Matching Items (66)

Filtering by

Clear all filters

149852-Thumbnail Image.png

Aging predictive models and simulation methods for analog and mixed-signal circuits

Description

Negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) and channel hot carrier (CHC) are important reliability issues impacting analog circuit performance and lifetime. Compact reliability models and efficient simulation methods are essential for circuit level reliability prediction. This work proposes a set of

Negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) and channel hot carrier (CHC) are important reliability issues impacting analog circuit performance and lifetime. Compact reliability models and efficient simulation methods are essential for circuit level reliability prediction. This work proposes a set of compact models of NBTI and CHC effects for analog and mixed-signal circuit, and a direct prediction method which is different from conventional simulation methods. This method is applied in circuit benchmarks and evaluated. This work helps with improving efficiency and accuracy of circuit aging prediction.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2011

152151-Thumbnail Image.png

A CMOS analog front-end circuit for micro-fluxgate sensors

Description

Fluxgate sensors are magnetic field sensors that can measure DC and low frequency AC magnetic fields. They can measure much lower magnetic fields than other magnetic sensors like Hall effect sensors, magnetoresistive sensors etc. They also have high linearity, high

Fluxgate sensors are magnetic field sensors that can measure DC and low frequency AC magnetic fields. They can measure much lower magnetic fields than other magnetic sensors like Hall effect sensors, magnetoresistive sensors etc. They also have high linearity, high sensitivity and low noise. The major application of fluxgate sensors is in magnetometers for the measurement of earth's magnetic field. Magnetometers are used in navigation systems and electronic compasses. Fluxgate sensors can also be used to measure high DC currents. Integrated micro-fluxgate sensors have been developed in recent years. These sensors have much lower power consumption and area compared to their PCB counterparts. The output voltage of micro-fluxgate sensors is very low which makes the analog front end more complex and results in an increase in power consumption of the system. In this thesis a new analog front-end circuit for micro-fluxgate sensors is developed. This analog front-end circuit uses charge pump based excitation circuit and phase delay based read-out chain. With these two features the power consumption of analog front-end is reduced. The output is digital and it is immune to amplitude noise at the output of the sensor. Digital output is produced without using an ADC. A SPICE model of micro-fluxgate sensor is used to verify the operation of the analog front-end and the simulation results show very good linearity.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2013

152331-Thumbnail Image.png

Design of a twelve bit, four hundred mega-samples-per-second, interpolating dual channel digital to analog converter featuring digital modulation

Description

Digital to analog converters (DACs) find widespread use in communications equipment. Most commercially available DAC's which are intended to be used in transmitter applications come in a dual configuration for carrying the in phase (I) and quadrature (Q) data and

Digital to analog converters (DACs) find widespread use in communications equipment. Most commercially available DAC's which are intended to be used in transmitter applications come in a dual configuration for carrying the in phase (I) and quadrature (Q) data and feature on chip digital mixing. Digital mixing offers many benefits concerning I and Q matching but has one major drawback; the update rate of the DAC must be higher than the intermediate frequency (IF) which is most commonly a factor of 4. This drawback motivates the need for interpolation so that a low update rate can be used for components preceding the DACs. In this thesis the design of an interpolating DAC integrated circuit (IC) to be used in a transmitter application for generating a 100MHz IF is presented. Many of the transistor level implementations are provided. The tradeoffs in the design are analyzed and various options are discussed. This thesis provides a basic foundation for designing an IC of this nature and will give the reader insight into potential areas of further research. At the time of this writing the chip is in fabrication therefore this document does not contain test results.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2013

152453-Thumbnail Image.png

New pastoral

Description

New Pastoral journeys through the altered states of the American West. Readers witness dream-fields at harvest time, watch humans become agro-industrial test subjects, and overhear an exchange of letters set in an alternate (?), [more] dystopian present. Fractured, fragmented, leaping,

New Pastoral journeys through the altered states of the American West. Readers witness dream-fields at harvest time, watch humans become agro-industrial test subjects, and overhear an exchange of letters set in an alternate (?), [more] dystopian present. Fractured, fragmented, leaping, and stitched, the poems use disjuncture, within and/or between poems, to see with clarity and complexity a landscape that is increasingly all ecotone. In addition to environmental violence, this work explores disclosure and secrecy, intimacy and estrangement, voyeurism, political policing, and, inevitably, the mysteries of making art. Pastoral landscapes have often been compared to patchwork. Now, heavy with guilt, we walk a wounded quilt, searching, with little hope, for bandages.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2014

151804-Thumbnail Image.png

Evaluation and characterization of Silicon MESFETs in low dropout regulators

Description

The partially-depleted (PD) silicon Metal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MESFET) is becoming more and more attractive for analog and RF applications due to its high breakdown voltage. Compared to conventional CMOS high voltage transistors, the silicon MESFET can be fabricated

The partially-depleted (PD) silicon Metal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MESFET) is becoming more and more attractive for analog and RF applications due to its high breakdown voltage. Compared to conventional CMOS high voltage transistors, the silicon MESFET can be fabricated in commercial standard Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) CMOS foundries without any change to the process. The transition frequency of the device is demonstrated to be 45GHz, which makes the MESFET suitable for applications in high power RF power amplifier designs. Also, high breakdown voltage and low turn-on resistance make it the ideal choice for switches in the switching regulator designs. One of the anticipated applications of the MESFET is for the pass device for a low dropout linear regulator. Conventional NMOS and PMOS linear regulators suffer from high dropout voltage, low bandwidth and poor stability issues. In contrast, the N-MESFET pass transistor can provide an ultra-low dropout voltage and high bandwidth without the need for an external compensation capacitor to ensure stability. In this thesis, the design theory and problems of the conventional linear regulators are discussed. N-MESFET low dropout regulators are evaluated and characterized. The error amplifier used a folded cascode architecture with gain boosting. The source follower topology is utilized as the buffer to sink the gate leakage current from the MESFET. A shunt-feedback transistor is added to reduce the output impedance and provide the current adaptively. Measurement results show that the dropout voltage is less than 150 mV for a 1A load current at 1.8V output. Radiation measurements were done for discrete MESFET and fully integrated LDO regulators, which demonstrate their radiation tolerance ability for aerospace applications.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2013

152259-Thumbnail Image.png

Design of a digitally controlled pulse width modulator for DC-DC converter applications

Description

Synchronous buck converters have become the obvious choice of design for high efficiency voltage down-conversion applications and find wide scale usage in today's IC industry. The use of digital control in synchronous buck converters is becoming increasingly popular because of

Synchronous buck converters have become the obvious choice of design for high efficiency voltage down-conversion applications and find wide scale usage in today's IC industry. The use of digital control in synchronous buck converters is becoming increasingly popular because of its associated advantages over traditional analog counterparts in terms of design flexibility, reduced use of off-chip components, and better programmability to enable advanced controls. They also demonstrate better immunity to noise, enhances tolerance to the process, voltage and temperature (PVT) variations, low chip area and as a result low cost. It enables processing in digital domain requiring a need of analog-digital interfacing circuit viz. Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) and Digital to Analog Converter (DAC). A Digital to Pulse Width Modulator (DPWM) acts as time domain DAC required in the control loop to modulate the ON time of the Power-MOSFETs. The accuracy and efficiency of the DPWM creates the upper limit to the steady state voltage ripple of the DC - DC converter and efficiency in low load conditions. This thesis discusses the prevalent architectures for DPWM in switched mode DC - DC converters. The design of a Hybrid DPWM is presented. The DPWM is 9-bit accurate and is targeted for a Synchronous Buck Converter with a switching frequency of 1.0 MHz. The design supports low power mode(s) for the buck converter in the Pulse Frequency Modulation (PFM) mode as well as other fail-safe features. The design implementation is digital centric making it robust across PVT variations and portable to lower technology nodes. Key target of the design is to reduce design time. The design is tested across large Process (+/- 3σ), Voltage (1.8V +/- 10%) and Temperature (-55.0 °C to 125 °C) and is in the process of tape-out.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2013

154311-Thumbnail Image.png

Wide input common-mode range fully integrated low-dropout voltage regulators

Description

The modern era of consumer electronics is dominated by compact, portable, affordable smartphones and wearable computing devices. Power management integrated circuits (PMICs) play a crucial role in on-chip power management, extending battery life and efficiency of integrated analog, radio-frequency (RF),

The modern era of consumer electronics is dominated by compact, portable, affordable smartphones and wearable computing devices. Power management integrated circuits (PMICs) play a crucial role in on-chip power management, extending battery life and efficiency of integrated analog, radio-frequency (RF), and mixed-signal cores. Low-dropout (LDO) regulators are commonly used to provide clean supply for low voltage integrated circuits, where point-of-load regulation is important. In System-On-Chip (SoC) applications, digital circuits can change their mode of operation regularly at a very high speed, imposing various load transient conditions for the regulator. These quick changes of load create a glitch in LDO output voltage, which hamper performance of the digital circuits unfavorably. For an LDO designer, minimizing output voltage variation and speeding up voltage glitch settling is an important task.

The presented research introduces two fully integrated LDO voltage regulators for SoC applications. N-type Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (NMOS) power transistor based operation achieves high bandwidth owing to the source follower configuration of the regulation loop. A low input impedance and high output impedance error amplifier ensures wide regulation loop bandwidth and high gain. Current-reused dynamic biasing technique has been employed to increase slew-rate at the gate of power transistor during full-load variations, by a factor of two. Three design variations for a 1-1.8 V, 50 mA NMOS LDO voltage regulator have been implemented in a 180 nm Mixed-mode/RF process. The whole LDO core consumes 0.130 mA of nominal quiescent ground current at 50 mA load and occupies 0.21 mm x mm. LDO has a dropout voltage of 200 mV and is able to recover in 30 ns from a 65 mV of undershoot for 0-50 pF of on-chip load capacitance.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2016

151954-Thumbnail Image.png

Modeling and simulation of ionizing radiation effects in pipeline analog to digital converters

Description

Low Power, High Speed Analog to Digital Converters continues to remain one of the major building blocks for modern communication systems. Due to continuing trend of the aggressive scaling of the MOS devices, the susceptibility of most of the deep-sub

Low Power, High Speed Analog to Digital Converters continues to remain one of the major building blocks for modern communication systems. Due to continuing trend of the aggressive scaling of the MOS devices, the susceptibility of most of the deep-sub micron CMOS technologies to the ionizing radiation has decreased over the period of time. When electronic circuits fabricated in these CMOS technologies are exposed to ionizing radiations, considerable change in the performance of circuits can be seen over a period of time. The change in the performance can be quantified in terms of decreasing linearity of the circuit which directly relates to the resolution of the circuit. Analog to Digital Converter is one of the most critical blocks of any electronic circuitry sent to space. The degradation in the performance of an Analog to Digital Converter due to radiation effects can jeopardize many research programs related to space. These radiation effects can completely hamper the working of a circuit. This thesis discusses the effects of Ionizing radiation on an 11 bit 325 MSPS pipeline ADC. The ADC is exposed to different doses of radiation and performance is compared.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2013

151182-Thumbnail Image.png

A 1.2V 25MSPS pipelined ADC using split CLS with Op-amp sharing

Description

ABSTRACT As the technology length shrinks down, achieving higher gain is becoming very difficult in deep sub-micron technologies. As the supply voltages drop, cascodes are very difficult to implement and cascade amplifiers are needed to achieve sufficient gain with required

ABSTRACT As the technology length shrinks down, achieving higher gain is becoming very difficult in deep sub-micron technologies. As the supply voltages drop, cascodes are very difficult to implement and cascade amplifiers are needed to achieve sufficient gain with required output swing. This sets the fundamental limit on the SNR and hence the maximum resolution that can be achieved by ADC. With the RSD algorithm and the range overlap, the sub ADC can tolerate large comparator offsets leaving the linearity and accuracy requirement for the DAC and residue gain stage. Typically, the multiplying DAC requires high gain wide bandwidth op-amp and the design of this high gain op-amp becomes challenging in the deep submicron technologies. This work presents `A 12 bit 25MSPS 1.2V pipelined ADC using split CLS technique' in IBM 130nm 8HP process using only CMOS devices for the application of Large Hadron Collider (LHC). CLS technique relaxes the gain requirement of op-amp and improves the signal-to-noise ratio without increase in power or input sampling capacitor with rail-to-rail swing. An op-amp sharing technique has been incorporated with split CLS technique which decreases the number of op-amps and hence the power further. Entire pipelined converter has been implemented as six 2.5 bit RSD stages and hence decreases the latency associated with the pipelined architecture - one of the main requirements for LHC along with the power requirement. Two different OTAs have been designed to use in the split-CLS technique. Bootstrap switches and pass gate switches are used in the circuit along with a low power dynamic kick-back compensated comparator.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2012

152010-Thumbnail Image.png

An electrical stimulus based built in self test (BIST) circuit for capacitive MEMS accelerometer

Description

Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is one of the fastest growing field in silicon industry. Low cost production is key for any company to improve their market share. MEMS testing is challenging since input to test a MEMS device require

Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is one of the fastest growing field in silicon industry. Low cost production is key for any company to improve their market share. MEMS testing is challenging since input to test a MEMS device require physical stimulus like acceleration, pressure etc. Also, MEMS device vary with process and requires calibration to make them reliable. This increases test cost and testing time. This challenge can be overcome by combining electrical stimulus based testing along with statistical analysis on MEMS response for electrical stimulus and also limited physical stimulus response data. This thesis proposes electrical stimulus based built in self test(BIST) which can be used to get MEMS data and later this data can be used for statistical analysis. A capacitive MEMS accelerometer is considered to test this BIST approach. This BIST circuit overhead is less and utilizes most of the standard readout circuit. This thesis discusses accelerometer response for electrical stimulus and BIST architecture. As a part of this BIST circuit, a second order sigma delta modulator has been designed. This modulator has a sampling frequency of 1MHz and bandwidth of 6KHz. SNDR of 60dB is achieved with 1Vpp differential input signal and 3.3V supply

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2013