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Error detection and error correction for PMU data as applied to power system state estimators

Description

In modern electric power systems, energy management systems (EMSs) are responsi-ble for monitoring and controlling the generation system and transmission networks. State estimation (SE) is a critical `must run successful' component within the EMS software. This is dictated by the

In modern electric power systems, energy management systems (EMSs) are responsi-ble for monitoring and controlling the generation system and transmission networks. State estimation (SE) is a critical `must run successful' component within the EMS software. This is dictated by the high reliability requirements and need to represent the closest real time model for market operations and other critical analysis functions in the EMS. Tradi-tionally, SE is run with data obtained only from supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) devices and systems. However, more emphasis on improving the performance of SE drives the inclusion of phasor measurement units (PMUs) into SE input data. PMU measurements are claimed to be more accurate than conventional measurements and PMUs `time stamp' measurements accurately. These widely distributed devices meas-ure the voltage phasors directly. That is, phase information for measured voltages and currents are available. PMUs provide data time stamps to synchronize measurements. Con-sidering the relatively small number of PMUs installed in contemporary power systems in North America, performing SE with only phasor measurements is not feasible. Thus a hy-brid SE, including both SCADA and PMU measurements, is the reality for contemporary power system SE. The hybrid approach is the focus of a number of research papers. There are many practical challenges in incorporating PMUs into SE input data. The higher reporting rates of PMUs as compared with SCADA measurements is one of the salient problems. The disparity of reporting rates raises a question whether buffering the phasor measurements helps to give better estimates of the states. The research presented in this thesis addresses the design of data buffers for PMU data as used in SE applications in electric power systems. The system theoretic analysis is illustrated using an operating electric power system in the southwest part of the USA. Var-ious instances of state estimation data have been used for analysis purposes. The details of the research, results obtained and conclusions drawn are presented in this document.

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2013

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New pastoral

Description

New Pastoral journeys through the altered states of the American West. Readers witness dream-fields at harvest time, watch humans become agro-industrial test subjects, and overhear an exchange of letters set in an alternate (?), [more] dystopian present. Fractured, fragmented, leaping,

New Pastoral journeys through the altered states of the American West. Readers witness dream-fields at harvest time, watch humans become agro-industrial test subjects, and overhear an exchange of letters set in an alternate (?), [more] dystopian present. Fractured, fragmented, leaping, and stitched, the poems use disjuncture, within and/or between poems, to see with clarity and complexity a landscape that is increasingly all ecotone. In addition to environmental violence, this work explores disclosure and secrecy, intimacy and estrangement, voyeurism, political policing, and, inevitably, the mysteries of making art. Pastoral landscapes have often been compared to patchwork. Now, heavy with guilt, we walk a wounded quilt, searching, with little hope, for bandages.

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2014

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Impact of distributed photovoltaic generation and customer loads on power quality of a distribution system

Description

There has been a considerable growth in distributed photovoltaic (PV) genera-tion and its integration in electric power distribution systems. This has led to a change in the distribution system infrastructure. Properly planned distributed gen-eration can offer a variety of benefits

There has been a considerable growth in distributed photovoltaic (PV) genera-tion and its integration in electric power distribution systems. This has led to a change in the distribution system infrastructure. Properly planned distributed gen-eration can offer a variety of benefits for system operations and enhance opera-tional performance of the distribution system. However, high penetration of PV resources can give rise to operating conditions which do not arise in traditional systems and one of the potential issues that needs to be addressed involves impact on power quality of the system with respect to the spectral distortion in voltages and currents.

The test bed feeder model representing a real operational distribution feeder is developed in OpenDSS and the feeder modeling takes into consideration the ob-jective of analysis and frequency of interest. Extensive metering infrastructure and measurements are utilized for validation of the model at harmonic frequencies. The harmonic study performed is divided into two sections: study of impact of non-linear loads on total harmonic voltage and current distortions and study of impact of PV resources on high frequency spectral distortion in voltages and cur-rents. The research work incorporates different harmonic study methodologies such as harmonic and high frequency power flow, and frequency scan study. The general conclusions are presented based on the simulation results and in addition, scope for future work is discussed.

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2014

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Development of improved dc network model for contingency analysis

Description

The development of new policies favoring integration of renewable energy into the grid has created a need to relook at our existing infrastructure resources and at the way the power system is currently operated. Also, the needs of electric energy

The development of new policies favoring integration of renewable energy into the grid has created a need to relook at our existing infrastructure resources and at the way the power system is currently operated. Also, the needs of electric energy markets and transmission/generation expansion planning has created a niche for development of new computationally efficient and yet reliable, simple and robust power flow tools for such studies. The so called dc power flow algorithm is an important power flow tool currently in use. However, the accuracy and performance of dc power flow results is highly variable due to the various formulations which are in use. This has thus intensified the interest of researchers in coming up with better equivalent dc models that can closely match the performance of ac power flow solution.

This thesis involves the development of novel hot start dc model using a power transfer distribution factors (PTDFs) approach. This document also discusses the problems of ill-conditioning / rank deficiency encountered while deriving this model. This model is then compared to several dc power flow models using the IEEE 118-bus system and ERCOT interconnection both as the base case ac solution and during single-line outage contingency analysis. The proposed model matches the base case ac solution better than contemporary dc power flow models used in the industry.

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2014

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Cluster-and-connect: an algorithmic approach to generating synthetic electric power network graphs

Description

Understanding the graphical structure of the electric power system is important

in assessing reliability, robustness, and the risk of failure of operations of this criti-

cal infrastructure network. Statistical graph models of complex networks yield much

insight into the underlying processes that are

Understanding the graphical structure of the electric power system is important

in assessing reliability, robustness, and the risk of failure of operations of this criti-

cal infrastructure network. Statistical graph models of complex networks yield much

insight into the underlying processes that are supported by the network. Such gen-

erative graph models are also capable of generating synthetic graphs representative

of the real network. This is particularly important since the smaller number of tradi-

tionally available test systems, such as the IEEE systems, have been largely deemed

to be insucient for supporting large-scale simulation studies and commercial-grade

algorithm development. Thus, there is a need for statistical generative models of

electric power network that capture both topological and electrical properties of the

network and are scalable.

Generating synthetic network graphs that capture key topological and electrical

characteristics of real-world electric power systems is important in aiding widespread

and accurate analysis of these systems. Classical statistical models of graphs, such as

small-world networks or Erd}os-Renyi graphs, are unable to generate synthetic graphs

that accurately represent the topology of real electric power networks { networks

characterized by highly dense local connectivity and clustering and sparse long-haul

links.

This thesis presents a parametrized model that captures the above-mentioned

unique topological properties of electric power networks. Specically, a new Cluster-

and-Connect model is introduced to generate synthetic graphs using these parameters.

Using a uniform set of metrics proposed in the literature, the accuracy of the proposed

model is evaluated by comparing the synthetic models generated for specic real

electric network graphs. In addition to topological properties, the electrical properties

are captured via line impedances that have been shown to be modeled reliably by well-studied heavy tailed distributions. The details of the research, results obtained and

conclusions drawn are presented in this document.

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2015

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Optimum corona ring design for high voltage compact transmission lines using Gaussian process model

Description

Electric utilities are exploring new technologies to cope up with the in-crease in electricity demand and power transfer capabilities of transmission lines. Compact transmission lines and high phase order systems are few of the techniques which enhance the power transfer

Electric utilities are exploring new technologies to cope up with the in-crease in electricity demand and power transfer capabilities of transmission lines. Compact transmission lines and high phase order systems are few of the techniques which enhance the power transfer capability of transmission lines without requiring any additional right-of-way. This research work investigates the impact of compacting high voltage transmission lines and high phase order systems on the surface electric field of composite insulators, a key factor deciding service performance of insulators. The electric field analysis was done using COULOMB 9.0, a 3D software package which uses a numerical analysis technique based on Boundary Element Method (BEM). 3D models of various types of standard transmission towers used for 230 kV, 345 kV and 500 kV level were modeled with different insulators con-figurations and number of circuits. Standard tower configuration models were compacted by reducing the clearance from live parts in steps of 10%. It was found that the standard tower configuration can be compacted to 30% without violating the minimum safety clearance mandated by NESC standards. The study shows that surface electric field on insulators for few of the compact structures exceeded the maximum allowable limit even if corona rings were installed. As a part of this study, a Gaussian process model based optimization pro-gram was developed to find the optimum corona ring dimensions to limit the electric field within stipulated values. The optimization program provides the dimen-sions of corona ring, its placement from the high voltage end for a given dry arc length of insulator and system voltage. JMP, a statistical computer package and AMPL, a computer language widely used form optimization was used for optimi-zation program. The results obtained from optimization program validated the industrial standards.

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2012

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Mitigating the detrimental impacts of solar PV penetration on electric power transmission systems

Description

At present, almost 70% of the electric energy in the United States is produced utilizing fossil fuels. Combustion of fossil fuels contributes CO2 to the atmosphere, potentially exacerbating the impact on global warming. To make the electric power system (EPS)

At present, almost 70% of the electric energy in the United States is produced utilizing fossil fuels. Combustion of fossil fuels contributes CO2 to the atmosphere, potentially exacerbating the impact on global warming. To make the electric power system (EPS) more sustainable for the future, there has been an emphasis on scaling up generation of electric energy from wind and solar resources. These resources are renewable in nature and have pollution free operation. Various states in the US have set up different goals for achieving certain amount of electrical energy to be produced from renewable resources. The Southwestern region of the United States receives significant solar radiation throughout the year. High solar radiation makes concentrated solar power and solar PV the most suitable means of renewable energy production in this region. However, the majority of the projects that are presently being developed are either residential or utility owned solar PV plants. This research explores the impact of significant PV penetration on the steady state voltage profile of the electric power transmission system. This study also identifies the impact of PV penetration on the dynamic response of the transmission system such as rotor angle stability, frequency response and voltage response after a contingency. The light load case of spring 2010 and the peak load case of summer 2018 have been considered for analyzing the impact of PV. If the impact is found to be detrimental to the normal operation of the EPS, mitigation measures have been devised and presented in the thesis. Commercially available software tools/packages such as PSLF, PSS/E, DSA Tools have been used to analyze the power network and validate the results.

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2013

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Network topology optimization with alternating current optimal power flow

Description

The electric transmission grid is conventionally treated as a fixed asset and is operated around a single topology. Though several instances of switching transmission lines for corrective mechaism, congestion management, and minimization of losses can be found in literature, the

The electric transmission grid is conventionally treated as a fixed asset and is operated around a single topology. Though several instances of switching transmission lines for corrective mechaism, congestion management, and minimization of losses can be found in literature, the idea of co-optimizing transmission with generation dispatch has not been widely investigated. Network topology optimization exploits the redundancies that are an integral part of the network to allow for improvement in dispatch efficiency. Although, the concept of a dispatchable network initially appears counterintuitive questioning the wisdom of switching transmission lines on a more regu-lar basis, results obtained in the previous research on transmission switching with a Direct Current Optimal Power Flow (DCOPF) show significant cost reductions. This thesis on network topology optimization with ACOPF emphasizes the need for additional research in this area. It examines the performance of network topology optimization in an Alternating Current (AC) setting and its impact on various parameters like active power loss and voltages that are ignored in the DC setting. An ACOPF model, with binary variables representing the status of transmission lines incorporated into the formulation, is written in AMPL, a mathematical programming language and this optimization problem is solved using the solver KNITRO. ACOPF is a non-convex, nonlinear optimization problem, making it a very hard problem to solve. The introduction of bi-nary variables makes ACOPF a mixed integer nonlinear programming problem, further increasing the complexity of the optimization problem. An iterative method of opening each transmission line individually before choosing the best solution has been proposed as a purely investigative approach to studying the impact of transmission switching with ACOPF. Economic savings of up to 6% achieved using this approach indicate the potential of this concept. In addition, a heuristic has been proposed to improve the computational efficiency of network topology optimization. This research also makes a comparative analysis between transmission switching in a DC setting and switching in an AC setting. Results presented in this thesis indicate significant economic savings achieved by controlled topology optimization, thereby reconfirming the need for further examination of this idea.

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2011

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Optimal location and sizing of dynamic VArs for fast voltage collapse

Description

Recent changes in the energy markets structure combined with the conti-nuous load growth have caused power systems to be operated under more stressed conditions. In addition, the nature of power systems has also grown more complex and dynamic because of

Recent changes in the energy markets structure combined with the conti-nuous load growth have caused power systems to be operated under more stressed conditions. In addition, the nature of power systems has also grown more complex and dynamic because of the increasing use of long inter-area tie-lines and the high motor loads especially those comprised mainly of residential single phase A/C motors. Therefore, delayed voltage recovery, fast voltage collapse and short term voltage stability issues in general have obtained significant importance in relia-bility studies. Shunt VAr injection has been used as a countermeasure for voltage instability. However, the dynamic and fast nature of short term voltage instability requires fast and sufficient VAr injection, and therefore dynamic VAr devices such as Static VAr Compensators (SVCs) and STATic COMpensators (STAT-COMs) are used. The location and size of such devices are optimized in order to improve their efficiency and reduce initial costs. In this work time domain dy-namic analysis was used to evaluate trajectory voltage sensitivities for each time step. Linear programming was then performed to determine the optimal amount of required VAr injection at each bus, using voltage sensitivities as weighting factors. Optimal VAr injection values from different operating conditions were weighted and averaged in order to obtain a final setting of the VAr requirement. Some buses under consideration were either assigned very small VAr injection values, or not assigned any value at all. Therefore, the approach used in this work was found to be useful in not only determining the optimal size of SVCs, but also their location.

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Date Created
2011

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Design of data acquisition system and fault current limiter for an ultra fast protection system

Description

This research work describes the design of a fault current limiter (FCL) using digital logic and a microcontroller based data acquisition system for an ultra fast pilot protection system. These systems have been designed according to the requirements of the

This research work describes the design of a fault current limiter (FCL) using digital logic and a microcontroller based data acquisition system for an ultra fast pilot protection system. These systems have been designed according to the requirements of the Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management (FREEDM) system (or loop), a 1 MW green energy hub. The FREEDM loop merges advanced power electronics technology with information tech-nology to form an efficient power grid that can be integrated with the existing power system. With the addition of loads to the FREEDM system, the level of fault current rises because of increased energy flow to supply the loads, and this requires the design of a limiter which can limit this current to a level which the existing switchgear can interrupt. The FCL limits the fault current to around three times the rated current. Fast switching Insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) with its gate control logic implements a switching strategy which enables this operation. A complete simulation of the system was built on Simulink and it was verified that the FCL limits the fault current to 1000 A compared to more than 3000 A fault current in the non-existence of a FCL. This setting is made user-defined. In FREEDM system, there is a need to interrupt a fault faster or make intelligent deci-sions relating to fault events, to ensure maximum availability of power to the loads connected to the system. This necessitates fast acquisition of data which is performed by the designed data acquisition system. The microcontroller acquires the data from a current transformer (CT). Mea-surements are made at different points in the FREEDM system and merged together, to input it to the intelligent protection algorithm that has been developed by another student on the project. The algorithm will generate a tripping signal in the event of a fault. The developed hardware and the programmed software to accomplish data acquisition and transmission are presented here. The designed FCL ensures that the existing switchgear equipments need not be replaced thus aiding future power system expansion. The developed data acquisition system enables fast fault sensing in protection schemes improving its reliability.

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Date Created
2011