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Materialized views over heterogeneous structured data sources in a distributed event stream processing environment

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Data-driven applications are becoming increasingly complex with support for processing events and data streams in a loosely-coupled distributed environment, providing integrated access to heterogeneous data sources such as relational databases and XML documents. This dissertation explores the use of materialized

Data-driven applications are becoming increasingly complex with support for processing events and data streams in a loosely-coupled distributed environment, providing integrated access to heterogeneous data sources such as relational databases and XML documents. This dissertation explores the use of materialized views over structured heterogeneous data sources to support multiple query optimization in a distributed event stream processing framework that supports such applications involving various query expressions for detecting events, monitoring conditions, handling data streams, and querying data. Materialized views store the results of the computed view so that subsequent access to the view retrieves the materialized results, avoiding the cost of recomputing the entire view from base data sources. Using a service-based metadata repository that provides metadata level access to the various language components in the system, a heuristics-based algorithm detects the common subexpressions from the queries represented in a mixed multigraph model over relational and structured XML data sources. These common subexpressions can be relational, XML or a hybrid join over the heterogeneous data sources. This research examines the challenges in the definition and materialization of views when the heterogeneous data sources are retained in their native format, instead of converting the data to a common model. LINQ serves as the materialized view definition language for creating the view definitions. An algorithm is introduced that uses LINQ to create a data structure for the persistence of these hybrid views. Any changes to base data sources used to materialize views are captured and mapped to a delta structure. The deltas are then streamed within the framework for use in the incremental update of the materialized view. Algorithms are presented that use the magic sets query optimization approach to both efficiently materialize the views and to propagate the relevant changes to the views for incremental maintenance. Using representative scenarios over structured heterogeneous data sources, an evaluation of the framework demonstrates an improvement in performance. Thus, defining the LINQ-based materialized views over heterogeneous structured data sources using the detected common subexpressions and incrementally maintaining the views by using magic sets enhances the efficiency of the distributed event stream processing environment.

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2011

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The classification of domain concepts in object-oriented systems

Description

The complexity of the systems that software engineers build has continuously grown since the inception of the field. What has not changed is the engineers' mental capacity to operate on about seven distinct pieces of information at a time. The

The complexity of the systems that software engineers build has continuously grown since the inception of the field. What has not changed is the engineers' mental capacity to operate on about seven distinct pieces of information at a time. The widespread use of UML has led to more abstract software design activities, however the same cannot be said for reverse engineering activities. The introduction of abstraction to reverse engineering will allow the engineer to move farther away from the details of the system, increasing his ability to see the role that domain level concepts play in the system. In this thesis, we present a technique that facilitates filtering of classes from existing systems at the source level based on their relationship to concepts in the domain via a classification method using machine learning. We showed that concepts can be identified using a machine learning classifier based on source level metrics. We developed an Eclipse plugin to assist with the process of manually classifying Java source code, and collecting metrics and classifications into a standard file format. We developed an Eclipse plugin to act as a concept identifier that visually indicates a class as a domain concept or not. We minimized the size of training sets to ensure a useful approach in practice. This allowed us to determine that a training set of 7:5 to 10% is nearly as effective as a training set representing 50% of the system. We showed that random selection is the most consistent and effective means of selecting a training set. We found that KNN is the most consistent performer among the learning algorithms tested. We determined the optimal feature set for this classification problem. We discussed two possible structures besides a one to one mapping of domain knowledge to implementation. We showed that classes representing more than one concept are simply concepts at differing levels of abstraction. We also discussed composite concepts representing a domain concept implemented by more than one class. We showed that these composite concepts are difficult to detect because the problem is NP-complete.

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Date Created
2013

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Simultaneous variable and feature group selection in heterogeneous learning: optimization and applications

Description

Advances in data collection technologies have made it cost-effective to obtain heterogeneous data from multiple data sources. Very often, the data are of very high dimension and feature selection is preferred in order to reduce noise, save computational cost and

Advances in data collection technologies have made it cost-effective to obtain heterogeneous data from multiple data sources. Very often, the data are of very high dimension and feature selection is preferred in order to reduce noise, save computational cost and learn interpretable models. Due to the multi-modality nature of heterogeneous data, it is interesting to design efficient machine learning models that are capable of performing variable selection and feature group (data source) selection simultaneously (a.k.a bi-level selection). In this thesis, I carry out research along this direction with a particular focus on designing efficient optimization algorithms. I start with a unified bi-level learning model that contains several existing feature selection models as special cases. Then the proposed model is further extended to tackle the block-wise missing data, one of the major challenges in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Moreover, I propose a novel interpretable sparse group feature selection model that greatly facilitates the procedure of parameter tuning and model selection. Last but not least, I show that by solving the sparse group hard thresholding problem directly, the sparse group feature selection model can be further improved in terms of both algorithmic complexity and efficiency. Promising results are demonstrated in the extensive evaluation on multiple real-world data sets.

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2014

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Leveraging collective wisdom in a multilabeled blog categorization environment

Description

One of the most remarkable outcomes resulting from the evolution of the web into Web 2.0, has been the propelling of blogging into a widely adopted and globally accepted phenomenon. While the unprecedented growth of the Blogosphere has added diversity

One of the most remarkable outcomes resulting from the evolution of the web into Web 2.0, has been the propelling of blogging into a widely adopted and globally accepted phenomenon. While the unprecedented growth of the Blogosphere has added diversity and enriched the media, it has also added complexity. To cope with the relentless expansion, many enthusiastic bloggers have embarked on voluntarily writing, tagging, labeling, and cataloguing their posts in hopes of reaching the widest possible audience. Unbeknown to them, this reaching-for-others process triggers the generation of a new kind of collective wisdom, a result of shared collaboration, and the exchange of ideas, purpose, and objectives, through the formation of associations, links, and relations. Mastering an understanding of the Blogosphere can greatly help facilitate the needs of the ever growing number of these users, as well as producers, service providers, and advertisers into facilitation of the categorization and navigation of this vast environment. This work explores a novel method to leverage the collective wisdom from the infused label space for blog search and discovery. The work demonstrates that the wisdom space can provide a most unique and desirable framework to which to discover the highly sought after background information that could aid in the building of classifiers. This work incorporates this insight into the construction of a better clustering of blogs which boosts the performance of classifiers for identifying more relevant labels for blogs, and offers a mechanism that can be incorporated into replacing spurious labels and mislabels in a multi-labeled space.

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2015

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Visual analytics for spatiotemporal cluster analysis

Description

Traditionally, visualization is one of the most important and commonly used methods of generating insight into large scale data. Particularly for spatiotemporal data, the translation of such data into a visual form allows users to quickly see patterns, explore summaries

Traditionally, visualization is one of the most important and commonly used methods of generating insight into large scale data. Particularly for spatiotemporal data, the translation of such data into a visual form allows users to quickly see patterns, explore summaries and relate domain knowledge about underlying geographical phenomena that would not be apparent in tabular form. However, several critical challenges arise when visualizing and exploring these large spatiotemporal datasets. While, the underlying geographical component of the data lends itself well to univariate visualization in the form of traditional cartographic representations (e.g., choropleth, isopleth, dasymetric maps), as the data becomes multivariate, cartographic representations become more complex. To simplify the visual representations, analytical methods such as clustering and feature extraction are often applied as part of the classification phase. The automatic classification can then be rendered onto a map; however, one common issue in data classification is that items near a classification boundary are often mislabeled.

This thesis explores methods to augment the automated spatial classification by utilizing interactive machine learning as part of the cluster creation step. First, this thesis explores the design space for spatiotemporal analysis through the development of a comprehensive data wrangling and exploratory data analysis platform. Second, this system is augmented with a novel method for evaluating the visual impact of edge cases for multivariate geographic projections. Finally, system features and functionality are demonstrated through a series of case studies, with key features including similarity analysis, multivariate clustering, and novel visual support for cluster comparison.

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Date Created
2016

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Enhancing the usability of complex structured data by supporting keyword searches

Description

As pointed out in the keynote speech by H. V. Jagadish in SIGMOD'07, and also commonly agreed in the database community, the usability of structured data by casual users is as important as the data management systems' functionalities. A major

As pointed out in the keynote speech by H. V. Jagadish in SIGMOD'07, and also commonly agreed in the database community, the usability of structured data by casual users is as important as the data management systems' functionalities. A major hardness of using structured data is the problem of easily retrieving information from them given a user's information needs. Learning and using a structured query language (e.g., SQL and XQuery) is overwhelmingly burdensome for most users, as not only are these languages sophisticated, but the users need to know the data schema. Keyword search provides us with opportunities to conveniently access structured data and potentially significantly enhances the usability of structured data. However, processing keyword search on structured data is challenging due to various types of ambiguities such as structural ambiguity (keyword queries have no structure), keyword ambiguity (the keywords may not be accurate), user preference ambiguity (the user may have implicit preferences that are not indicated in the query), as well as the efficiency challenges due to large search space. This dissertation performs an expansive study on keyword search processing techniques as a gateway for users to access structured data and retrieve desired information. The key issues addressed include: (1) Resolving structural ambiguities in keyword queries by generating meaningful query results, which involves identifying relevant keyword matches, identifying return information, composing query results based on relevant matches and return information. (2) Resolving structural, keyword and user preference ambiguities through result analysis, including snippet generation, result differentiation, result clustering, result summarization/query expansion, etc. (3) Resolving the efficiency challenge in processing keyword search on structured data by utilizing and efficiently maintaining materialized views. These works deliver significant technical contributions towards building a full-fledged search engine for structured data.

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Date Created
2011

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Association based prioritization of genes

Description

Genes have widely different pertinences to the etiology and pathology of diseases. Thus, they can be ranked according to their disease-significance on a genomic scale, which is the subject of gene prioritization. Given a set of genes known to be

Genes have widely different pertinences to the etiology and pathology of diseases. Thus, they can be ranked according to their disease-significance on a genomic scale, which is the subject of gene prioritization. Given a set of genes known to be related to a disease, it is reasonable to use them as a basis to determine the significance of other candidate genes, which will then be ranked based on the association they exhibit with respect to the given set of known genes. Experimental and computational data of various kinds have different reliability and relevance to a disease under study. This work presents a gene prioritization method based on integrated biological networks that incorporates and models the various levels of relevance and reliability of diverse sources. The method is shown to achieve significantly higher performance as compared to two well-known gene prioritization algorithms. Essentially, no bias in the performance was seen as it was applied to diseases of diverse ethnology, e.g., monogenic, polygenic and cancer. The method was highly stable and robust against significant levels of noise in the data. Biological networks are often sparse, which can impede the operation of associationbased gene prioritization algorithms such as the one presented here from a computational perspective. As a potential approach to overcome this limitation, we explore the value that transcription factor binding sites can have in elucidating suitable targets. Transcription factors are needed for the expression of most genes, especially in higher organisms and hence genes can be associated via their genetic regulatory properties. While each transcription factor recognizes specific DNA sequence patterns, such patterns are mostly unknown for many transcription factors. Even those that are known are inconsistently reported in the literature, implying a potentially high level of inaccuracy. We developed computational methods for prediction and improvement of transcription factor binding patterns. Tests performed on the improvement method by employing synthetic patterns under various conditions showed that the method is very robust and the patterns produced invariably converge to nearly identical series of patterns. Preliminary tests were conducted to incorporate knowledge from transcription factor binding sites into our networkbased model for prioritization, with encouraging results. Genes have widely different pertinences to the etiology and pathology of diseases. Thus, they can be ranked according to their disease-significance on a genomic scale, which is the subject of gene prioritization. Given a set of genes known to be related to a disease, it is reasonable to use them as a basis to determine the significance of other candidate genes, which will then be ranked based on the association they exhibit with respect to the given set of known genes. Experimental and computational data of various kinds have different reliability and relevance to a disease under study. This work presents a gene prioritization method based on integrated biological networks that incorporates and models the various levels of relevance and reliability of diverse sources. The method is shown to achieve significantly higher performance as compared to two well-known gene prioritization algorithms. Essentially, no bias in the performance was seen as it was applied to diseases of diverse ethnology, e.g., monogenic, polygenic and cancer. The method was highly stable and robust against significant levels of noise in the data. Biological networks are often sparse, which can impede the operation of associationbased gene prioritization algorithms such as the one presented here from a computational perspective. As a potential approach to overcome this limitation, we explore the value that transcription factor binding sites can have in elucidating suitable targets. Transcription factors are needed for the expression of most genes, especially in higher organisms and hence genes can be associated via their genetic regulatory properties. While each transcription factor recognizes specific DNA sequence patterns, such patterns are mostly unknown for many transcription factors. Even those that are known are inconsistently reported in the literature, implying a potentially high level of inaccuracy. We developed computational methods for prediction and improvement of transcription factor binding patterns. Tests performed on the improvement method by employing synthetic patterns under various conditions showed that the method is very robust and the patterns produced invariably converge to nearly identical series of patterns. Preliminary tests were conducted to incorporate knowledge from transcription factor binding sites into our networkbased model for prioritization, with encouraging results. To validate these approaches in a disease-specific context, we built a schizophreniaspecific network based on the inferred associations and performed a comprehensive prioritization of human genes with respect to the disease. These results are expected to be validated empirically, but computational validation using known targets are very positive.

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Date Created
2011

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Somatic ABC's: a theoretical framework for designing, developing and evaluating the building blocks of touch-based information delivery

Description

Situations of sensory overload are steadily becoming more frequent as the ubiquity of technology approaches reality--particularly with the advent of socio-communicative smartphone applications, and pervasive, high speed wireless networks. Although the ease of accessing information has improved our communication effectiveness

Situations of sensory overload are steadily becoming more frequent as the ubiquity of technology approaches reality--particularly with the advent of socio-communicative smartphone applications, and pervasive, high speed wireless networks. Although the ease of accessing information has improved our communication effectiveness and efficiency, our visual and auditory modalities--those modalities that today's computerized devices and displays largely engage--have become overloaded, creating possibilities for distractions, delays and high cognitive load; which in turn can lead to a loss of situational awareness, increasing chances for life threatening situations such as texting while driving. Surprisingly, alternative modalities for information delivery have seen little exploration. Touch, in particular, is a promising candidate given that it is our largest sensory organ with impressive spatial and temporal acuity. Although some approaches have been proposed for touch-based information delivery, they are not without limitations including high learning curves, limited applicability and/or limited expression. This is largely due to the lack of a versatile, comprehensive design theory--specifically, a theory that addresses the design of touch-based building blocks for expandable, efficient, rich and robust touch languages that are easy to learn and use. Moreover, beyond design, there is a lack of implementation and evaluation theories for such languages. To overcome these limitations, a unified, theoretical framework, inspired by natural, spoken language, is proposed called Somatic ABC's for Articulating (designing), Building (developing) and Confirming (evaluating) touch-based languages. To evaluate the usefulness of Somatic ABC's, its design, implementation and evaluation theories were applied to create communication languages for two very unique application areas: audio described movies and motor learning. These applications were chosen as they presented opportunities for complementing communication by offloading information, typically conveyed visually and/or aurally, to the skin. For both studies, it was found that Somatic ABC's aided the design, development and evaluation of rich somatic languages with distinct and natural communication units.

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Date Created
2012

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Collaboration of mobile and pervasive devices for embedded networked systems

Description

Embedded Networked Systems (ENS) consist of various devices, which are embedded into physical objects (e.g., home appliances, vehicles, buidlings, people). With rapid advances in processing and networking technologies, these devices can be fully connected and pervasive in the environment. The

Embedded Networked Systems (ENS) consist of various devices, which are embedded into physical objects (e.g., home appliances, vehicles, buidlings, people). With rapid advances in processing and networking technologies, these devices can be fully connected and pervasive in the environment. The devices can interact with the physical world, collaborate to share resources, and provide context-aware services. This dissertation focuses on collaboration in ENS to provide smart services. However, there are several challenges because the system must be - scalable to a huge number of devices; robust against noise, loss and failure; and secure despite communicating with strangers. To address these challenges, first, the dissertation focuses on designing a mobile gateway called Mobile Edge Computing Device (MECD) for Ubiquitous Sensor Networks (USN), a type of ENS. In order to reduce communication overhead with the server, an MECD is designed to provide local and distributed management of a network and data associated with a moving object (e.g., a person, car, pet). Furthermore, it supports collaboration with neighboring MECDs. The MECD is developed and tested for monitoring containers during shipment from Singapore to Taiwan and reachability to the remote server was a problem because of variance in connectivity (caused by high temperature variance) and high interference. The unreachability problem is addressed by using a mesh networking approach for collaboration of MECDs in sending data to a server. A hierarchical architecture is proposed in this regard to provide multi-level collaboration using dynamic mesh networks of MECDs at one layer. The mesh network is evaluated for an intelligent container scenario and results show complete connectivity with the server for temperature range from 25°C to 65°C. Finally, the authentication of mobile and pervasive devices in ENS for secure collaboration is investigated. This is a challenging problem because mutually unknown devices must be verified without knowledge of each other's identity. A self-organizing region-based authentication technique is proposed that uses environmental sound to autonomously verify if two devices are within the same region. The experimental results show sound could accurately authenticate devices within a small region.

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Date Created
2010

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TensorDB and tensor-relational model (TRM) for efficient tensor-relational operations

Description

Multidimensional data have various representations. Thanks to their simplicity in modeling multidimensional data and the availability of various mathematical tools (such as tensor decompositions) that support multi-aspect analysis of such data, tensors are increasingly being used in many application domains

Multidimensional data have various representations. Thanks to their simplicity in modeling multidimensional data and the availability of various mathematical tools (such as tensor decompositions) that support multi-aspect analysis of such data, tensors are increasingly being used in many application domains including scientific data management, sensor data management, and social network data analysis. Relational model, on the other hand, enables semantic manipulation of data using relational operators, such as projection, selection, Cartesian-product, and set operators. For many multidimensional data applications, tensor operations as well as relational operations need to be supported throughout the data life cycle. In this thesis, we introduce a tensor-based relational data model (TRM), which enables both tensor- based data analysis and relational manipulations of multidimensional data, and define tensor-relational operations on this model. Then we introduce a tensor-relational data management system, so called, TensorDB. TensorDB is based on TRM, which brings together relational algebraic operations (for data manipulation and integration) and tensor algebraic operations (for data analysis). We develop optimization strategies for tensor-relational operations in both in-memory and in-database TensorDB. The goal of the TRM and TensorDB is to serve as a single environment that supports the entire life cycle of data; that is, data can be manipulated, integrated, processed, and analyzed.

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Date Created
2014