorporated in a wireless sensor network for remote sensing. This study extended our current knowledge of FBAR and pointed out feasible directions for future exploration.

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Date Created
  • 2011