Matching Items (4)

136022-Thumbnail Image.png

PEPFAR & South Africa: The Case for Unilateralism in Global Health

Description

HIV/AIDS exists in a rapidly globalizing world, but areas such as South Africa and Sub-Saharan Africa bear the greatest burden of the disease. The World Health Organization has created UNAIDS

HIV/AIDS exists in a rapidly globalizing world, but areas such as South Africa and Sub-Saharan Africa bear the greatest burden of the disease. The World Health Organization has created UNAIDS and a multitude of NGOs have also sprung up in response. However, the United States' President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) is the first state-sponsored organization entirely funded by the government and various charities. The creation and implementation of this act can be seen as a unilateral act by the US in the global health arena and a departure away from individual states only funding unilateral campaigns within their own borders, which gives rise to the questions of the motives of the US in providing this AID outside of established global agencies such as UNAIDS. By Examining the case of South Africa, the conclusion will be reached that PEPFAR is a success. There has been noticeable and positive change in the country since the US intervention in the form of PEPFAR. An analysis and review of PEPFAR in South Africa will serve as evidence for the success of PEPFAR and the case for the US's continued unilateralism in global healthcare.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2010-05

Canning Complexity: An Institutional Analysis of the Management System for South Pacific Albacore Tuna

Description

I travelled and worked in international fisheries policy for 7 months in preparation for this thesis. During this time I completed one internship in Rome, Italy with the Food and

I travelled and worked in international fisheries policy for 7 months in preparation for this thesis. During this time I completed one internship in Rome, Italy with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (UNFAO) and another internship on the island of Pohnpei with the Secretariat of the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC). From these experiences, I selected the subject of this thesis. My thesis analyzes the management system for South Pacific albacore tuna, the source stock for brands like "Chicken of the Sea" and "Starkist". South Pacific albacore tuna pass through international waters and the waters of several Pacific Island countries and territories, necessitating States to cooperate and coordinate to sustain the future viability of the stock. A case study for transboundary natural resource management, I discuss the institutional complexity that arises from managing such a resource. I use common-pool resource (CPR) theory to describe this complexity, which frames natural resource management as a collective-action problem among resource users. I first conceptualize the management system as having multiple institutional scales and multiple levels of organization. Then, employing Ostrom's 8 design principles for successful CPR management, I conduct a multi-institution analysis of the international, regional, and subregional institutions that participate in the management system. Finally, I also conduct a cross-institution analysis by examining the interactions between these institutions. I find that significant space for theoretical development exists in CPR theory for understanding complex management systems for transboundary natural resources. Furthermore, I find that interactions between institutions create linkages that could be retooled to improve the performance of the South Pacific albacore tuna management system.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

154072-Thumbnail Image.png

Multilateral organizations and domestic democratic governance

Description

International organizations are ubiquitous in the international system and often intervene in domestic political affairs. Interventions can occur because states do not have adequate infrastructure to govern, because a political

International organizations are ubiquitous in the international system and often intervene in domestic political affairs. Interventions can occur because states do not have adequate infrastructure to govern, because a political regime seeks international legitimation of its rule, or because an intervention may prevent political crisis. Whatever the reason, there are consequences of such interventions for domestic society. This project asks how interventions sanctioned by international organizations affect individual political involvement, specifically attitudes toward democracy and democratic institutions. I theorize and empirically demonstrate that when an international intervention reinforces existing democratic institutions in a state, individual levels of confidence in democracy and levels of trust in democratic institutions improve. By contrast, when an intervention undermines existing democratic institutions, levels of confidence in democracy and trust in democratic institutions decrease. This research is important because it shows that the determinants of individual political engagement are not only domestic, but also affected by international-level phenomena. This means that international organizations and the interventions they regularly employ in states can meaningfully affect the prospects for democratic consolidation.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

154037-Thumbnail Image.png

Green economy governance: transforming states and markets through the global forest carbon trade in California and Chiapas

Description

This dissertation explores the intersection of two major developments in global

environmental governance: the vision for a Green Economy and the growing influence of non-state actors. The work draws on multi-sited

This dissertation explores the intersection of two major developments in global

environmental governance: the vision for a Green Economy and the growing influence of non-state actors. The work draws on multi-sited thick description to analyze how relationships between the state, market, and civil society are being reoriented towards global problems. Its focus is a non-binding agreement between California and Chiapas to create a market in carbon offsets credits for Reducing Emissions for Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD). The study draws on three bodies of scholarship. From the institutionalist study of global environmental politics, it uses the ideas of orchestration, civil regulation, and private entrepreneurial authority to identity emerging alignments of state and non-state actors, premised on an exchange of public authority and private expertise. From concepts borrowed from science and technology studies, it inquires into the production, certification, and contestation of knowledge. From a constitutionalist perspective, it analyzes how new forms of public law and private expertise are reshaping foundational categories such as territory, authority, and rights. The analysis begins with general research questions applied to California and Chiapas, and the international space where groups influential in these sites are also active: 1) Where are new political and legal institutions emerging, and how are they structured? 2) What role does scientific, legal, and administrative expertise play in shaping these institutions, and vice versa? And 3) How are constitutional elements of the political order being reoriented towards these new spaces and away from the exclusive domain of the nation-state? The dissertation offers a number of propositions for combining institutionalist and constructivist approaches for the study of complex global governing arrangements. It argues that this can help identify constitutional reconfigurations that are not readily apparent using either approach alone.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015