Matching Items (181,970)
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Description
Islamist groups in Somalia define themselves by their opposition. From the pre-Islamist movement of Mohammed Hassan in the nineteenth century to al-Itihaad al-Islaami in the twentieth to al-Shabaab in the twenty-first, Islamism exists as a form of resistance against the dominant power of the era. Furthermore these Islamist groups have

Islamist groups in Somalia define themselves by their opposition. From the pre-Islamist movement of Mohammed Hassan in the nineteenth century to al-Itihaad al-Islaami in the twentieth to al-Shabaab in the twenty-first, Islamism exists as a form of resistance against the dominant power of the era. Furthermore these Islamist groups have all been influenced by the type of state in which they exist, be it colonial, independent, or failed. This work seeks to examine the relationship between the uniquely Somali form of Islamism and the state. Through use of historical records, modern media, and existing scholarship this dissertation will chart the development of Islamism in Somalia from the colonial period to the present and explore the relationship Somali Islamism has with various forms of state.
ContributorsFurlow, Richard Bennett (Author) / Gallab, Abdullahi (Thesis advisor) / Talebi, Shahla (Committee member) / Ali, Souad (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2013
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Description
The research indicated effective mathematics teaching to be more complex than assuming the best predictor of student achievement in mathematics is the mathematical content knowledge of a teacher. This dissertation took a novel approach to addressing the idea of what it means to examine how a teacher's knowledge of mathematics

The research indicated effective mathematics teaching to be more complex than assuming the best predictor of student achievement in mathematics is the mathematical content knowledge of a teacher. This dissertation took a novel approach to addressing the idea of what it means to examine how a teacher's knowledge of mathematics impacts student achievement in elementary schools. Using a multiple case study design, the researcher investigated teacher knowledge as a function of the Mathematics Teaching Cycle (NCTM, 2007). Three cases (of two teachers each) were selected using a compilation of Learning Mathematics for Teaching (LMT) measures (LMT, 2006) and Developing Mathematical Ideas (DMI) measures (Higgins, Bell, Wilson, McCoach, & Oh, 2007; Bell, Wilson, Higgins, & McCoach, 2010) and student scores on the Arizona Assessment Collaborative (AzAC). The cases included teachers with: a) high knowledge & low student achievement v low knowledge & high student achievement, b) high knowledge & average achievement v low knowledge & average achievement, c) average knowledge & high achievement v average knowledge & low achievement, d) two teachers with average achievement & very high student achievement. In the end, my data suggested that MKT was only partially utilized across the contrasting teacher cases during the planning process, the delivery of mathematics instruction, and subsequent reflection. Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching was utilized differently by teachers with high student gains than those with low student gains. Because of this insight, I also found that MKT was not uniformly predictive of student gains across my cases, nor was it predictive of the quality of instruction provided to students in these classrooms.
ContributorsBurke, Margaret Kathleen (Author) / Middleton, James A. (Thesis advisor) / Sloane, Finbarr (Thesis advisor) / Battey, Daniel S (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2013
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Description
In this thesis, we present the study of several physical properties of relativistic mat- ters under extreme conditions. We start by deriving the rate of the nonleptonic weak processes and the bulk viscosity in several spin-one color superconducting phases of quark matter. We also calculate the bulk viscosity in the

In this thesis, we present the study of several physical properties of relativistic mat- ters under extreme conditions. We start by deriving the rate of the nonleptonic weak processes and the bulk viscosity in several spin-one color superconducting phases of quark matter. We also calculate the bulk viscosity in the nonlinear and anharmonic regime in the normal phase of strange quark matter. We point out several qualitative effects due to the anharmonicity, although quantitatively they appear to be relatively small. In the corresponding study, we take into account the interplay between the non- leptonic and semileptonic weak processes. The results can be important in order to relate accessible observables of compact stars to their internal composition. We also use quantum field theoretical methods to study the transport properties in monolayer graphene in a strong magnetic field. The corresponding quasi-relativistic system re- veals an anomalous quantum Hall effect, whose features are directly connected with the spontaneous flavor symmetry breaking. We study the microscopic origin of Fara- day rotation and magneto-optical transmission in graphene and show that their main features are in agreement with the experimental data.
ContributorsWang, Xinyang, Ph.D (Author) / Shovkovy, Igor (Thesis advisor) / Belitsky, Andrei (Committee member) / Easson, Damien (Committee member) / Peng, Xihong (Committee member) / Vachaspati, Tanmay (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2013
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Description
The purpose of this pilot randomized control trial was to test the initial efficacy of a 10 week social cognitive theory (SCT)-based intervention to reduce workplace sitting time (ST). Participants were currently employed adults with predominantly sedentary occupations (n=24) working in the Greater Phoenix area in 2012-2013. Participants wore an

The purpose of this pilot randomized control trial was to test the initial efficacy of a 10 week social cognitive theory (SCT)-based intervention to reduce workplace sitting time (ST). Participants were currently employed adults with predominantly sedentary occupations (n=24) working in the Greater Phoenix area in 2012-2013. Participants wore an activPAL (AP) inclinometer to assess postural allocation (i.e., sitting vs. standing) and Actigraph accelerometer (AG) to assess sedentary time for one week prior to beginning and immediately following the completion of the 10 week intervention. Self-reported measures of sedentary time were obtained via two validated questionnaires for overall (International Physical Activity Questionnaire [IPAQ]) and domain specific sedentary behaviors (Sedentary Behavior Questionnaire [SBQ]). SCT constructs were also measured pre and post via adapted physical activity questionnaires. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either (a) 10 weekly social cognitive-based e-newsletters focused on reducing workplace ST; or (b) similarly formatted 10 weekly e-newsletters focusing on health education. Baseline adjusted Analysis of Covariance statistical analyses were used to examine differences between groups in time spent sitting (AP) and sedentary (AG) during self-reported work hours from pre- to post- intervention. Both groups decreased ST and AG sedentary time; however, no significant differences were observed. SCT constructs also did not change significantly between pretest and post test in either group. These results indicate that individualized educational approaches to decreasing workplace sitting time may not be sufficient for observing long term change in behaviors. Future research should utilize a larger sample, measure main outcomes more frequently, and incorporate more environmental factors throughout the intervention.
ContributorsGordon, Amanda (Author) / Buman, Matthew (Thesis advisor) / Der Ananian, Cheryl (Committee member) / Swan, Pamela (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2013
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Description
Metal hydride materials have been intensively studied for hydrogen storage applications. In addition to potential hydrogen economy applications, metal hydrides offer a wide variety of other interesting properties. For example, hydrogen-dominant materials, which are hydrides with the highest hydrogen content for a particular metal/semimetal composition, are predicted to display high-temperature

Metal hydride materials have been intensively studied for hydrogen storage applications. In addition to potential hydrogen economy applications, metal hydrides offer a wide variety of other interesting properties. For example, hydrogen-dominant materials, which are hydrides with the highest hydrogen content for a particular metal/semimetal composition, are predicted to display high-temperature superconductivity. On the other side of the spectrum are hydrides with small amounts of hydrogen (0.1 - 1 at.%) that are investigated as viable magnetic, thermoelectric or semiconducting materials. Research of metal hydride materials is generally important to gain fundamental understanding of metal-hydrogen interactions in materials. Hydrogenation of Zintl phases, which are defined as compounds between an active metal (alkali, alkaline earth, rare earth) and a p-block metal/semimetal, were attempted by a hot sintering method utilizing an autoclave loaded with gaseous hydrogen (< 9 MPa). Hydride formation competes with oxidative decomposition of a Zintl phase. The oxidative decomposition, which leads to a mixture of binary active metal hydride and p-block element, was observed for investigated aluminum (Al) and gallium (Ga) containing Zintl phases. However, a new phase Li2Al was discovered when Zintl phase precursors were synthesized. Using the single crystal x-ray diffraction (SCXRD), the Li2Al was found to crystallize in an orthorhombic unit cell (Cmcm) with the lattice parameters a = 4.6404(8) Å, b = 9.719(2) Å, and c = 4.4764(8) Å. Increased demand for materials with improved properties necessitates the exploration of alternative synthesis methods. Conventional metal hydride synthesis methods, like ball-milling and autoclave technique, are not responding to the demands of finding new materials. A viable alternative synthesis method is the application of high pressure for the preparation of hydrogen-dominant materials. Extreme pressures in the gigapascal ranges can open access to new metal hydrides with novel structures and properties, because of the drastically increased chemical potential of hydrogen. Pressures up to 10 GPa can be easily achieved using the multi-anvil (MA) hydrogenations while maintaining sufficient sample volume for structure and property characterization. Gigapascal MA hydrogenations using ammonia borane (BH3NH3) as an internal hydrogen source were employed in the search for new hydrogen-dominant materials. Ammonia borane has high gravimetric volume of hydrogen, and additionally the thermally activated decomposition at high pressures lead to a complete hydrogen release at reasonably low temperature. These properties make ammonia borane a desired hydrogen source material. The missing member Li2PtH6 of the series of A2PtH6 compounds (A = Na to Cs) was accessed by employing MA technique. As the known heavier analogs, the Li2PtH6 also crystallizes in a cubic K2PtCl6-type structure with a cell edge length of 6.7681(3) Å. Further gigapascal hydrogenations afforded the compounds K2SiH6 and Rb2SiH6 which are isostructural to Li2PtH6. The cubic K2SiH6 and Rb2SiH6 are built from unique hypervalent SiH62- entities with the lattice parameters of 7.8425(9) and 8.1572(4) Å, respectively. Spectroscopic analysis of hexasilicides confirmed the presence of hypervalent bonding. The Si-H stretching frequencies at 1550 cm-1 appeared considerably decreased in comparison with a normal-valent (2e2c) Si-H stretching frequencies in SiH4 at around 2200 cm-1. However, the observed stretching modes in hypervalent hexasilicides were in a reasonable agreement with Ph3SiH2- (1520 cm-1) where the hydrogen has the axial (3e4c bonded) position in the trigoal bipyramidal environment.
ContributorsPuhakainen, Kati (Author) / Häussermann, Ulrich (Thesis advisor) / Seo, Dong (Thesis advisor) / Kouvetakis, John (Committee member) / Wolf, George (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2013
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Description
This thesis explores the extent to which entrepreneurship is possible for women in Saudi Arabia, and it's potential to increase Saudi women's socio-cultural autonomy, financial independence, and overall well-being. The study uses interviews and an online surveys to gather information from recognized female entrepreneurs, those officially registered with the Women's

This thesis explores the extent to which entrepreneurship is possible for women in Saudi Arabia, and it's potential to increase Saudi women's socio-cultural autonomy, financial independence, and overall well-being. The study uses interviews and an online surveys to gather information from recognized female entrepreneurs, those officially registered with the Women's Business Center in Alkhober, Saudi Arabia, about how they founded their businesses, the challenges they have experienced, and the effects of business ownership. These women are interesting because their experience seems to run counter to Saudi society, which generally restricts women's activities. The study's findings show that despite their successes, Arab traditions still hinder the success of Alkhober female entrepreneurs, for instance, by requiring male guardianship and prohibiting travel unaccompanied by a man. From an institutional perspective, administrative and legal requirement can prevent women from fully realizing their potential as businesswomen. The existing women's rights legislation lacks authority because political opportunities for Alkhober women are still limited. For Saudi women entrepreneurship remains an alternative to joblessness and dissatisfaction derived from other employment sources. The challenges women entrepreneurs experience while starting businesses are lack of support from the executive branch of government, lack of quality education, and lack of available financial resources, in addition to the cultural barriers caused by Arab traditions restricting the activities of women. However, a key finding from this study is that the women interviewed all showed a high level of resourcefulness and creativity that helped them to circumvent such obstacles. This study recommends that the government provide financial services, or training programs to aspiring female entrepreneurs and offer incentives for women to register their businesses. This will benefit not just Saudi women but for the Saudi economy overall.
ContributorsAlhabidi, Mariam (Author) / C. Parmentier, Mary Jane C. Parmentier Jane (Thesis advisor) / Grossman, Gary M. (Committee member) / Crewe, Katherine (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2013
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Description
Intermittent social defeat stress induces cross-sensitization to psychostimulants and escalation of drug self-administration. These behaviors could result from the stress-induced neuroadaptation in the mesocorticolimbic dopamine circuit. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is persistently elevated after social defeat stress, and may contribute to the stress-induced neuroadaptation

Intermittent social defeat stress induces cross-sensitization to psychostimulants and escalation of drug self-administration. These behaviors could result from the stress-induced neuroadaptation in the mesocorticolimbic dopamine circuit. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is persistently elevated after social defeat stress, and may contribute to the stress-induced neuroadaptation in the mesocorticolimbic dopamine circuit. BDNF modulates synaptic plasticity, and facilitates stress- and drug-induced neuroadaptations in the mesocorticolimbic system. The present research examined the role of mesolimbic BDNF signaling in social defeat stress-induced cross-sensitization to psychostimulants and the escalation of cocaine self-administration in rats. We measured drug taking behavior with the acquisition, progressive ratio, and binge paradigms during self-administration. With BDNF overexpression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), single social defeat stress-induced cross-sensitization to amphetamine (AMPH) was significantly potentiated. VTA-BDNF overexpression also facilitates acquisition of cocaine self-administration, and a positive correlation between the level of VTA BDNF and drug intake during 12 hour binge was observed. We also found significant increase of DeltaFosB expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), the projection area of the VTA, in rats received intra-VTA BDNF overexpression. We therefore examined whether BDNF signaling in the NAc is important for social defeat stress-induced cross-sensitization by knockdown of the receptor of BDNF (neurotrophin tyrosine kinase receptor type 2, TrkB) there. NAc TrkB knockdown prevented social defeat stress-induced cross-sensitization to psychostimulant. Also social defeat stress-induced increase of DeltaFosB in the NAc was prevented by TrkB knockdown. Several other factors up-regulated by stress, such as the GluA1 subunit of Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor and BDNF in the VTA were also prevented. We conclude that BDNF signaling in the VTA increases social defeat stress-induced vulnerability to psychostimulants, manifested as potentiated cross-sensitization/sensitization to AMPH and escalation of cocaine self-administration. Also BDNF signaling in the NAc is necessary for the stress-induced neuroadaptation and behavioral sensitization to psychostimulants. Therefore, TrkB in the NAc could be a therapeutic target to prevent stress-induced vulnerability to drugs of abuse in the future. DeltaFosB in the NAc shell could be a neural substrate underlying persistent cross-sensitization and augmented cocaine self-administration induced by social defeat stress.
ContributorsWang, Junshi (Author) / Hammer, Ronald (Thesis advisor) / Feuerstein, Burt (Committee member) / Nikulina, Ella (Committee member) / Neisewander, Janet (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2013
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Description
Achievement of many long-term goals requires sustained practice over long durations. Examples include goals related to areas of high personal and societal benefit, such as physical fitness, which requires a practice of frequent exercise; self-education, which requires a practice of frequent study; or personal productivity, which requires a practice of

Achievement of many long-term goals requires sustained practice over long durations. Examples include goals related to areas of high personal and societal benefit, such as physical fitness, which requires a practice of frequent exercise; self-education, which requires a practice of frequent study; or personal productivity, which requires a practice of performing work. Maintaining these practices can be difficult, because even though obvious benefits come with achieving these goals, an individual's willpower may not always be sufficient to sustain the required effort. This dissertation advocates addressing this problem by designing novel interfaces that provide people with new practices that are fun and enjoyable, thereby reducing the need for users to draw upon willpower when pursuing these long-term goals. To draw volitional usage, these practice-oriented interfaces can integrate key characteristics of existing activities, such as music-making and other hobbies, that are already known to draw voluntary participation over long durations. This dissertation makes several key contributions to provide designers with the necessary tools to create practice-oriented interfaces. First, it consolidates and synthesizes key ideas from fields such as activity theory, self-determination theory, HCI design, and serious leisure. It also provides a new conceptual framework consisting of heuristics for designing systems that draw new users, plus heuristics for making systems that will continue drawing usage from existing users over time. These heuristics serve as a collection of useful ideas to consider when analyzing or designing systems, and this dissertation postulates that if designers build these characteristics into their products, the resulting systems will draw more volitional usage. To demonstrate the framework's usefulness as an analytical tool, it is applied as a set of analytical lenses upon three previously-existing experiential media systems. To demonstrate its usefulness as a design tool, the framework is used as a guide in the development of an experiential media system called pdMusic. This system is installed at public events for user studies, and the study results provide qualitative support for many framework heuristics. Lastly, this dissertation makes recommendations to scholars and designers on potential future ways to examine the topic of volitional usage.
ContributorsWallis, Isaac (Author) / Ingalls, Todd (Thesis advisor) / Coleman, Grisha (Committee member) / Sundaram, Hari (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2013
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Description
At present, almost 70% of the electric energy in the United States is produced utilizing fossil fuels. Combustion of fossil fuels contributes CO2 to the atmosphere, potentially exacerbating the impact on global warming. To make the electric power system (EPS) more sustainable for the future, there has been an emphasis

At present, almost 70% of the electric energy in the United States is produced utilizing fossil fuels. Combustion of fossil fuels contributes CO2 to the atmosphere, potentially exacerbating the impact on global warming. To make the electric power system (EPS) more sustainable for the future, there has been an emphasis on scaling up generation of electric energy from wind and solar resources. These resources are renewable in nature and have pollution free operation. Various states in the US have set up different goals for achieving certain amount of electrical energy to be produced from renewable resources. The Southwestern region of the United States receives significant solar radiation throughout the year. High solar radiation makes concentrated solar power and solar PV the most suitable means of renewable energy production in this region. However, the majority of the projects that are presently being developed are either residential or utility owned solar PV plants. This research explores the impact of significant PV penetration on the steady state voltage profile of the electric power transmission system. This study also identifies the impact of PV penetration on the dynamic response of the transmission system such as rotor angle stability, frequency response and voltage response after a contingency. The light load case of spring 2010 and the peak load case of summer 2018 have been considered for analyzing the impact of PV. If the impact is found to be detrimental to the normal operation of the EPS, mitigation measures have been devised and presented in the thesis. Commercially available software tools/packages such as PSLF, PSS/E, DSA Tools have been used to analyze the power network and validate the results.
ContributorsPrakash, Nitin (Author) / Heydt, Gerald T. (Thesis advisor) / Vittal, Vijay (Thesis advisor) / Ayyanar, Raja (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2013