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Design of a digitally controlled pulse width modulator for DC-DC converter applications

Description

Synchronous buck converters have become the obvious choice of design for high efficiency voltage down-conversion applications and find wide scale usage in today's IC industry. The use of digital control in synchronous buck converters is becoming increasingly popular because of

Synchronous buck converters have become the obvious choice of design for high efficiency voltage down-conversion applications and find wide scale usage in today's IC industry. The use of digital control in synchronous buck converters is becoming increasingly popular because of its associated advantages over traditional analog counterparts in terms of design flexibility, reduced use of off-chip components, and better programmability to enable advanced controls. They also demonstrate better immunity to noise, enhances tolerance to the process, voltage and temperature (PVT) variations, low chip area and as a result low cost. It enables processing in digital domain requiring a need of analog-digital interfacing circuit viz. Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) and Digital to Analog Converter (DAC). A Digital to Pulse Width Modulator (DPWM) acts as time domain DAC required in the control loop to modulate the ON time of the Power-MOSFETs. The accuracy and efficiency of the DPWM creates the upper limit to the steady state voltage ripple of the DC - DC converter and efficiency in low load conditions. This thesis discusses the prevalent architectures for DPWM in switched mode DC - DC converters. The design of a Hybrid DPWM is presented. The DPWM is 9-bit accurate and is targeted for a Synchronous Buck Converter with a switching frequency of 1.0 MHz. The design supports low power mode(s) for the buck converter in the Pulse Frequency Modulation (PFM) mode as well as other fail-safe features. The design implementation is digital centric making it robust across PVT variations and portable to lower technology nodes. Key target of the design is to reduce design time. The design is tested across large Process (+/- 3σ), Voltage (1.8V +/- 10%) and Temperature (-55.0 °C to 125 °C) and is in the process of tape-out.

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Date Created
2013

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Vital sign estimation through Doppler radar

Description

Doppler radar can be used to measure respiration and heart rate without contact and through obstacles. In this work, a Doppler radar architecture at 2.4 GHz and a new signal processing algorithm to estimate the respiration and heart rate are

Doppler radar can be used to measure respiration and heart rate without contact and through obstacles. In this work, a Doppler radar architecture at 2.4 GHz and a new signal processing algorithm to estimate the respiration and heart rate are presented. The received signal is dominated by the transceiver noise, LO phase noise and clutter which reduces the signal-to-noise ratio of the desired signal. The proposed architecture and algorithm are used to mitigate these issues and obtain an accurate estimate of the heart and respiration rate. Quadrature low-IF transceiver architecture is adopted to resolve null point problem as well as avoid 1/f noise and DC offset due to mixer-LO coupling. Adaptive clutter cancellation algorithm is used to enhance receiver sensitivity coupled with a novel Pattern Search in Noise Subspace (PSNS) algorithm is used to estimate respiration and heart rate. PSNS is a modified MUSIC algorithm which uses the phase noise to enhance Doppler shift detection. A prototype system was implemented using off-the-shelf TI and RFMD transceiver and tests were conduct with eight individuals. The measured results shows accurate estimate of the cardio pulmonary signals in low-SNR conditions and have been tested up to a distance of 6 meters.

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2013

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Post processing treatment of InGaZnO thin film transistors for improved bias-illumination stress reliability

Description

This thesis work mainly examined the stability and reliability issues of amorphous Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide (a-IGZO) thin film transistors under bias-illumination stress. Amorphous hydrogenated silicon has been the dominating material used in thin film transistors as a channel layer.

This thesis work mainly examined the stability and reliability issues of amorphous Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide (a-IGZO) thin film transistors under bias-illumination stress. Amorphous hydrogenated silicon has been the dominating material used in thin film transistors as a channel layer. However with the advent of modern high performance display technologies, it is required to have devices with better current carrying capability and better reproducibility. This brings the idea of new material for channel layer of these devices. Researchers have tried poly silicon materials, organic materials and amorphous mixed oxide materials as a replacement to conventional amorphous silicon layer. Due to its low price and easy manufacturing process, amorphous mixed oxide thin film transistors have become a viable option to replace the conventional ones in order to achieve high performance display circuits. But with new materials emerging, comes the challenge of reliability and stability issues associated with it. Performance measurement under bias stress and bias-illumination stress have been reported previously. This work proposes novel post processing low temperature long time annealing in optimum ambient in order to annihilate or reduce the defects and vacancies associated with amorphous material which lead to the instability or even the failure of the devices. Thin film transistors of a-IGZO has been tested for standalone illumination stress and bias-illumination stress before and after annealing. HP 4155B semiconductor parameter analyzer has been used to stress the devices and measure the output characteristics and transfer characteristics of the devices. Extra attention has been given about the effect of forming gas annealing on a-IGZO thin film. a-IGZO thin film deposited on silicon substrate has been tested for resistivity, mobility and carrier concentration before and after annealing in various ambient. Elastic Recoil Detection has been performed on the films to measure the amount of hydrogen atoms present in the film. Moreover, the circuit parameters of the thin film transistors has been extracted to verify the physical phenomenon responsible for the instability and failure of the devices. Parameters like channel resistance, carrier mobility, power factor has been extracted and variation of these parameters has been observed before and after the stress.

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Date Created
2013

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Simultaneous signaling and channel estimation for in-band full-duplex communications employing adaptive spatial protection

Description

In-band full-duplex relays are envisioned as promising solution to increase the throughput of next generation wireless communications. Full-duplex relays, being able to transmit and receive at same carrier frequency, offers increased spectral efficiency compared to half-duplex relays that transmit and

In-band full-duplex relays are envisioned as promising solution to increase the throughput of next generation wireless communications. Full-duplex relays, being able to transmit and receive at same carrier frequency, offers increased spectral efficiency compared to half-duplex relays that transmit and receive at different frequencies or times. The practical implementation of full-duplex relays is limited by the strong self-interference caused by the coupling of relay's own transit signals to its desired received signals. Several techniques have been proposed in literature to mitigate the relay self-interference. In this thesis, the performance of in-band full-duplex multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) relays is considered in the context of simultaneous communications and channel estimation. In particular, adaptive spatial transmit techniques is considered to protect the full-duplex radio's receive array. It is assumed that relay's transmit and receive antenna phase centers are physically distinct. This allows the radio to employ adaptive spatial transmit and receive processing to mitigate self-interference.

The performance of this protection is dependent upon numerous factors, including channel estimation accuracy, which is the focus of this thesis. In particular, the concentration is on estimating the self-interference channel. A novel approach of simultaneous signaling to estimate the self-interference channel in MIMO full-duplex relays is proposed. To achieve this simultaneous communications

and channel estimation, a full-rank pilot signal at a reduced relative power is transmitted simultaneously with a low rank communication waveform. The self-interference mitigation is investigated in the context of eigenvalue spread of spatial relay receive co-variance matrix. Performance is demonstrated by using simulations,

in which orthogonal-frequency division-multiplexing communications and pilot sequences are employed.

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Date Created
2014

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On-chip transformer design and modeling for fully integrated isolated DC/DC converters

Description

Isolated DC/DC converters are used to provide electrical isolation between two supply domain systems. A fully integrated isolated DC/DC converter having no board-level components and fabricated using standard integrated circuits (IC) process is highly desirable in order to increase the

Isolated DC/DC converters are used to provide electrical isolation between two supply domain systems. A fully integrated isolated DC/DC converter having no board-level components and fabricated using standard integrated circuits (IC) process is highly desirable in order to increase the system reliability and reduce costs. The isolation between the low-voltage side and high-voltage side of the converter is realized by a transformer that transfers energy while blocking the DC loop. The resonant mode power oscillator is used to enable high efficiency power transfer. The on-chip transformer is expected to have high coil inductance, high quality factors and high coupling coefficient to reduce the loss in the oscillation. The performance of a transformer is highly dependent on the vertical structure, horizontal geometry and other indispensable structures that make it compatible with the IC process such as metal fills and patterned ground shield (PGS). With the help of three-dimensional (3-D) electro-magnetic (EM) simulation software, the 3-D transformer model is simulated and the simulation result is got with high accuracy.

In this thesis an on-chip transformer for a fully integrated DC/DC converter using standard IC process is developed. Different types of transformers are modeled and simulated in HFSS. The performances are compared to select the optimum design. The effects of the additional structures including PGS and metal fills are also simulated. The transformer is tested with a network analyzer and the testing results show a good consistency with the simulation results when taking the chip traces, printed circuit board (PCB) traces, bond wires and SMA connectors into account.

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Date Created
2014

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Digital calibration and prediction of effective number of bits for pipeline ADC

Description

In thesis, a test time reduction (a low cost test) methodology for digitally-calibrated pipeline analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) is presented. A long calibration time is required in the final test to validate performance of these designs. To reduce total test time,

In thesis, a test time reduction (a low cost test) methodology for digitally-calibrated pipeline analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) is presented. A long calibration time is required in the final test to validate performance of these designs. To reduce total test time, optimized calibration technique and calibrated effective number of bits (ENOB) prediction from calibration coefficient will be presented. With the prediction technique, failed devices can be identified only without actual calibration. This technique reduces significant amount of time for the total test time.

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Date Created
2013

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Flash sharing in a time-interleaved pipeline ADC

Description

With the advent of parallel processing, primarily the time-interleaved pipeline ADCs, high speed and high resolution ADCs became a possibility. When these speeds touch giga samples per second and resolutions go beyond 12-bits, the parallelization becomes more extensive leading to

With the advent of parallel processing, primarily the time-interleaved pipeline ADCs, high speed and high resolution ADCs became a possibility. When these speeds touch giga samples per second and resolutions go beyond 12-bits, the parallelization becomes more extensive leading to repeated presence of several identical blocks in the architecture. This thesis discusses one such block, the sub-ADC (Flash ADC), of the pipeline and sharing it with more than two of the parallel processing channels thereby reducing area and power and input load capacitance to each stage. This work presents a design of 'sub-ADC shared in a time-interleaved pipeline ADC' in the IBM 8HP process. It has been implemented with an offset-compensated, kickback-compensated, fast decision making (large input bandwidth) and low power comparator that forms the core part of the design.

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Date Created
2013

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Design and calibration of a 12-bit current-steering DAC using data-interleaving

Description

High speed current-steering DACs with high linearity are needed in today's applications such as wired and wireless communications, instrumentation, radar, and other direct digital synthesis (DDS) applications. However, a trade-off exists between the speed and resolution of Nyquist rate

High speed current-steering DACs with high linearity are needed in today's applications such as wired and wireless communications, instrumentation, radar, and other direct digital synthesis (DDS) applications. However, a trade-off exists between the speed and resolution of Nyquist rate current-steering DACs. As the resolution increases, more transistor area is required to meet matching requirements for optimal linearity and thus, the overall speed of the DAC is limited.

In this thesis work, a 12-bit current-steering DAC was designed with current sources scaled below the required matching size to decrease the area and increase the overall speed of the DAC. By scaling the current sources, however, errors due to random mismatch between current sources will arise and additional calibration hardware is necessary to ensure 12-bit linearity. This work presents how to implement a self-calibration DAC that works to fix amplitude errors while maintaining a lower overall area. Additionally, the DAC designed in this thesis investigates the implementation feasibility of a data-interleaved architecture. Data interleaving can increase the total bandwidth of the DACs by 2 with an increase in SQNR by an additional 3 dB.

The final results show that the calibration method can effectively improve the linearity of the DAC. The DAC is able to run up to 400 MSPS frequencies with a 75 dB SFDR performance and above 87 dB SFDR performance at update rates of 200 MSPS.

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Date Created
2014

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A cross-layer power analysis and profiling of wireless video sensor node platform applications

Description

Wireless video sensor networks has been examined and evaluated for wide range

of applications comprising of video surveillance, video tracking, computer vision, remote

live video and control. The reason behind importance of sensor nodes is its ease

of implementation, ability to operate in

Wireless video sensor networks has been examined and evaluated for wide range

of applications comprising of video surveillance, video tracking, computer vision, remote

live video and control. The reason behind importance of sensor nodes is its ease

of implementation, ability to operate in adverse environments, easy to troubleshoot,

repair and the high performance level. The biggest challenges with the architectural

design of wireless video sensor networks are power consumption, node failure,

throughput, durability and scalability. The whole project here is to create a gateway

node to integrate between "Internet of things" framework and wireless sensor network.

Our Flexi-Wireless Video Sensor Node Platform (WVSNP) is a low cost, low

power and compatible with traditional sensor network where the main focus was on

maximizing throughput or minimizing node deployment. My task here in this project

was to address the challenges of video power consumption for wireless video sensor

nodes. While addressing the challenges, I performed analysis of predicting the nodes

durability when it is battery operated and to choose appropriate design parameters.

I created a small optimized image to boot up Wandboard DUAL/QUAD board, capture

videos in small/big chunks from the board. The power analysis was performed

for only capturing scenarios, playback of reference videos and, live capturing and realtime

playing of videos on WVSNP player. Each sensor node in sensor network are

battery operated and runs without human intervention. Thus to predict nodes durability,

for dierent video size and format, I have collected power consumption results

and based on this I have provided some recommendation of HW/SW architecture.

i

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Date Created
2014

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System identification of linear and switching regulators using switched capacitor correlator

Description

Power Management circuits are employed in almost all electronic equipment and they have energy storage elements (capacitors and inductors) as building blocks along with other active circuitry. Power management circuits employ feedback to achieve good load and line regulation. The

Power Management circuits are employed in almost all electronic equipment and they have energy storage elements (capacitors and inductors) as building blocks along with other active circuitry. Power management circuits employ feedback to achieve good load and line regulation. The feedback loop is designed at an operating point and component values are chosen to meet that design requirements. But the capacitors and inductors are subject to variations due to temperature, aging and load stress. Due to these variations, the feedback loop can cross its robustness margins and can lead to degraded performance and potential instability. Another issue in power management circuits is the measurement of their frequency response for stability assessment. The standard techniques used in production test environment require expensive measurement equipment (Network Analyzer) and time. These two issues of component variations and frequency response measurement can be addressed if the frequency response of the power converter is used as measure of component (capacitor and inductor) variations. So, a single solution of frequency response measurement solves both the issues. This work examines system identification (frequency response measurement) of power management circuits based on cross correlation technique and proposes the use of switched capacitor correlator for this purpose. A switched capacitor correlator has been designed and used in the system identification of Linear and Switching regulators. The obtained results are compared with the standard frequency response measurement methods of power converters.

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Date Created
2015