Matching Items (66)
- Genre: Doctoral Dissertation
- Creators: Bakkaloglu, Bertan
Adaptive signal to noise ratio scalable analog front-end continuous time sigma delta converter for digital hearing aids
A dual-channel directional digital hearing aid (DHA) front end using Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) microphones and an adaptive-power analog processing signal chain is presented. The analog front end consists of a double differential amplifier (DDA) based capacitance to voltage conversion circuit, 40dB variable gain amplifier (VGA) and a continuous time sigma delta analog to digital converter (CT - &SIGMA;&DELTA; ADC). Adaptive power scaling of the 4th order CT - &SIGMA;&DELTA; achieves 68dB SNR at 120μW, which can be scaled down to 61dB SNR at 67μW. This power saving will increse the battery life of the DHA.
Non-volatile memories (NVM) are widely used in modern electronic devices due to their non-volatility, low static power consumption and high storage density. While Flash memories are the dominant NVM technology, resistive memories such as phase change access memory (PRAM) and spin torque transfer random access memory (STT-MRAM) are gaining ground. All these technologies suffer from reliability degradation due to process variations, structural limits and material property shift. To address the reliability concerns of these NVM technologies, multi-level low cost solutions are proposed for each of them. My approach consists of first building a comprehensive error model. Next the error characteristics are exploited to develop low cost multi-level strategies to compensate for the errors. For instance, for NAND Flash memory, I first characterize errors due to threshold voltage variations as a function of the number of program/erase cycles. Next a flexible product code is designed to migrate to a stronger ECC scheme as program/erase cycles increases. An adaptive data refresh scheme is also proposed to improve memory reliability with low energy cost for applications with different data update frequencies. For PRAM, soft errors and hard errors models are built based on shifts in the resistance distributions. Next I developed a multi-level error control approach involving bit interleaving and subblock flipping at the architecture level, threshold resistance tuning at the circuit level and programming current profile tuning at the device level. This approach helped reduce the error rate significantly so that it was now sufficient to use a low cost ECC scheme to satisfy the memory reliability constraint. I also studied the reliability of a PRAM+DRAM hybrid memory system and analyzed the tradeoffs between memory performance, programming energy and lifetime. For STT-MRAM, I first developed an error model based on process variations. I developed a multi-level approach to reduce the error rates that consisted of increasing the W/L ratio of the access transistor, increasing the voltage difference across the memory cell and adjusting the current profile during write operation. This approach enabled use of a low cost BCH based ECC scheme to achieve very low block failure rates.
The design and development of analog/mixed-signal (AMS) integrated circuits (ICs) is becoming increasingly expensive, complex, and lengthy. Rapid prototyping and emulation of analog ICs will be significant in the design and testing of complex analog systems. A new approach, Programmable ANalog Device Array (PANDA) that maps any AMS design problem to a transistor-level programmable hardware, is proposed. This approach enables fast system level validation and a reduction in post-Silicon bugs, minimizing design risk and cost. The unique features of the approach include 1) transistor-level programmability that emulates each transistor behavior in an analog design, achieving very fine granularity of reconfiguration; 2) programmable switches that are treated as a design component during analog transistor emulating, and optimized with the reconfiguration matrix; 3) compensation of AC performance degradation through boosting the bias current. Based on these principles, a digitally controlled PANDA platform is designed at 45nm node that can map AMS modules across 22nm to 90nm technology nodes. A systematic emulation approach to map any analog transistor to 45nm PANDA cell is proposed, which achieves transistor level matching accuracy of less than 5% for ID and less than 10% for Rout and Gm. Circuit level analog metrics of a voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) emulated by PANDA, match to those of the original designs in 22nm and 90nm nodes with less than a 5% error. Several other 90nm and 22nm analog blocks are successfully emulated by the 45nm PANDA platform, including a folded-cascode operational amplifier and a sample-and-hold module (S/H). Further capabilities of PANDA are demonstrated by the first full-chip silicon of PANDA which is implemented on 65nm process This system consists of a 24×25 cell array, reconfigurable interconnect and configuration memory. The voltage and current reference circuits, op amps and a VCO with a phase interpolation circuit are emulated by PANDA.
With increasing demand for System on Chip (SoC) and System in Package (SiP) design in computer and communication technologies, integrated inductor which is an essential passive component has been widely used in numerous integrated circuits (ICs) such as in voltage regulators and RF circuits. In this work, soft ferromagnetic core material, amorphous Co-Zr-Ta-B, was incorporated into on-chip and in-package inductors in order to scale down inductors and improve inductors performance in both inductance density and quality factor. With two layers of 500 nm Co-Zr-Ta-B films a 3.5X increase in inductance and a 3.9X increase in quality factor over inductors without magnetic films were measured at frequencies as high as 1 GHz. By laminating technology, up to 9.1X increase in inductance and more than 5X increase in quality factor (Q) were obtained from stripline inductors incorporated with 50 nm by 10 laminated films with a peak Q at 300 MHz. It was also demonstrated that this peak Q can be pushed towards high frequency as far as 1GHz by a combination of patterning magnetic films into fine bars and laminations. The role of magnetic vias in magnetic flux and eddy current control was investigated by both simulation and experiment using different patterning techniques and by altering the magnetic via width. Finger-shaped magnetic vias were designed and integrated into on-chip RF inductors improving the frequency of peak quality factor from 400 MHz to 800 MHz without sacrificing inductance enhancement. Eddy current and magnetic flux density in different areas of magnetic vias were analyzed by HFSS 3D EM simulation. With optimized magnetic vias, high frequency response of up to 2 GHz was achieved. Furthermore, the effect of applied magnetic field on on-chip inductors was investigated for high power applications. It was observed that as applied magnetic field along the hard axis (HA) increases, inductance maintains similar value initially at low fields, but decreases at larger fields until the magnetic films become saturated. The high frequency quality factor showed an opposite trend which is correlated to the reduction of ferromagnetic resonant absorption in the magnetic film. In addition, experiments showed that this field-dependent inductance change varied with different patterned magnetic film structures, including bars/slots and fingers structures. Magnetic properties of Co-Zr-Ta-B films on standard organic package substrates including ABF and polyimide were also characterized. Effects of substrate roughness and stress were analyzed and simulated which provide strategies for integrating Co-Zr-Ta-B into package inductors and improving inductors performance. Stripline and spiral inductors with Co-Zr-Ta-B films were fabricated on both ABF and polyimide substrates. Maximum 90% inductance increase in hundreds MHz frequency range were achieved in stripline inductors which are suitable for power delivery applications. Spiral inductors with Co-Zr-Ta-B films showed 18% inductance increase with quality factor of 4 at frequency up to 3 GHz.
The high cut-off frequency of deep sub-micron CMOS technologies has enabled the integration of radio frequency (RF) transceivers with digital circuits. However, the challenging point is the integration of RF power amplifiers, mainly due to the low breakdown voltage of CMOS transistors. Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) metal semiconductor field effect transistors (MESFETs) have been introduced to remedy the limited headroom concern in CMOS technologies. The MESFETs presented in this thesis have been fabricated on different SOI-CMOS processes without making any change to the standard fabrication steps and offer 2-30 times higher breakdown voltage than the MOSFETs on the same process. This thesis explains the design steps of high efficiency and wideband RF transmitters using the proposed SOI-CMOS compatible MESFETs. This task involves DC and RF characterization of MESFET devices, along with providing a compact Spice model for simulation purposes. This thesis presents the design of several SOI-MESFET RF power amplifiers operating at 433, 900 and 1800 MHz with ~40% bandwidth. Measurement results show a peak power added efficiency (PAE) of 55% and a peak output power of 22.5 dBm. The RF-PAs were designed to operate in Class-AB mode to minimize the linearity degradation. Class-AB power amplifiers lead to poor power added efficiency, especially when fed with signals with high peak to average power ratio (PAPR) such as wideband code division multiple access (W-CDMA). Polar transmitters have been introduced to improve the efficiency of RF-PAs at backed-off powers. A MESFET based envelope tracking (ET) polar transmitter was designed and measured. A low drop-out voltage regulator (LDO) was used as the supply modulator of this polar transmitter. MESFETs are depletion mode devices; therefore, they can be configured in a source follower configuration to have better stability and higher bandwidth that MOSFET based LDOs. Measurement results show 350 MHz bandwidth while driving a 10 pF capacitive load. A novel polar transmitter is introduced in this thesis to alleviate some of the limitations associated with polar transmitters. The proposed architecture uses the backgate terminal of a partially depleted transistor on SOI process, which relaxes the bandwidth and efficiency requirements of the envelope amplifier in a polar transmitter. The measurement results of the proposed transmitter demonstrate more than three times PAE improvement at 6-dB backed-off output power, compared to the traditional RF transmitters.
Distributed estimation uses many inexpensive sensors to compose an accurate estimate of a given parameter. It is frequently implemented using wireless sensor networks. There have been several studies on optimizing power allocation in wireless sensor networks used for distributed estimation, the vast majority of which assume linear radio-frequency amplifiers. Linear amplifiers are inherently inefficient, so in this dissertation nonlinear amplifiers are examined to gain efficiency while operating distributed sensor networks. This research presents a method to boost efficiency by operating the amplifiers in the nonlinear region of operation. Operating amplifiers nonlinearly presents new challenges. First, nonlinear amplifier characteristics change across manufacturing process variation, temperature, operating voltage, and aging. Secondly, the equations conventionally used for estimators and performance expectations in linear amplify-and-forward systems fail. To compensate for the first challenge, predistortion is utilized not to linearize amplifiers but rather to force them to fit a common nonlinear limiting amplifier model close to the inherent amplifier performance. This minimizes the power impact and the training requirements for predistortion. Second, new estimators are required that account for transmitter nonlinearity. This research derives analytically and confirms via simulation new estimators and performance expectation equations for use in nonlinear distributed estimation. An additional complication when operating nonlinear amplifiers in a wireless environment is the influence of varied and potentially unknown channel gains. The impact of these varied gains and both measurement and channel noise sources on estimation performance are analyzed in this paper. Techniques for minimizing the estimate variance are developed. It is shown that optimizing transmitter power allocation to minimize estimate variance for the most-compressed parameter measurement is equivalent to the problem for linear sensors. Finally, a method for operating distributed estimation in a multipath environment is presented that is capable of developing robust estimates for a wide range of Rician K-factors. This dissertation demonstrates that implementing distributed estimation using nonlinear sensors can boost system efficiency and is compatible with existing techniques from the literature for boosting efficiency at the system level via sensor power allocation. Nonlinear transmitters work best when channel gains are known and channel noise and receiver noise levels are low.
During the last decades the development of the transistor and its continuous down-scaling allowed the appearance of cost effective wireless communication systems. New generation wideband wireless mobile systems demand high linearity, low power consumption and the low cost devices. Traditional RF systems are mainly analog-based circuitry. Contrary to digital circuits, the technology scaling results in reduction on the maximum voltage swing which makes RF design very challenging. Pushing the interface between the digital and analog boundary of the RF systems closer to the antenna becomes an attractive trend for modern RF devices. In order to take full advantages of the deep submicron CMOS technologies and digital signal processing (DSP), there is a strong trend towards the development of digital transmitter where the RF upconversion is part of the digital-to-analog conversion (DAC). This thesis presents a new digital intermediate frequency (IF) to RF transmitter for 2GHz wideband code division multiple access (W-CDMA). The proposed transmitter integrates a 3-level digital IF current-steering cell, an up-conversion mixer with a tuned load and an RF variable gain amplifier (RF VGA) with an embedded finite impulse response (FIR) reconstruction filter in the up-conversion path. A 4th-order 1.5-bit IF bandpass sigma delta modulator (BP SDM) is designed to support in-band SNR while the out-of-band quantization noise due to the noise shaping is suppressed by the embedded reconstruction filter to meet spectrum emission mask and ACPR requirements. The RF VGA provides 50dB power scaling in 10-dB steps with less than 1dB gain error. The design is fabricated in a 0.18um CMOS technology with a total core area of 0.8 x 1.6 mm2. The IC delivers 0dBm output power at 2GHz and it draws approximately 120mA from a 1.8V DC supply at the maximum output power. The measurement results proved that a digital-intensive digital IF to RF converter architecture can be successfully employed for WCDMA transmitter application.
The non-quasi-static (NQS) description of device behavior is useful in fast switching and high frequency circuit applications. Hence, it is necessary to develop a fast and accurate compact NQS model for both large-signal and small-signal simulations. A new relaxation-time-approximation based NQS MOSFET model, consistent between transient and small-signal simulations, has been developed for surface-potential-based MOSFET compact models. The new model is valid for all regions of operation and is compatible with, and at low frequencies recovers, the quasi-static (QS) description of the MOSFET. The model is implemented in two widely used circuit simulators and tested for speed and convergence. It is verified by comparison with technology computer aided design (TCAD) simulations and experimental data, and by application of a recently developed benchmark test for NQS MOSFET models. In addition, a new and simple technique to characterize NQS and gate resistance, Rgate, MOS model parameters from measured data has been presented. In the process of experimental model verification, the effects of bulk resistance on MOSFET characteristics is investigated both theoretically and experimentally to separate it from the NQS effects.
Several state of the art, monitoring and control systems, such as DC motor
controllers, power line monitoring and protection systems, instrumentation systems and battery monitors require direct digitization of a high voltage input signals. Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADCs) that can digitize high voltage signals require high linearity and low voltage coefficient capacitors. A built in self-calibration and digital-trim algorithm correcting static mismatches in Capacitive Digital-to-Analog Converter (CDAC) used in Successive Approximation Register Analog to Digital Converters (SARADCs) is proposed. The algorithm uses a dynamic error correction (DEC) capacitor to cancel the static errors occurring in each capacitor of the array as the first step upon power-up and eliminates the need for an extra calibration DAC. Self-trimming is performed digitally during normal ADC operation. The algorithm is implemented on a 14-bit high-voltage input range SAR ADC with integrated dynamic error correction capacitors. The IC is fabricated in 0.6-um high voltage compliant CMOS process, accepting up to 24Vpp differential input signal. The proposed approach achieves 73.32 dB Signal to Noise and Distortion Ratio (SNDR) which is an improvement of 12.03 dB after self-calibration at 400 kS/s sampling rate, consuming 90-mW from a +/-15V supply. The calibration circuitry occupies 28% of the capacitor DAC, and consumes less than 15mW during operation. Measurement results shows that this algorithm reduces INL from as high as 7 LSBs down to 1 LSB and it works even in the presence of larger mismatches exceeding 260 LSBs. Similarly, it reduces DNL errors from 10 LSBs down to 1 LSB. The ADC occupies an active area of 9.76 mm2.
Buck converters are electronic devices that changes a voltage from one level to a lower one and are present in many everyday applications. However, due to factors like aging, degradation or failures, these devices require a system identification process to track and diagnose their parameters. The system identification process should be performed on-line to not affect the normal operation of the device. Identifying the parameters of the system is essential to design and tune an adaptive proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller.
Three techniques were used to design the PID controller. Phase and gain margin still prevails as one of the easiest methods to design controllers. Pole-zero cancellation is another technique which is based on pole-placement. However, although these controllers can be easily designed, they did not provide the best response compared to the Frequency Loop Shaping (FLS) technique. Therefore, since FLS showed to have a better frequency and time responses compared to the other two controllers, it was selected to perform the adaptation of the system.
An on-line system identification process was performed for the buck converter using indirect adaptation and the least square algorithm. The estimation error and the parameter error were computed to determine the rate of convergence of the system. The indirect adaptation required about 2000 points to converge to the true parameters prior designing the controller. These results were compared to the adaptation executed using robust stability condition (RSC) and a switching controller. Two different scenarios were studied consisting of five plants that defined the percentage of deterioration of the capacitor and inductor within the buck converter. The switching logic did not always select the optimal controller for the first scenario because the frequency response of the different plants was not significantly different. However, the second scenario consisted of plants with more noticeable different frequency responses and the switching logic selected the optimal controller all the time in about 500 points. Additionally, a disturbance was introduced at the plant input to observe its effect in the switching controller. However, for reasonable low disturbances no change was detected in the proper selection of controllers.