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Aging predictive models and simulation methods for analog and mixed-signal circuits

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Negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) and channel hot carrier (CHC) are important reliability issues impacting analog circuit performance and lifetime. Compact reliability models and efficient simulation methods are essential for circuit level reliability prediction. This work proposes a set of

Negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) and channel hot carrier (CHC) are important reliability issues impacting analog circuit performance and lifetime. Compact reliability models and efficient simulation methods are essential for circuit level reliability prediction. This work proposes a set of compact models of NBTI and CHC effects for analog and mixed-signal circuit, and a direct prediction method which is different from conventional simulation methods. This method is applied in circuit benchmarks and evaluated. This work helps with improving efficiency and accuracy of circuit aging prediction.

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2011

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RAProp: ranking tweets by exploiting the tweet/user/web ecosystem

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The increasing popularity of Twitter renders improved trustworthiness and relevance assessment of tweets much more important for search. However, given the limitations on the size of tweets, it is hard to extract measures for ranking from the tweet's content alone.

The increasing popularity of Twitter renders improved trustworthiness and relevance assessment of tweets much more important for search. However, given the limitations on the size of tweets, it is hard to extract measures for ranking from the tweet's content alone. I propose a method of ranking tweets by generating a reputation score for each tweet that is based not just on content, but also additional information from the Twitter ecosystem that consists of users, tweets, and the web pages that tweets link to. This information is obtained by modeling the Twitter ecosystem as a three-layer graph. The reputation score is used to power two novel methods of ranking tweets by propagating the reputation over an agreement graph based on tweets' content similarity. Additionally, I show how the agreement graph helps counter tweet spam. An evaluation of my method on 16~million tweets from the TREC 2011 Microblog Dataset shows that it doubles the precision over baseline Twitter Search and achieves higher precision than current state of the art method. I present a detailed internal empirical evaluation of RAProp in comparison to several alternative approaches proposed by me, as well as external evaluation in comparison to the current state of the art method.

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2013

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A CMOS analog front-end circuit for micro-fluxgate sensors

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Fluxgate sensors are magnetic field sensors that can measure DC and low frequency AC magnetic fields. They can measure much lower magnetic fields than other magnetic sensors like Hall effect sensors, magnetoresistive sensors etc. They also have high linearity, high

Fluxgate sensors are magnetic field sensors that can measure DC and low frequency AC magnetic fields. They can measure much lower magnetic fields than other magnetic sensors like Hall effect sensors, magnetoresistive sensors etc. They also have high linearity, high sensitivity and low noise. The major application of fluxgate sensors is in magnetometers for the measurement of earth's magnetic field. Magnetometers are used in navigation systems and electronic compasses. Fluxgate sensors can also be used to measure high DC currents. Integrated micro-fluxgate sensors have been developed in recent years. These sensors have much lower power consumption and area compared to their PCB counterparts. The output voltage of micro-fluxgate sensors is very low which makes the analog front end more complex and results in an increase in power consumption of the system. In this thesis a new analog front-end circuit for micro-fluxgate sensors is developed. This analog front-end circuit uses charge pump based excitation circuit and phase delay based read-out chain. With these two features the power consumption of analog front-end is reduced. The output is digital and it is immune to amplitude noise at the output of the sensor. Digital output is produced without using an ADC. A SPICE model of micro-fluxgate sensor is used to verify the operation of the analog front-end and the simulation results show very good linearity.

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2013

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We built this town: raising activity awareness through the workplace using gamification

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The wide adoption and continued advancement of information and communications technologies (ICT) have made it easier than ever for individuals and groups to stay connected over long distances. These advances have greatly contributed in dramatically changing the dynamics of the

The wide adoption and continued advancement of information and communications technologies (ICT) have made it easier than ever for individuals and groups to stay connected over long distances. These advances have greatly contributed in dramatically changing the dynamics of the modern day workplace to the point where it is now commonplace to see large, distributed multidisciplinary teams working together on a daily basis. However, in this environment, motivating, understanding, and valuing the diverse contributions of individual workers in collaborative enterprises becomes challenging. To address these issues, this thesis presents the goals, design, and implementation of Taskville, a distributed workplace game played by teams on large, public displays. Taskville uses a city building metaphor to represent the completion of individual and group tasks within an organization. Promising results from two usability studies and two longitudinal studies at a multidisciplinary school demonstrate that Taskville supports personal reflection and improves team awareness through an engaging workplace activity.

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2013

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Design of a twelve bit, four hundred mega-samples-per-second, interpolating dual channel digital to analog converter featuring digital modulation

Description

Digital to analog converters (DACs) find widespread use in communications equipment. Most commercially available DAC's which are intended to be used in transmitter applications come in a dual configuration for carrying the in phase (I) and quadrature (Q) data and

Digital to analog converters (DACs) find widespread use in communications equipment. Most commercially available DAC's which are intended to be used in transmitter applications come in a dual configuration for carrying the in phase (I) and quadrature (Q) data and feature on chip digital mixing. Digital mixing offers many benefits concerning I and Q matching but has one major drawback; the update rate of the DAC must be higher than the intermediate frequency (IF) which is most commonly a factor of 4. This drawback motivates the need for interpolation so that a low update rate can be used for components preceding the DACs. In this thesis the design of an interpolating DAC integrated circuit (IC) to be used in a transmitter application for generating a 100MHz IF is presented. Many of the transistor level implementations are provided. The tradeoffs in the design are analyzed and various options are discussed. This thesis provides a basic foundation for designing an IC of this nature and will give the reader insight into potential areas of further research. At the time of this writing the chip is in fabrication therefore this document does not contain test results.

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2013

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A cloud based continuous delivery software developing system on Vlab platform

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Continuous Delivery, as one of the youngest and most popular member of agile model family, has become a popular concept and method in software development industry recently. Instead of the traditional software development method, which requirements and solutions must be

Continuous Delivery, as one of the youngest and most popular member of agile model family, has become a popular concept and method in software development industry recently. Instead of the traditional software development method, which requirements and solutions must be fixed before starting software developing, it promotes adaptive planning, evolutionary development and delivery, and encourages rapid and flexible response to change. However, several problems prevent Continuous Delivery to be introduced into education world. Taking into the consideration of the barriers, we propose a new Cloud based Continuous Delivery Software Developing System. This system is designed to fully utilize the whole life circle of software developing according to Continuous Delivery concepts in a virtualized environment in Vlab platform.

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2013

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Decentralized information search

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Our research focuses on finding answers through decentralized search, for complex, imprecise queries (such as "Which is the best hair salon nearby?") in situations where there is a spatiotemporal constraint (say answer needs to be found within 15 minutes) associated

Our research focuses on finding answers through decentralized search, for complex, imprecise queries (such as "Which is the best hair salon nearby?") in situations where there is a spatiotemporal constraint (say answer needs to be found within 15 minutes) associated with the query. In general, human networks are good in answering imprecise queries. We try to use the social network of a person to answer his query. Our research aims at designing a framework that exploits the user's social network in order to maximize the answers for a given query. Exploiting an user's social network has several challenges. The major challenge is that the user's immediate social circle may not possess the answer for the given query, and hence the framework designed needs to carry out the query diffusion process across the network. The next challenge involves in finding the right set of seeds to pass the query to in the user's social circle. One other challenge is to incentivize people in the social network to respond to the query and thereby maximize the quality and quantity of replies. Our proposed framework is a mobile application where an individual can either respond to the query or forward it to his friends. We simulated the query diffusion process in three types of graphs: Small World, Random and Preferential Attachment. Given a type of network and a particular query, we carried out the query diffusion by selecting seeds based on attributes of the seed. The main attributes are Topic relevance, Replying or Forwarding probability and Time to Respond. We found that there is a considerable increase in the number of replies attained, even without saturating the user's network, if we adopt an optimal seed selection process. We found the output of the optimal algorithm to be satisfactory as the number of replies received at the interrogator's end was close to three times the number of neighbors an interrogator has. We addressed the challenge of incentivizing people to respond by associating a particular amount of points for each query asked, and awarding the same to people involved in answering the query. Thus, we aim to design a mobile application based on our proposed framework so that it helps in maximizing the replies for the interrogator's query by diffusing the query across his/her social network.

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2013

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Evaluation and characterization of Silicon MESFETs in low dropout regulators

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The partially-depleted (PD) silicon Metal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MESFET) is becoming more and more attractive for analog and RF applications due to its high breakdown voltage. Compared to conventional CMOS high voltage transistors, the silicon MESFET can be fabricated

The partially-depleted (PD) silicon Metal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MESFET) is becoming more and more attractive for analog and RF applications due to its high breakdown voltage. Compared to conventional CMOS high voltage transistors, the silicon MESFET can be fabricated in commercial standard Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) CMOS foundries without any change to the process. The transition frequency of the device is demonstrated to be 45GHz, which makes the MESFET suitable for applications in high power RF power amplifier designs. Also, high breakdown voltage and low turn-on resistance make it the ideal choice for switches in the switching regulator designs. One of the anticipated applications of the MESFET is for the pass device for a low dropout linear regulator. Conventional NMOS and PMOS linear regulators suffer from high dropout voltage, low bandwidth and poor stability issues. In contrast, the N-MESFET pass transistor can provide an ultra-low dropout voltage and high bandwidth without the need for an external compensation capacitor to ensure stability. In this thesis, the design theory and problems of the conventional linear regulators are discussed. N-MESFET low dropout regulators are evaluated and characterized. The error amplifier used a folded cascode architecture with gain boosting. The source follower topology is utilized as the buffer to sink the gate leakage current from the MESFET. A shunt-feedback transistor is added to reduce the output impedance and provide the current adaptively. Measurement results show that the dropout voltage is less than 150 mV for a 1A load current at 1.8V output. Radiation measurements were done for discrete MESFET and fully integrated LDO regulators, which demonstrate their radiation tolerance ability for aerospace applications.

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2013

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Study of an epidemic multiple behavior diffusion model in a resource constrained social network

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In contemporary society, sustainability and public well-being have been pressing challenges. Some of the important questions are:how can sustainable practices, such as reducing carbon emission, be encouraged? , How can a healthy lifestyle be maintained?Even though individuals are interested, they

In contemporary society, sustainability and public well-being have been pressing challenges. Some of the important questions are:how can sustainable practices, such as reducing carbon emission, be encouraged? , How can a healthy lifestyle be maintained?Even though individuals are interested, they are unable to adopt these behaviors due to resource constraints. Developing a framework to enable cooperative behavior adoption and to sustain it for a long period of time is a major challenge. As a part of developing this framework, I am focusing on methods to understand behavior diffusion over time. Facilitating behavior diffusion with resource constraints in a large population is qualitatively different from promoting cooperation in small groups. Previous work in social sciences has derived conditions for sustainable cooperative behavior in small homogeneous groups. However, how groups of individuals having resource constraint co-operate over extended periods of time is not well understood, and is the focus of my thesis. I develop models to analyze behavior diffusion over time through the lens of epidemic models with the condition that individuals have resource constraint. I introduce an epidemic model SVRS ( Susceptible-Volatile-Recovered-Susceptible) to accommodate multiple behavior adoption. I investigate the longitudinal effects of behavior diffusion by varying different properties of an individual such as resources,threshold and cost of behavior adoption. I also consider how behavior adoption of an individual varies with her knowledge of global adoption. I evaluate my models on several synthetic topologies like complete regular graph, preferential attachment and small-world and make some interesting observations. Periodic injection of early adopters can help in boosting the spread of behaviors and sustain it for a longer period of time. Also, behavior propagation for the classical epidemic model SIRS (Susceptible-Infected-Recovered-Susceptible) does not continue for an infinite period of time as per conventional wisdom. One interesting future direction is to investigate how behavior adoption is affected when number of individuals in a network changes. The affects on behavior adoption when availability of behavior changes with time can also be examined.

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Date Created
2013

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Design of a digitally controlled pulse width modulator for DC-DC converter applications

Description

Synchronous buck converters have become the obvious choice of design for high efficiency voltage down-conversion applications and find wide scale usage in today's IC industry. The use of digital control in synchronous buck converters is becoming increasingly popular because of

Synchronous buck converters have become the obvious choice of design for high efficiency voltage down-conversion applications and find wide scale usage in today's IC industry. The use of digital control in synchronous buck converters is becoming increasingly popular because of its associated advantages over traditional analog counterparts in terms of design flexibility, reduced use of off-chip components, and better programmability to enable advanced controls. They also demonstrate better immunity to noise, enhances tolerance to the process, voltage and temperature (PVT) variations, low chip area and as a result low cost. It enables processing in digital domain requiring a need of analog-digital interfacing circuit viz. Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) and Digital to Analog Converter (DAC). A Digital to Pulse Width Modulator (DPWM) acts as time domain DAC required in the control loop to modulate the ON time of the Power-MOSFETs. The accuracy and efficiency of the DPWM creates the upper limit to the steady state voltage ripple of the DC - DC converter and efficiency in low load conditions. This thesis discusses the prevalent architectures for DPWM in switched mode DC - DC converters. The design of a Hybrid DPWM is presented. The DPWM is 9-bit accurate and is targeted for a Synchronous Buck Converter with a switching frequency of 1.0 MHz. The design supports low power mode(s) for the buck converter in the Pulse Frequency Modulation (PFM) mode as well as other fail-safe features. The design implementation is digital centric making it robust across PVT variations and portable to lower technology nodes. Key target of the design is to reduce design time. The design is tested across large Process (+/- 3σ), Voltage (1.8V +/- 10%) and Temperature (-55.0 °C to 125 °C) and is in the process of tape-out.

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2013