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Feasibility of a negative pressure system to remove smoke from an aircraft flight deck

Description

Smoke entering a flight deck cabin has been an issue for commercial aircraft for many years. The issue for a flight crew is how to mitigate the smoke so that they can safely fly the aircraft. For this thesis, the

Smoke entering a flight deck cabin has been an issue for commercial aircraft for many years. The issue for a flight crew is how to mitigate the smoke so that they can safely fly the aircraft. For this thesis, the feasibility of having a Negative Pressure System that utilizes the cabin altitude pressure and outside altitude pressure to remove smoke from a flight deck was studied. Existing procedures for flight crews call for a descent down to a safe level for depressurizing the aircraft before taking further action. This process takes crucial time that is critical to the flight crew's ability to keep aware of the situation. This process involves a flight crews coordination and fast thinking to manually take control of the aircraft; which has become increasing more difficult due to the advancements in aircraft automation. Unfortunately this is the only accepted procedure that is used by a flight crew. Other products merely displace the smoke. This displacement is after the time it takes for the flight crew to set up the smoke displacement unit with no guarantee that a flight crew will be able to see or use all of the aircraft's controls. The Negative Pressure System will work automatically and not only use similar components already found on the aircraft, but work in conjunction with the smoke detection system and pressurization system so smoke removal can begin without having to descend down to a lower altitude. In order for this system to work correctly many factors must be taken into consideration. The size of a flight deck varies from aircraft to aircraft, therefore the ability for the system to efficiently remove smoke from an aircraft is taken into consideration. For the system to be feasible on an aircraft the cost and weight must be taken into consideration as the added fuel consumption due to weight of the system may be the limiting factor for installing such a system on commercial aircraft.

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2013

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Frequency response characteristics of respiratory flow-meters

Description

Flow measurement has always been one of the most critical processes in many industrial and clinical applications. The dynamic behavior of flow helps to define the state of a process. An industrial example would be that in an aircraft, where

Flow measurement has always been one of the most critical processes in many industrial and clinical applications. The dynamic behavior of flow helps to define the state of a process. An industrial example would be that in an aircraft, where the rate of airflow passing the aircraft is used to determine the speed of the plane. A clinical example would be that the flow of a patient's breath which could help determine the state of the patient's lungs. This project is focused on the flow-meter that are used for airflow measurement in human lungs. In order to do these measurements, resistive-type flow-meters are commonly used in respiratory measurement systems. This method consists of passing the respiratory flow through a fluid resistive component, while measuring the resulting pressure drop, which is linearly related to volumetric flow rate. These types of flow-meters typically have a low frequency response but are adequate for most applications, including spirometry and respiration monitoring. In the case of lung parameter estimation methods, such as the Quick Obstruction Method, it becomes important to have a higher frequency response in the flow-meter so that the high frequency components in the flow are measurable. The following three types of flow-meters were: a. Capillary type b. Screen Pneumotach type c. Square Edge orifice type To measure the frequency response, a sinusoidal flow is generated with a small speaker and passed through the flow-meter that is connected to a large, rigid container. True flow is proportional to the derivative of the pressure inside the container. True flow is then compared with the measured flow, which is proportional to the pressure drop across the flow-meter. In order to do the characterization, two LabVIEW data acquisition programs have been developed, one for transducer calibration, and another one that records flow and pressure data for frequency response testing of the flow-meter. In addition, a model that explains the behavior exhibited by the flow-meter has been proposed and simulated. This model contains a fluid resistor and inductor in series. The final step in this project was to approximate the frequency response data to the developed model expressed as a transfer function.

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2013

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Determination of dominant failure modes using combined experimental and statistical methods and selection of best method to calculate degradation rates

Description

This is a two part thesis:

Part 1 of this thesis determines the most dominant failure modes of field aged photovoltaic (PV) modules using experimental data and statistical analysis, FMECA (Failure Mode, Effect, and Criticality Analysis). The failure and degradation modes

This is a two part thesis:

Part 1 of this thesis determines the most dominant failure modes of field aged photovoltaic (PV) modules using experimental data and statistical analysis, FMECA (Failure Mode, Effect, and Criticality Analysis). The failure and degradation modes of about 5900 crystalline-Si glass/polymer modules fielded for 6 to 16 years in three different photovoltaic (PV) power plants with different mounting systems under the hot-dry desert climate of Arizona are evaluated. A statistical reliability tool, FMECA that uses Risk Priority Number (RPN) is performed for each PV power plant to determine the dominant failure modes in the modules by means of ranking and prioritizing the modes. This study on PV power plants considers all the failure and degradation modes from both safety and performance perspectives, and thus, comes to the conclusion that solder bond fatigue/failure with/without gridline/metallization contact fatigue/failure is the most dominant failure mode for these module types in the hot-dry desert climate of Arizona.

Part 2 of this thesis determines the best method to compute degradation rates of PV modules. Three different PV systems were evaluated to compute degradation rates using four methods and they are: I-V measurement, metered kWh, performance ratio (PR) and performance index (PI). I-V method, being an ideal method for degradation rate computation, were compared to the results from other three methods. The median degradation rates computed from kWh method were within ±0.15% from I-V measured degradation rates (0.9-1.37 %/year of three models). Degradation rates from the PI method were within ±0.05% from the I-V measured rates for two systems but the calculated degradation rate was remarkably different (±1%) from the I-V method for the third system. The degradation rate from the PR method was within ±0.16% from the I-V measured rate for only one system but were remarkably different (±1%) from the I-V measured rate for the other two systems. Thus, it was concluded that metered raw kWh method is the best practical method, after I-V method and PI method (if ground mounted POA insolation and other weather data are available) for degradation computation as this method was found to be fairly accurate, easy, inexpensive, fast and convenient.

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2014

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Performance analysis of solar assisted domestic hot water system

Description

Testing was conducted for a solar assisted water heater and conventional all electric water heater for the purpose of investigating the advantages of utilizing solar energy to heat up water. The testing conducted simulated a four person household living in

Testing was conducted for a solar assisted water heater and conventional all electric water heater for the purpose of investigating the advantages of utilizing solar energy to heat up water. The testing conducted simulated a four person household living in the Phoenix, Arizona region. With sensors and a weather station, data was gathered and analyzed for the water heaters. Performance patterns were observed that correlated to ambient conditions and functionality of the solar assisted water heater. This helped better understand how the solar water heater functioned and how it may continue to function. The testing for the solar assisted water heater was replicated with the all-electric water heater. One to one analyzes was conducted for comparison. The efficiency and advantages were displayed by the solar assisted water heater having a 61% efficiency. Performance parameters were calculated for the solar assisted water heater and it showed how accurate certified standards are. The results showed 8% difference in performance, but differed in energy savings. This further displayed the effects of uncontrollable ambient conditions and the effects of different testing conditions.

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2016

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Development of automated solar tracker for a solar concentrating water heater with phase change energy storage

Description

With the need to address the world's growing energy demand, many new

alternative and renewable energy sources are being researched and developed. Many

of these technologies are in their infancy, still being too inefficient or too costly to

implement on a large scale.

With the need to address the world's growing energy demand, many new

alternative and renewable energy sources are being researched and developed. Many

of these technologies are in their infancy, still being too inefficient or too costly to

implement on a large scale. This list of alternative energies include biofuels,

geothermal power, solar energy, wind energy and hydroelectric power. This thesis

focuses on developing a concentrating solar thermal energy unit for the application

of an on-demand hot water system with phase change material. This system already

has a prototype constructed and needs refinement in several areas in order to

increase its efficiency to determine if the system could ever reach a point of

feasibility in a residential application. Having put additional control refining

systems on the solar water heat collector, it can be deduced that the efficiency has

increased. However, due to limited testing and analysis it is undetermined just how

much the efficiency of the system has increased. At minimum, the capabilities of the

research platform have dramatically increased, allowing future research to more

accurately study the dynamics of the system as well as conduct studies in more

targeted areas of engineering. In this aspect, the thesis was successful.

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Date Created
2016

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Design, simulation, and analysis of domestic solar water heating systems in Phoenix, Arizona

Description

Research was conducted to quantify the energy and cost savings of two different domestic solar water heating systems compared to an all-electric water heater for a four-person household in Phoenix, Arizona. The knowledge gained from this research will enable utilities

Research was conducted to quantify the energy and cost savings of two different domestic solar water heating systems compared to an all-electric water heater for a four-person household in Phoenix, Arizona. The knowledge gained from this research will enable utilities to better align incentives and consumers to make more informed decisions prior to purchasing a solar water heater. Daily energy and temperature data were collected in a controlled, closed environment lab. Three mathematical models were designed in TRNSYS 17, a transient system simulation tool. The data from the lab were used to validate the TRNSYS models, and the TRNSYS results were used to project annual cost and energy savings for the solar water heaters. The projected energy savings for a four-person household in Phoenix, Arizona are 80% when using the SunEarth® system with an insulated and glazed flat-plate collector, and 49% when using the FAFCO® system with unglazed, non-insulated flat-plate collectors. Utilizing all available federal, state, and utility incentives, a consumer could expect to recoup his or her investment after the fifth year if purchasing a SunEarth® system, and after the eighth year if purchasing a FAFCO® system. Over the 20-year analysis period, a consumer could expect to save $2,519 with the SunEarth® system, and $971 with the FAFCO® system.

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Date Created
2012

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Angle of incidence and power degradation analysis of photovoltaic modules

Description

Photovoltaic (PV) module nameplates typically provide the module's electrical characteristics at standard test conditions (STC). The STC conditions are: irradiance of 1000 W/m2, cell temperature of 25oC and sunlight spectrum at air mass 1.5. However, modules in the field experience

Photovoltaic (PV) module nameplates typically provide the module's electrical characteristics at standard test conditions (STC). The STC conditions are: irradiance of 1000 W/m2, cell temperature of 25oC and sunlight spectrum at air mass 1.5. However, modules in the field experience a wide range of environmental conditions which affect their electrical characteristics and render the nameplate data insufficient in determining a module's overall, actual field performance. To make sound technical and financial decisions, designers and investors need additional performance data to determine the energy produced by modules operating under various field conditions. The angle of incidence (AOI) of sunlight on PV modules is one of the major parameters which dictate the amount of light reaching the solar cells. The experiment was carried out at the Arizona State University- Photovoltaic Reliability Laboratory (ASU-PRL). The data obtained was processed in accordance with the IEC 61853-2 model to obtain relative optical response of the modules (response which does not include the cosine effect). The results were then compared with theoretical models for air-glass interface and also with the empirical model developed by Sandia National Laboratories. The results showed that all modules with glass as the superstrate had identical optical response and were in agreement with both the IEC 61853-2 model and other theoretical and empirical models. The performance degradation of module over years of exposure in the field is dependent upon factors such as environmental conditions, system configuration, etc. Analyzing the degradation of power and other related performance parameters over time will provide vital information regarding possible degradation rates and mechanisms of the modules. An extensive study was conducted by previous ASU-PRL students on approximately 1700 modules which have over 13 years of hot- dry climatic field condition. An analysis of the results obtained in previous ASU-PRL studies show that the major degradation in crystalline silicon modules having glass/polymer construction is encapsulant discoloration (causing short circuit current drop) and solder bond degradation (causing fill factor drop due to series resistance increase). The power degradation for crystalline silicon modules having glass/glass construction was primarily attributed to encapsulant delamination (causing open-circuit voltage drop).

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Date Created
2013

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Building applied photovoltaic arrays: side-by-side array comparison with and without fan cooling

Description

Building Applied Photovoltaics (BAPV) form an essential part of today's solar economy. This thesis is an effort to compare and understand the effect of fan cooling on the temperature of rooftop photovoltaic (PV) modules by comparing two side-by-side arrays (test

Building Applied Photovoltaics (BAPV) form an essential part of today's solar economy. This thesis is an effort to compare and understand the effect of fan cooling on the temperature of rooftop photovoltaic (PV) modules by comparing two side-by-side arrays (test array and control array) under identical ambient conditions of irradiance, air temperature, wind speed and wind direction. The lower operating temperature of PV modules due to fan operation mitigates array non uniformity and improves on performance. A crystalline silicon (c-Si) PV module has a light to electrical conversion efficiency of 14-20%. So on a cool sunny day with incident solar irradiance of 1000 W/m2, a PV module with 15% efficiency, will produce about only 150 watts. The rest of the energy is primarily lost in the form of heat. Heat extraction methods for BAPV systems may become increasingly higher in demand as the hot stagnant air underneath the array can be extracted to improve the array efficiency and the extracted low-temperature heat can also be used for residential space heating and water heating. Poly c-Si modules experience a negative temperature coefficient of power at about -0.5% /o C. A typical poly c-Si module would experience power loss due to elevation in temperature, which may be in the range of 25 to 30% for desert conditions such as that of Mesa, Arizona. This thesis investigates the effect of fan cooling on the previously developed thermal models at Arizona State University and on the performance of PV modules/arrays. Ambient conditions are continuously monitored and collected to calculate module temperature using the thermal model and to compare with actually measured temperature of individual modules. Including baseline analysis, the thesis has also looked into the effect of fan on the test array in three stages of 14 continuous days each. Multiple Thermal models are developed in order to identify the effect of fan cooling on performance and temperature uniformity. Although the fan did not prove to have much significant cooling effect on the system, but when combined with wind blocks it helped improve the thermal mismatch both under low and high wind speed conditions.

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Date Created
2011

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Investigation of 1,900 individual field aged photovoltaic modules for potential induced degradation (PID) in a positive biased power plant

Description

Photovoltaic (PV) modules undergo performance degradation depending on climatic conditions, applications, and system configurations. The performance degradation prediction of PV modules is primarily based on Accelerated Life Testing (ALT) procedures. In order to further strengthen the ALT process, additional investigation

Photovoltaic (PV) modules undergo performance degradation depending on climatic conditions, applications, and system configurations. The performance degradation prediction of PV modules is primarily based on Accelerated Life Testing (ALT) procedures. In order to further strengthen the ALT process, additional investigation of the power degradation of field aged PV modules in various configurations is required. A detailed investigation of 1,900 field aged (12-18 years) PV modules deployed in a power plant application was conducted for this study. Analysis was based on the current-voltage (I-V) measurement of all the 1,900 modules individually. I-V curve data of individual modules formed the basis for calculating the performance degradation of the modules. The percentage performance degradation and rates of degradation were compared to an earlier study done at the same plant. The current research was primarily focused on identifying the extent of potential induced degradation (PID) of individual modules with reference to the negative ground potential. To investigate this, the arrangement and connection of the individual modules/strings was examined in detail. The study also examined the extent of underperformance of every series string due to performance mismatch of individual modules in that string. The power loss due to individual module degradation and module mismatch at string level was then compared to the rated value.

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Date Created
2011

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Critical evaluation and optimization of a hypocycloid wiseman engine

Description

In nearly all commercially successful internal combustion engine applications, the slider crank mechanism is used to convert the reciprocating motion of the piston into rotary motion. The hypocycloid mechanism, wherein the crankshaft is replaced with a novel gearing arrangement, is

In nearly all commercially successful internal combustion engine applications, the slider crank mechanism is used to convert the reciprocating motion of the piston into rotary motion. The hypocycloid mechanism, wherein the crankshaft is replaced with a novel gearing arrangement, is a viable alternative to the slider crank mechanism. The geared hypocycloid mechanism allows for linear motion of the connecting rod and provides a method for perfect balance with any number of cylinders including single cylinder applications. A variety of hypocycloid engine designs and research efforts have been undertaken and produced successful running prototypes. Wiseman Technologies, Inc provided one of these prototypes to this research effort. This two-cycle 30cc half crank hypocycloid engine has shown promise in several performance categories including balance and efficiency. To further investigate its potential a more thorough and scientific analysis was necessary and completed in this research effort. The major objective of the research effort was to critically evaluate and optimize the Wiseman prototype for maximum performance in balance, efficiency, and power output. A nearly identical slider crank engine was used extensively to establish baseline performance data and make comparisons. Specialized equipment and methods were designed and built to collect experimental data on both engines. Simulation and mathematical models validated by experimental data collection were used to better quantify performance improvements. Modifications to the Wiseman prototype engine improved balance by 20 to 50% (depending on direction) and increased peak power output by 24%.

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Date Created
2011