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Non-destructive resonance testing using frequency and time domain techniques

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The objective of this thesis was to compare various approaches for classification of the `good' and `bad' parts via non-destructive resonance testing methods by collecting and analyzing experimental data in the frequency and time domains. A Laser Scanning Vibrometer was

The objective of this thesis was to compare various approaches for classification of the `good' and `bad' parts via non-destructive resonance testing methods by collecting and analyzing experimental data in the frequency and time domains. A Laser Scanning Vibrometer was employed to measure vibrations samples in order to determine the spectral characteristics such as natural frequencies and amplitudes. Statistical pattern recognition tools such as Hilbert Huang, Fisher's Discriminant, and Neural Network were used to identify and classify the unknown samples whether they are defective or not. In this work, a Finite Element Analysis software packages (ANSYS 13.0 and NASTRAN NX8.0) was used to obtain estimates of resonance frequencies in `good' and `bad' samples. Furthermore, a system identification approach was used to generate Auto-Regressive-Moving Average with exogenous component, Box-Jenkins, and Output Error models from experimental data that can be used for classification

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2013

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Performance and scaling analysis of a hypocycloid wiseman engine

Description

The slider-crank mechanism is popularly used in internal combustion engines to convert the reciprocating motion of the piston into a rotary motion. This research discusses an alternate mechanism proposed by the Wiseman Technology Inc. which involves replacing the crankshaft with

The slider-crank mechanism is popularly used in internal combustion engines to convert the reciprocating motion of the piston into a rotary motion. This research discusses an alternate mechanism proposed by the Wiseman Technology Inc. which involves replacing the crankshaft with a hypocycloid gear assembly. The unique hypocycloid gear arrangement allows the piston and the connecting rod to move in a straight line, creating a perfect sinusoidal motion. To analyze the performance advantages of the Wiseman mechanism, engine simulation software was used. The Wiseman engine with the hypocycloid piston motion was modeled in the software and the engine's simulated output results were compared to those with a conventional engine of the same size. The software was also used to analyze the multi-fuel capabilities of the Wiseman engine using a contra piston. The engine's performance was studied while operating on diesel, ethanol and gasoline fuel. Further, a scaling analysis on the future Wiseman engine prototypes was carried out to understand how the performance of the engine is affected by increasing the output power and cylinder displacement. It was found that the existing Wiseman engine produced about 7% less power at peak speeds compared to the slider-crank engine of the same size. It also produced lower torque and was about 6% less fuel efficient than the slider-crank engine. These results were concurrent with the dynamometer tests performed in the past. The 4 stroke diesel variant of the same Wiseman engine performed better than the 2 stroke gasoline version as well as the slider-crank engine in all aspects. The Wiseman engine using contra piston showed poor fuel efficiency while operating on E85 fuel. But it produced higher torque and about 1.4% more power than while running on gasoline. While analyzing the effects of the engine size on the Wiseman prototypes, it was found that the engines performed better in terms of power, torque, fuel efficiency and cylinder BMEP as their displacements increased. The 30 horsepower (HP) prototype, while operating on E85, produced the most optimum results in all aspects and the diesel variant of the same engine proved to be the most fuel efficient.

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2014

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Load carrying assistance device: pogo suit

Description

Wearable robots including exoskeletons, powered prosthetics, and powered orthotics must add energy to the person at an appropriate time to enhance, augment, or supplement human performance. Adding energy while not being in sync with the user can dramatically hurt performance

Wearable robots including exoskeletons, powered prosthetics, and powered orthotics must add energy to the person at an appropriate time to enhance, augment, or supplement human performance. Adding energy while not being in sync with the user can dramatically hurt performance making it necessary to have correct timing with the user. Many human tasks such as walking, running, and hopping are repeating or cyclic tasks and a robot can add energy in sync with the repeating pattern for assistance. A method has been developed to add energy at the appropriate time to the repeating limit cycle based on a phase oscillator. The phase oscillator eliminates time from the forcing function which is based purely on the motion of the user. This approach has been simulated, implemented and tested in a robotic backpack which facilitates carrying heavy loads. The device oscillates the load of the backpack, based on the motion of the user, in order to add energy at the correct time and thus reduce the amount of energy required for walking with a heavy load. Models were developed in Working Model 2-D, a dynamics simulation software, in conjunction with MATLAB to verify theory and test control methods. The control system developed is robust and has successfully operated on a range of different users, each with their own different and distinct gait. The results of experimental testing validated the corresponding models.

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2014

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Stability and reducibility of quasi-periodic systems

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In this work, we focused on the stability and reducibility of quasi-periodic systems. We examined the quasi-periodic linear Mathieu equation of the form x ̈+(ä+ϵ[cost+cosùt])x=0 The stability of solutions of Mathieu's equation as a function of parameter values (ä,ϵ) had

In this work, we focused on the stability and reducibility of quasi-periodic systems. We examined the quasi-periodic linear Mathieu equation of the form x ̈+(ä+ϵ[cost+cosùt])x=0 The stability of solutions of Mathieu's equation as a function of parameter values (ä,ϵ) had been analyzed in this work. We used the Floquet type theory to generate stability diagrams which were used to determine the bounded regions of stability in the ä-ù plane for fixed ϵ. In the case of reducibility, we first applied the Lyapunov- Floquet (LF) transformation and modal transformation, which converted the linear part of the system into the Jordan form. Very importantly, quasi-periodic near-identity transformation was applied to reduce the system equations to a constant coefficient system by solving homological equations via harmonic balance. In this process we obtained the reducibility/resonance conditions that needed to be satisfied to convert a quasi-periodic system to a constant one.

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2012

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Design and analysis of stop-rotor multimode unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)

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The objective of this work is to develop a Stop-Rotor Multimode UAV. This UAV is capable of vertical take-off and landing like a helicopter and can convert from a helicopter mode to an airplane mode in mid-flight. Thus, this UAV

The objective of this work is to develop a Stop-Rotor Multimode UAV. This UAV is capable of vertical take-off and landing like a helicopter and can convert from a helicopter mode to an airplane mode in mid-flight. Thus, this UAV can hover as a helicopter and achieve high mission range of an airplane. The stop-rotor concept implies that in mid-flight the lift generating helicopter rotor stops and rotates the blades into airplane wings. The thrust in airplane mode is then provided by a pusher propeller. The aircraft configuration presents unique challenges in flight dynamics, modeling and control. In this thesis a mathematical model along with the design and simulations of a hover control will be presented. In addition, the discussion of the performance in fixed-wing flight, and the autopilot architecture of the UAV will be presented. Also presented, are some experimental "conversion" results where the Stop-Rotor aircraft was dropped from a hot air balloon and performed a successful conversion from helicopter to airplane mode.

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2011

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Critical evaluation and optimization of a hypocycloid wiseman engine

Description

In nearly all commercially successful internal combustion engine applications, the slider crank mechanism is used to convert the reciprocating motion of the piston into rotary motion. The hypocycloid mechanism, wherein the crankshaft is replaced with a novel gearing arrangement, is

In nearly all commercially successful internal combustion engine applications, the slider crank mechanism is used to convert the reciprocating motion of the piston into rotary motion. The hypocycloid mechanism, wherein the crankshaft is replaced with a novel gearing arrangement, is a viable alternative to the slider crank mechanism. The geared hypocycloid mechanism allows for linear motion of the connecting rod and provides a method for perfect balance with any number of cylinders including single cylinder applications. A variety of hypocycloid engine designs and research efforts have been undertaken and produced successful running prototypes. Wiseman Technologies, Inc provided one of these prototypes to this research effort. This two-cycle 30cc half crank hypocycloid engine has shown promise in several performance categories including balance and efficiency. To further investigate its potential a more thorough and scientific analysis was necessary and completed in this research effort. The major objective of the research effort was to critically evaluate and optimize the Wiseman prototype for maximum performance in balance, efficiency, and power output. A nearly identical slider crank engine was used extensively to establish baseline performance data and make comparisons. Specialized equipment and methods were designed and built to collect experimental data on both engines. Simulation and mathematical models validated by experimental data collection were used to better quantify performance improvements. Modifications to the Wiseman prototype engine improved balance by 20 to 50% (depending on direction) and increased peak power output by 24%.

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2011

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Robotic augmentation of human locomotion for high speed running

Description

Human running requires extensive training and conditioning for an individual to maintain high speeds (greater than 10mph) for an extended duration of time. Studies have shown that running at peak speeds generates a high metabolic cost due to the

Human running requires extensive training and conditioning for an individual to maintain high speeds (greater than 10mph) for an extended duration of time. Studies have shown that running at peak speeds generates a high metabolic cost due to the use of large muscle groups in the legs associated with the human gait cycle. Applying supplemental external and internal forces to the human body during the gait cycle has been shown to decrease the metabolic cost for walking, allowing individuals to carry additional weight and walk further distances. Significant research has been conducted to reduce the metabolic cost of walking, however, there are few if any documented studies that focus specifically on reducing the metabolic cost associated with high speed running. Three mechanical systems were designed to work in concert with the human user to decrease metabolic cost and increase the range and speeds at which a human can run.

The methods of design require a focus on mathematical modeling, simulations, and metabolic cost. Mathematical modeling and simulations are used to aid in the design process of robotic systems and metabolic testing is regarded as the final analysis process to determine the true effectiveness of robotic prototypes. Metabolic data, (VO2) is the volumetric consumption of oxygen, per minute, per unit mass (ml/min/kg). Metabolic testing consists of analyzing the oxygen consumption of a test subject while performing a task naturally and then comparing that data with analyzed oxygen consumption of the same task while using an assistive device.

Three devices were designed and tested to augment high speed running. The first device, AirLegs V1, is a mostly aluminum exoskeleton with two pneumatic linear actuators connecting from the lower back directly to the user's thighs, allowing the device to induce a torque on the leg by pushing and pulling on the user's thigh during running. The device also makes use of two smaller pneumatic linear actuators which drive cables connecting to small lever arms at the back of the heel, inducing a torque at the ankles. Device two, AirLegs V2, is also pneumatically powered but is considered to be a soft suit version of the first device. It uses cables to interface the forces created by actuators located vertically on the user's back. These cables then connect to the back of the user's knees resulting in greater flexibility and range of motion of the legs. Device three, a Jet Pack, produces an external force against the user's torso to propel a user forward and upward making it easier to run. Third party testing, pilot demonstrations and timed trials have demonstrated that all three of the devices effectively reduce the metabolic cost of running below that of natural running with no device.

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Date Created
2014

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Using the phase angle oscillator controller for hopping robots

Description

As the robotic industry becomes increasingly present in some of the more extreme environments such as the battle field, disaster sites or extraplanetary exploration, it will be necessary to provide locomotive niche strategies that are optimal to each terrain.

As the robotic industry becomes increasingly present in some of the more extreme environments such as the battle field, disaster sites or extraplanetary exploration, it will be necessary to provide locomotive niche strategies that are optimal to each terrain. The hopping gait has been well studied in robotics and proven to be a potential method to fit some of these niche areas. There have been some difficulties in producing terrain following controllers that maintain robust, steady state, which are disturbance resistant.

The following thesis will discuss a controller which has shown the ability to produce these desired properties. A phase angle oscillator controller is shown to work remarkably well, both in simulation and with a one degree of freedom robotic test stand.

Work was also done with an experimental quadruped with less successful results, but which did show potential for stability. Additional work is suggested for the quadruped.

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2015

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Human computer interface using electroencephalography

Description

Brain Computer Interfaces are becoming the next generation controllers not only in the medical devices for disabled individuals but also in the gaming and entertainment industries. In order to build an effective Brain Computer Interface, which accurately translates the user

Brain Computer Interfaces are becoming the next generation controllers not only in the medical devices for disabled individuals but also in the gaming and entertainment industries. In order to build an effective Brain Computer Interface, which accurately translates the user thoughts into machine commands, it is important to have robust and fail proof signal processing and machine learning modules which operate on the raw EEG signals and estimate the current thought of the user.

In this thesis, several techniques used to perform EEG signal pre-processing, feature extraction and signal classification have been discussed, implemented, validated and verified; efficient supervised machine learning models, for the EEG motor imagery signal classification are identified. To further improve the performance of system unsupervised feature learning techniques have been investigated by pre-training the Deep Learning models. Use of pre-training stacked autoencoders have been proposed to solve the problems caused by random initialization of weights in neural networks.

Motor Imagery (imaginary hand and leg movements) signals are acquire using the Emotiv EEG headset. Different kinds of features like mean signal, band powers, RMS of the signal have been extracted and supplied to the machine learning (ML) stage, wherein, several ML techniques like LDA, KNN, SVM, Logistic regression and Neural Networks are applied and validated. During the validation phase the performances of various techniques are compared and some important observations are reported. Further, deep Learning techniques like autoencoding have been used to perform unsupervised feature learning. The reliability of the features is analyzed by performing classification by using the ML techniques mentioned earlier. The performance of the neural networks has been further improved by pre-training the network in an unsupervised fashion using stacked autoencoders and supplying the stacked autoencoders’ network parameters as initial parameters to the neural network. All the findings in this research, during each phase (pre-processing, feature extraction, classification) are directly relevant and can be used by the BCI research community for building motor imagery based BCI applications.

Additionally, this thesis attempts to develop, test, and compare the performance of an alternative method for classifying human driving behavior. This thesis proposes the use of driver affective states to know the driving behavior. The purpose of this part of the thesis was to classify the EEG data collected from several subjects while driving simulated vehicle and compare the classification results with those obtained by classifying the driving behavior using vehicle parameters collected simultaneously from all the subjects. The objective here is to see if the drivers’ mental state is reflected in his driving behavior.

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Date Created
2015

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Phase oscillator

Description

A control method based on the phase angle is used to control oscillating systems. The phase oscillator uses the sine and cosine of the phase angle to change key properties of a mass-spring-damper system, including amplitude, frequency, and equilibrium. An

A control method based on the phase angle is used to control oscillating systems. The phase oscillator uses the sine and cosine of the phase angle to change key properties of a mass-spring-damper system, including amplitude, frequency, and equilibrium. An inverted pendulum is used to show a further application of the phase oscillator. Two methods of control based on the phase oscillator are used for swing-up and balancing of the pendulum. The first control method involves two separate stages. The scenarios where this control works are discussed. The second control method uses variable coefficients to result in a smooth transition between swing-up and balancing.

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Date Created
2015