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A comparison of the impact of temperature and glucose concentration on percent glycated serum albumin between chickens and humans

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The glycation of plasma proteins leading to the production of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and subsequent damage is a driving factor in the pathophysiology of diabetic complications. The overall research objective was to elucidate the mechanisms by which birds

The glycation of plasma proteins leading to the production of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and subsequent damage is a driving factor in the pathophysiology of diabetic complications. The overall research objective was to elucidate the mechanisms by which birds prevent protein glycation in the presence of naturally high plasma glucose concentrations. This was accomplished through the specific purpose of examining the impact of temperature and glucose concentration on the percent glycation of chicken serum albumin (CSA) in comparison to human serum albumin (HSA). Purified CSA and HSA solutions prepared at four different glucose concentrations (0 mM, 5.56 mM, 11.11 mM, and 22.22 mM) were incubated at three different temperatures (37.0°C, 39.8°C, and 41.4°C) on separate occasions for seven days with aliquots extracted on days 0, 3, and 7. Samples were analyzed by LC-ESI-MS for percent glycation of albumin. The statistically significant interaction between glucose concentration, temperature, albumin type, and time as determined by four-way repeated measures ANOVA (p = 0.032) indicated that all independent variables interacted to affect the mean percent glycation of albumin. As glucose concentration increased, the percent glycation of both HSA and CSA increased over time at all temperatures. In addition, HSA was glycated to a greater extent than CSA at the two higher glucose concentrations examined for all temperature conditions. Temperature differentially affected percent glycation of HSA and CSA wherein glycation increased with rising temperatures for HSA but not CSA. The results of this study suggest an inherent difference between the human and chicken albumin that contributes to the observed differences in glycation. Further research is needed to characterize this inherent difference in an effort to elucidate the mechanism by which birds protect plasma proteins from glycation. Future related work has the potential to lead to the development of novel therapies to prevent or reverse protein glycation prior to the formation of AGEs in humans, thus preventing the development and devastating effects of numerous diabetic complications.

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Date Created
2016

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The effect of vitamin C supplementation on sICAM-1 in asthmatic study participants

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The common cold is a significant cause of morbidity world-wide, with human rhinovirus infections accounting for a majority colds suffered each year. While the symptoms of the common cold are generally mild and self-limiting, vulnerable populations such as individuals

The common cold is a significant cause of morbidity world-wide, with human rhinovirus infections accounting for a majority colds suffered each year. While the symptoms of the common cold are generally mild and self-limiting, vulnerable populations such as individuals with asthma can experience severe secondary complications including acute asthma exacerbation which can result in severe morbidity. Most human rhinovirus types utilize Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1) as a receptor to enter cells and initiate infection. Expression of this cell-surface protein is elevated in the respiratory tract of asthma patients. The theoretical basis for this research is the observation that plasma measures of the soluble form of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (sICAM-1) decrease in response to vitamin C supplementation. As rhinovirus infection occurs in the upper respiratory tract, the primary aim of this study was to evaluate change in sICAM-1 concentration in nasal lavage of asthmatic individuals in response to vitamin C supplementation. Otherwise healthy asthmatic adults between the ages of 18-65 years who were not currently using steroidal nasal sprays, smoking, or actively training for competitive sports were recruited from a university community and surrounding area to participate in an 18-day double-blind randomized placebo-controlled supplement study with a parallel arm design. 13 subjects were stratified based on age, gender, BMI and baseline plasma vitamin C level to receive either 500 mg vitamin C twice daily (VTC, n=7) or placebo (PLC, n=6). Biochemical measures included nasal lavage sICAM-1, plasma sICAM-1, plasma histamine, and plasma vitamin C. Survey measures included Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey-21 to assess colds, Daytime Symptom Diary Scale to assess asthma symptoms, and measures of diet quality including a vitamin C food frequency questionnaire and Rapid Eating Assessment for Participants. No between group comparison of means reached significance (Mann-Whitney U test, p>0.05). Nasal lavage sICAM-1 levels were decreased in VTC group by 37% at study day 4, although this finding did not reach significance. Findings in this study can be used to develop future investigations into the response of nasal lavage sICAM-1 to vitamin C supplementation.

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Date Created
2014

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Effect of a short term high fat diet on kidney morphology and function

Description

Long term high fat diets (HFD) are correlated with the development of diabetes

and kidney disease. However, the impact of short term high fat intake on the etiology of kidney disease has not been well-studied. Therefore, this study examined the impact

Long term high fat diets (HFD) are correlated with the development of diabetes

and kidney disease. However, the impact of short term high fat intake on the etiology of kidney disease has not been well-studied. Therefore, this study examined the impact of a six week HFD (60% fat) on kidney structure and function in young male Sprague-Dawley rats. Previous studies have shown that these animals develop indices of diabetes compared to rats fed a standard rodent chow (5% fat) for six weeks. The hypothesis of this study is that six weeks of HFD will lead to early stages of kidney disease as evidenced by morphological and functional changes in the kidney. Alterations in morphology were determined by measuring structural changes in the kidneys (changes in mass, fatty acid infiltration, and structural damage). Alterations in kidney function were measured by analyzing urinary biomarkers of oxidative RNA/DNA damage, renal tissue lipid peroxidation, urinary markers of impaired kidney function (urinary protein, creatinine, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)), markers of inflammation (tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interleukin 6 (IL-6)), as well as cystatin C, a plasma biomarker of kidney function. The results of these studies determined that short term HFD intake is not sufficient to induce early stage kidney disease. Beyond increases in renal mass, there were no significant differences between the markers of renal structure and function in the HFD and standard rodent chow-fed rats.

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Date Created
2015

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Vitamin C and the common cold in the asthmatic population

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ABSTRACT

Asthma is a high-stress, chronic medical condition; 1 in 12 adults in the United States combat the bronchoconstriction from asthma. However, there are very few strong studies indicating any alternative therapy for asthmatics, particularly following a cold incidence. Vitamin

ABSTRACT

Asthma is a high-stress, chronic medical condition; 1 in 12 adults in the United States combat the bronchoconstriction from asthma. However, there are very few strong studies indicating any alternative therapy for asthmatics, particularly following a cold incidence. Vitamin C has been proven to be effective for other high-stress populations, but the asthmatic population has not yet been trialed. This study examined the effectiveness of vitamin C supplementation during the cold season on cold incidence and asthmatic symptoms. Asthmatics, otherwise-healthy, who were non-smokers and non-athletes between the ages of 18 and 55 with low plasma vitamin C concentrations were separated by anthropometrics and vitamin C status into two groups: either vitamin C (500 mg vitamin C capsule consumed twice per day) or control (placebo capsule consumed twice per day). Subjects were instructed to complete the Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey-21 and a short asthma symptoms questionnaire daily along with a shortened vitamin C Food Frequency Questionnaire and physical activity questionnaire weekly for eight weeks. Blood samples were drawn at Week 0 (baseline), Week 4, and Week 8. Compliance was monitored through a calendar check sheet. The vitamin C levels of both groups increased from Week 0 to Week 4, but decreased in the vitamin C group at Week 8. The vitamin C group had a 19% decrease in plasma histamine while the control group had a 53% increase in plasma histamine at the end of the trial, but this was not statistically significant (p>0.05). Total symptoms recorded from WURSS-21 were 129.3±120.7 for the vitamin C and 271.0±293.9, but the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.724). Total asthma symptoms also slightly varied between the groups, but again was not statistically significant (p=0.154). These results were hindered by the low number of subjects recruited. Continued research in this study approach is necessary to definitively reject or accept the potential role of vitamin C in asthma and cold care.

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Date Created
2015

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Effects of vinegar on colonic fermentation and glycemia

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ABSTRACT This randomized, controlled, double-blind crossover study examined the effects of a preprandial, 20g oral dose of apple cider vinegar (ACV) on colonic fermentation and glycemia in a normal population, with the ultimate intention of identifying the mechanisms by which

ABSTRACT This randomized, controlled, double-blind crossover study examined the effects of a preprandial, 20g oral dose of apple cider vinegar (ACV) on colonic fermentation and glycemia in a normal population, with the ultimate intention of identifying the mechanisms by which vinegar has been shown to reduce postprandial glycemia and insulinemia. Fifteen male and female subjects were recruited, ages 20-60y, who had no prior history of gastrointestinal (GI) disease or resections impacting normal GI function, were non-smokers, were non-vegetarian/vegan, were not taking any medications known to alter (glucose) metabolism, and were free of chronic disease including diabetes. Subjects were instructed to avoid exercise, alcohol and smoking the day prior to their trials and to consume a standardized, high-carbohydrate dinner meal the eve prior. There was a one-week washout period per subject between appointments. Breath hydrogen, serum insulin and capillary glucose were assessed over 3 hours after a high-starch breakfast meal to evaluate the impact of preprandial supplementation with ACV or placebo (water). Findings confirmed the antiglycemic effects of ACV as documented in previous studies, with significantly lower mean blood glucose concentrations observed during ACV treatment compared to the placebo at 30 min (p=0.003) and 60 min (p=0.005), and significantly higher mean blood glucose concentrations at 180 min (p=0.045) postprandial. No significant differences in insulin concentrations between treatments. No significant differences were found between treatments (p>0.05) for breath hydrogen; however, a trend was observed between the treatments at 180 min postprandial where breath hydrogen concentration was visually perceived as being higher with ACV treatment compared to the placebo. Therefore, this study failed to support the hypothesis that preprandial ACV ingestion produces a higher rate of colonic fermentation within a 3 hour time period following a high-carbohydrate meal. Due to variations in experiment duration noted in other literature, an additional study of similar nature with an expanded specimen collections period, well beyond 3 hours, is warranted.

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Date Created
2012

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The effects of omega 3 supplementation on markers of obesity and endothelial function in healthy subjects

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ABSTRACT The hormone leptin is an important regulator of body weight and energy balance, while nitric oxide (NO) produced in the blood vessels is beneficial for preventing disease-induced impaired vasodilation and hypertension. Elevations in the free radical superoxide can result

ABSTRACT The hormone leptin is an important regulator of body weight and energy balance, while nitric oxide (NO) produced in the blood vessels is beneficial for preventing disease-induced impaired vasodilation and hypertension. Elevations in the free radical superoxide can result in impaired vasodilation through scavenging of NO. Omega 3 is a polyunsaturated fatty acid that is beneficial at reducing body weight and in lowering many cardiovascular risk factors like atherosclerosis. The present study was designed to examine the change in plasma concentrations of leptin, nitric oxide, and the antioxidant superoxide dismutase in addition to examining the association between leptin and NO in healthy normal weight adult female subjects before and following omega 3 intakes. Participants were randomly assigned to either a fish oil group (600 mg per day) or a control group (1000 mg of coconut oil per day) for 8 weeks. Results showed no significant difference in the percent change of leptin over the 8 week supplementation period for either group (15.3±31.9 for fish oil group, 7.83±27 for control group; p=0.763). The percent change in NO was similarly not significantly altered in either group (-1.97±22 decline in fish oil group, 11.8±53.9 in control group; p=0.960). Likewise, the percent change in superoxide dismutase for each group was not significant following 8 weeks of supplementation (fish oil group: 11.94±20.94; control group: 11.8±53.9; p=0.362). The Pearson correlation co-efficient comparing the percent change of both leptin and NO was r2= -0.251 demonstrating a mildly negative, albeit insignificant, relationship between these factors. Together, these findings suggest that daily supplementation with 600 mg omega 3 in healthy females is not beneficial for improving these cardiovascular risk markers. Future studies in this area should include male subjects as well as overweight subjects with larger doses of fish oil that are equivalent to three or more servings per week. The importance of gender cannot be underestimated since estrogen has protective effects in the vasculature of females that may have masked any further protective effects of the fish oil. In addition, overweight individuals are often leptin-resistant and develop impaired vasodilation resulting from superoxide-mediated scavenging of nitric oxide. Therefore, the reported antioxidant and weight loss properties of omega 3 supplementation may greatly benefit overweight individuals.

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Date Created
2014

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Evaluation of protein glycation and antioxidant levels in birds of prey

Description

Birds have shown promise as models of diabetes due to health and longevity despite naturally high plasma glucose concentrations, a condition which in diabetic humans leads to protein glycation and various complications. Research into mechanisms that protect birds from high

Birds have shown promise as models of diabetes due to health and longevity despite naturally high plasma glucose concentrations, a condition which in diabetic humans leads to protein glycation and various complications. Research into mechanisms that protect birds from high plasma glucose have shown that some species of birds have naturally low levels of protein glycation. Some hypothesize a diet rich in carotenoids and other antioxidants protects birds from protein glycation and oxidative damage. There is little research, however, into the amount of protein glycation in birds of prey, which consume a high protein, high fat diet. No studies have examined the potential link between the diet of carnivorous birds and protein glycation. The overall purpose of this study was to evaluate whether birds of prey have higher protein glycation given their high protein, high fat diet in comparison to chickens, which consume a diet higher in carbohydrates. This was accomplished through analyses of serum samples from select birds of prey (bald eagle, red-tailed hawk, barred owl, great horned owl). Serum samples were obtained from The Raptor Center at the University of Minnesota where the birds of prey consumed high protein, high fat, non-supplemented diets that consisted of small animals and very little to no carbohydrate. Serum was also obtained from one chicken for a control, which consumed a higher carbohydrate and antioxidant-rich diet. Glucose, native albumin glycation and antioxidant concentrations (uric acid, vitamin E, retinol and several carotenoids) of each sample was measured. Statistical analyses showed significant between group differences in percent protein glycation amongst the birds of prey species. Glycation was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in bald eagles (23.67 ± 1.90%) and barred owls (24.28 ± 1.43%) compared to red-tailed hawks (14.31 ± 0.63%). Percent glycation was higher in all birds of prey compared to the chicken sample and literature values for chicken albumin glycation. Levels of the carotenoid lutein were significantly higher in bald eagles and barred owls compared to great horned owls and red-tailed hawks and the carotenoids beta-cryptoxanthin and beta-carotene were significantly greater in bald eagles compared to red-tailed hawks and great horned owls.

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Date Created
2017

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Comparison of high-nitrate versus low-nitrate diets on cardiovascular health in post-menopausal women

Description

Background. Despite research aimed at understanding the mechanisms of essential hypertension, instances of this condition continue to rise. Recent findings indicate that the administration of dietary nitrates, in the form of beetroot juice and other nitrate-rich vegetables, may offer

Background. Despite research aimed at understanding the mechanisms of essential hypertension, instances of this condition continue to rise. Recent findings indicate that the administration of dietary nitrates, in the form of beetroot juice and other nitrate-rich vegetables, may offer anti-hypertensive effects in various study populations.

Objective. This randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial sought to compare the effects of high-nitrate vegetable salads to the effects of low-nitrate canned vegetables on plasma nitrate
itrite concentration, peripheral and central-aortic systolic and diastolic blood pressures, pulse wave velocity, and flow-mediated dilation.

Methods. Healthy, post-menopausal women (n=5; 80% Caucasian; 52.6 ± 5.7 years) with mildly elevated blood pressure (mean blood pressure ≥ 115/70 mm Hg and < 140/80 mm Hg) were randomly assigned to ingest a fresh, high-nitrate vegetable salad or a low-nitrate vegetable medley, twice per day, for a total of 10 consecutive days. Given the crossover design of the trial, participants observed a two to three week washout period followed by reassignment to the opposite condition. Findings were considered significant at a p-value < 0.05, and Wilcoxon Signed-Rank tests compared mean differences between conditions.

Results. Plasma nitrate
itrite concentration was significantly higher following consumption of the high-nitrate versus the low-nitrate condition (p = 0.043). Conversely, the differences in peripheral systolic and diastolic blood pressures were not statistically significant (p = 0.345 and p = 0.684 for systolic and diastolic pressures, respectively) nor were the differences in central-aortic systolic and diastolic blood pressures statistically significant (p = 0.225 and p = 0.465 for systolic and diastolic pressures, respectively). Similarly, when comparing the effects of the high-nitrate condition to the low-nitrate condition, the difference in pulse wave velocity was not statistically significant (p = 0.465). Finally, flow-mediated dilation tended to improve following consumption of the high nitrate condition (p = 0.080).

Conclusion. Twice daily consumption of a fresh, high-nitrate vegetable salad significantly increased plasma nitrate
itrite concentration. Although the trial was underpowered, there was a trend for improved flow-mediated dilation. Finally, twice daily consumption of a fresh, high-nitrate vegetable salad did not significantly lower peripheral or central-aortic systolic or diastolic blood pressures or pulse wave velocity.

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Date Created
2017

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Exploring the Association of Dietary Fructose and Advanced Glycation End Products

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Background: Sugars form advanced glycation end products (AGEs) throughnatural metabolism and interactions with proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, which accumulate in tissues and have been implicated in the etiology of chronic diseases. Due to the increased consumption of fructose and

Background: Sugars form advanced glycation end products (AGEs) throughnatural metabolism and interactions with proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, which accumulate in tissues and have been implicated in the etiology of chronic diseases. Due to the increased consumption of fructose and its high ability to form AGEs, a further understanding of this association is important to clarify the role of sugars in disease. The objective was to explore the association between usual fructose intake and serum levels of AGEs, as measured by carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) and methylglyoxal derivative (MG-H1), in healthy adults. Methods: This is a secondary analysis of a 15-d controlled feeding study (n=100) with participants consuming their usual diet conducted in the Phoenix metropolitan area. To assess participants’ usual diet, they were asked to complete two 7-d food diaries, which were then used to create custom 15-d menu plans administered during the feeding period. Forty participants were selected based on their 15-d mean total fructose intake for this analysis [top and bottom 20% of the sample distribution (median, IQR); high fructose (HF) n= 20, 72.6 (66.1-90.4) g/day, low fructose (LF) n= 20, 28.8 (22.7-32.2) g/day. Fasting serum collected five weeks after the feeding period were analyzed for CML and MG-H1, two well-established AGEs, using ELISA kits. A database of 549 common foods with known CML amounts was used to calculate exogenous CML intake based on daily food intake data. A general linear model was fitted to investigate the difference in serum CML and MG-H1 between LF and HF groups while adjusting for age, gender, BMI, and exogenous CML intake. Results: Participants in the HF group had significantly higher serum CML and lower MG-H1 levels compared to participants in the LF group (p=0.013 and p=0.002, respectively). This difference remained statistically significant after adjusting for covariates. Conclusions: The findings suggest that endogenous CML formation may be an explanation for the significantly higher serum CML levels in the HF compared to the LF group. This is significant in further understanding mechanisms of fructose intake and disease etiology and could have implications for at-risk populations consuming a high fructose diet.

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Date Created
2021

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The impact of adherence to a vegan diet on acid-base balance: : a randomized controlled trial in healthy college students

Description

There is a considerable amount of research stating that vegetarian diets have an alkalizing effect while the typical western diet is acid-forming. There is substantial evidence regarding the health benefits of an alkaline diet. Although vegetarian diets demonstrate the ability

There is a considerable amount of research stating that vegetarian diets have an alkalizing effect while the typical western diet is acid-forming. There is substantial evidence regarding the health benefits of an alkaline diet. Although vegetarian diets demonstrate the ability to foster these health benefits, many people are still not willing to adopt a completely vegetarian diet. PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of following a vegan diet two or three days per week on acid-base balance in a healthy college student population aged 18-30. METHODS: In a one-week interventional design, 23 people were randomly assigned to follow a vegan diet 2 days per week (VEG2;n=7), 3 days per week(VEG3;n=8), or 7 days per week (VEG7;n=8). Urine pH and dietary PRAL were assessed in each group at baseline and after the one-week intervention. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in urinary pH between the three groups (p=0.12). The change in PRAL values after the dietary intervention was different between the 3 groups (p=0.03). CONCLUSION: Adherence to a vegan diet 2 or 3 days per week did not show a significant change in urinary pH or PRAL.

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Date Created
2015