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Development of models for optical instrument transformers

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Optical Instrument Transformers (OIT) have been developed as an alternative to traditional instrument transformers (IT). The question "Can optical instrument transformers substitute for the traditional transformers?" is the main motivation of this study. Finding the answer for this question and

Optical Instrument Transformers (OIT) have been developed as an alternative to traditional instrument transformers (IT). The question "Can optical instrument transformers substitute for the traditional transformers?" is the main motivation of this study. Finding the answer for this question and developing complete models are the contributions of this work. Dedicated test facilities are developed so that the steady state and transient performances of analog outputs of a magnetic current transformer (CT) and a magnetic voltage transformer (VT) are compared with that of an optical current transformer (OCT) and an optical voltage transformer (OVT) respectively. Frequency response characteristics of OIT outputs are obtained. Comparison results show that OITs have a specified accuracy of 0.3% in all cases. They are linear, and DC offset does not saturate the systems. The OIT output signal has a 40~60 μs time delay, but this is typically less than the equivalent phase difference permitted by the IEEE and IEC standards for protection applications. Analog outputs have significantly higher bandwidths (adjustable to 20 to 40 kHz) than the IT. The digital output signal bandwidth (2.4 kHz) of an OCT is significantly lower than the analog signal bandwidth (20 kHz) due to the sampling rates involved. The OIT analog outputs may have significant white noise of 6%, but the white noise does not affect accuracy or protection performance. Temperatures up to 50oC do not adversely affect the performance of the OITs. Three types of models are developed for analog outputs: analog, digital, and complete models. Well-known mathematical methods, such as network synthesis and Jones calculus methods are applied. The developed models are compared with experiment results and are verified with simulation programs. Results show less than 1.5% for OCT and 2% for OVT difference and that the developed models can be used for power system simulations and the method used for the development can be used to develop models for all other brands of optical systems. The communication and data transfer between the all-digital protection systems is investigated by developing a test facility for all digital protection systems. Test results show that different manufacturers' relays and transformers based on the IEC standard can serve the power system successfully.

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2010

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Modeling and control for microgrids

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Traditional approaches to modeling microgrids include the behavior of each inverter operating in a particular network configuration and at a particular operating point. Such models quickly become computationally intensive for large systems. Similarly, traditional approaches to control do not use

Traditional approaches to modeling microgrids include the behavior of each inverter operating in a particular network configuration and at a particular operating point. Such models quickly become computationally intensive for large systems. Similarly, traditional approaches to control do not use advanced methodologies and suffer from poor performance and limited operating range. In this document a linear model is derived for an inverter connected to the Thevenin equivalent of a microgrid. This model is then compared to a nonlinear simulation model and analyzed using the open and closed loop systems in both the time and frequency domains. The modeling error is quantified with emphasis on its use for controller design purposes. Control design examples are given using a Glover McFarlane controller, gain sched- uled Glover McFarlane controller, and bumpless transfer controller which are compared to the standard droop control approach. These examples serve as a guide to illustrate the use of multi-variable modeling techniques in the context of robust controller design and show that gain scheduled MIMO control techniques can extend the operating range of a microgrid. A hardware implementation is used to compare constant gain droop controllers with Glover McFarlane controllers and shows a clear advantage of the Glover McFarlane approach.

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2013

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A single-phase current source solar inverter with constant instantaneous power, improved reliability, and reduced-size DC-link filter

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This dissertation presents a novel current source converter topology that is primarily intended for single-phase photovoltaic (PV) applications. In comparison with the existing PV inverter technology, the salient features of the proposed topology are: a) the low frequency (double of

This dissertation presents a novel current source converter topology that is primarily intended for single-phase photovoltaic (PV) applications. In comparison with the existing PV inverter technology, the salient features of the proposed topology are: a) the low frequency (double of line frequency) ripple that is common to single-phase inverters is greatly reduced; b) the absence of low frequency ripple enables significantly reduced size pass components to achieve necessary DC-link stiffness and c) improved maximum power point tracking (MPPT) performance is readily achieved due to the tightened current ripple even with reduced-size passive components. The proposed topology does not utilize any electrolytic capacitors. Instead an inductor is used as the DC-link filter and reliable AC film capacitors are utilized for the filter and auxiliary capacitor. The proposed topology has a life expectancy on par with PV panels. The proposed modulation technique can be used for any current source inverter where an unbalanced three-phase operation is desires such as active filters and power controllers. The proposed topology is ready for the next phase of microgrid and power system controllers in that it accepts reactive power commands. This work presents the proposed topology and its working principle supported by with numerical verifications and hardware results. Conclusions and future work are also presented.

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2013

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An innovative method for evaluating power distribution system reliability

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The reliability assessment of future distribution networks is an important issue in power engineering for both utilities and customers. This is due to the increasing demand for more reliable service with less interruption frequency and duration. This research consists of

The reliability assessment of future distribution networks is an important issue in power engineering for both utilities and customers. This is due to the increasing demand for more reliable service with less interruption frequency and duration. This research consists of two main parts related to the evaluation of the future distribution system reliability. An innovative algorithm named the encoded Markov cut set (EMCS) is proposed to evaluate the reliability of the networked power distribution system. The proposed algorithm is based on the identification of circuit minimal tie sets using the concept of Petri nets. Prime number encoding and unique prime factorization are then utilized to add more flexibility in communicating between the systems states, and to classify the states as tie sets, cut sets, or minimal cut sets. Different reduction and truncation techniques are proposed to reduce the size of the state space. The Markov model is used to compute the availability, mean time to failure, and failure frequency of the network. A well-known Test Bed is used to illustrate the analysis (the Roy Billinton test system (RBTS)), and different load and system reliability indices are calculated. The method shown is algorithmic and appears suitable for off-line comparison of alternative secondary distribution system designs on the basis of their reliability. The second part assesses the impact of the conventional and renewable distributed generation (DG) on the reliability of the future distribution system. This takes into account the variability of the power output of the renewable DG, such as wind and solar DGs, and the chronological nature of the load demand. The stochastic nature of the renewable resources and its influence on the reliability of the system are modeled and studied by computing the adequacy transition rate. Then, an integrated Markov model that incorporates the DG adequacy transition rate, DG mechanical failure, and starting and switching probability is proposed and utilized to give accurate results for the DG reliability impact. The main focus in this research is the conventional, solar, and wind DG units. However, the technique used appears to be applicable to any renewable energy source.

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2012

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Analysis of synchronization and accuracy of synchrophasor measurements

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In electric power systems, phasor measurement units (PMUs) are capable of providing synchronized voltage and current phasor measurements which are superior to conventional measurements collected by the supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system in terms of resolution and accuracy.

In electric power systems, phasor measurement units (PMUs) are capable of providing synchronized voltage and current phasor measurements which are superior to conventional measurements collected by the supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system in terms of resolution and accuracy. These measurements are known as synchrophasor measurements. Considerable research work has been done on the applications of PMU measurements based on the as-sumption that a high level of accuracy is obtained in the field. The study in this dissertation is conducted to address the basic issue concerning the accuracy of actual PMU measurements in the field. Synchronization is one of the important features of PMU measurements. However, the study presented in this dissertation reveals that the problem of faulty synchronization between measurements with the same time stamps from different PMUs exists. A Kalman filter model is proposed to analyze and calcu-late the time skew error caused by faulty synchronization. In order to achieve a high level of accuracy of PMU measurements, inno-vative methods are proposed to detect and identify system state changes or bad data which are reflected by changes in the measurements. This procedure is ap-plied as a key step in adaptive Kalman filtering of PMU measurements to over-come the insensitivity of a conventional Kalman filter. Calibration of PMU measurements is implemented in specific PMU instal-lation scenarios using transmission line (TL) parameters from operation planning data. The voltage and current correction factors calculated from the calibration procedure indicate the possible errors in PMU measurements. Correction factors can be applied in on-line calibration of PMU measurements. A study is conducted to address an important issue when integrating PMU measurements into state estimation. The reporting rate of PMU measurements is much higher than that of the measurements collected by the SCADA. The ques-tion of how to buffer PMU measurements is raised. The impact of PMU meas-urement buffer length on state estimation is discussed. A method based on hy-pothesis testing is proposed to determine the optimal buffer length of PMU meas-urements considering the two conflicting features of PMU measurements, i. e. un-certainty and variability. Results are presented for actual PMU synchrophasor measurements.

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2012

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Distribution system modeling, analysis and design with high penetration of photovoltaic generation

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Present distribution infrastructure is designed mainly for uni-directional power flow with well-controlled generation. An increase in the inverter-interfaced photovoltaic (PV) systems requires a thorough re-examination of the design, operation, protection and control of distribution systems. In order to understand the

Present distribution infrastructure is designed mainly for uni-directional power flow with well-controlled generation. An increase in the inverter-interfaced photovoltaic (PV) systems requires a thorough re-examination of the design, operation, protection and control of distribution systems. In order to understand the impact of high penetration of PV generation, this work conducts an automated and detailed modeling of a power distribution system. The simulation results of the modeled distribution feeder have been verified with the field measurements.

Based on the feeder model, this work studies the impact of the PV systems on voltage profiles under various scenarios, including reallocation of the PV systems, reactive power support from the PV inverters, and settings of the load-tap changing transformers in coordination with the PV penetration. Design recommendations have been made based on the simulation results to improve the voltage profiles in the feeder studied.

To carry out dynamic studies related to high penetration of PV systems, this work proposes a differential algebraic equation (DAE) based dynamic modeling and analysis method. Different controllers including inverter current controllers, anti-islanding controllers and droop controllers, are designed and tested in large systems. The method extends the capability of the distribution system analysis tools, to help conduct dynamic analyses in large unbalanced distribution systems.

Another main contribution of this work is related to the investigation of the PV impacts on the feeder protection coordination. Various protection coordination types, including fuse-fuse, recloser-fuse, relay-fuse and relay-recloser have been studied. The analyses provide a better understanding of the relay and recloser settings under different configurations of the PV interconnection transformers, PV penetration levels, and fault types.

A decision tree and fuzzy logic based fault location identification process has also been proposed in this work. The process is composed of the off-line training of the decision tree, and the on-line analysis of the fault events. Fault current contribution from the PV systems, as well as the variation of the fault resistance have been taken into consideration. Two actual fault cases with the event data recorded were used to examine the effectiveness of the fault identification process.

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2016

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Impacts of base-case and post-contingency constraint relaxations on static and dynamic operational security

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Constraint relaxation by definition means that certain security, operational, or financial constraints are allowed to be violated in the energy market model for a predetermined penalty price. System operators utilize this mechanism in an effort to impose a price-cap on

Constraint relaxation by definition means that certain security, operational, or financial constraints are allowed to be violated in the energy market model for a predetermined penalty price. System operators utilize this mechanism in an effort to impose a price-cap on shadow prices throughout the market. In addition, constraint relaxations can serve as corrective approximations that help in reducing the occurrence of infeasible or extreme solutions in the day-ahead markets. This work aims to capture the impact constraint relaxations have on system operational security. Moreover, this analysis also provides a better understanding of the correlation between DC market models and AC real-time systems and analyzes how relaxations in market models propagate to real-time systems. This information can be used not only to assess the criticality of constraint relaxations, but also as a basis for determining penalty prices more accurately.

Constraint relaxations practice was replicated in this work using a test case and a real-life large-scale system, while capturing both energy market aspects and AC real-time system performance. System performance investigation included static and dynamic security analysis for base-case and post-contingency operating conditions. PJM peak hour loads were dynamically modeled in order to capture delayed voltage recovery and sustained depressed voltage profiles as a result of reactive power deficiency caused by constraint relaxations. Moreover, impacts of constraint relaxations on operational system security were investigated when risk based penalty prices are used. Transmission lines in the PJM system were categorized according to their risk index and each category was as-signed a different penalty price accordingly in order to avoid real-time overloads on high risk lines.

This work also extends the investigation of constraint relaxations to post-contingency relaxations, where emergency limits are allowed to be relaxed in energy market models. Various scenarios were investigated to capture and compare between the impacts of base-case and post-contingency relaxations on real-time system performance, including the presence of both relaxations simultaneously. The effect of penalty prices on the number and magnitude of relaxations was investigated as well.

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2016

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A DC-DC multiport converter based solid state transformer integrating distributed generation and storage

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The development of a Solid State Transformer (SST) that incorporates a DC-DC multiport converter to integrate both photovoltaic (PV) power generation and battery energy storage is presented in this dissertation. The DC-DC stage is based on a quad-active-bridge (QAB) converter

The development of a Solid State Transformer (SST) that incorporates a DC-DC multiport converter to integrate both photovoltaic (PV) power generation and battery energy storage is presented in this dissertation. The DC-DC stage is based on a quad-active-bridge (QAB) converter which not only provides isolation for the load, but also for the PV and storage. The AC-DC stage is implemented with a pulse-width-modulated (PWM) single phase rectifier. A unified gyrator-based average model is developed for a general multi-active-bridge (MAB) converter controlled through phase-shift modulation (PSM). Expressions to determine the power rating of the MAB ports are also derived. The developed gyrator-based average model is applied to the QAB converter for faster simulations of the proposed SST during the control design process as well for deriving the state-space representation of the plant. Both linear quadratic regulator (LQR) and single-input-single-output (SISO) types of controllers are designed for the DC-DC stage. A novel technique that complements the SISO controller by taking into account the cross-coupling characteristics of the QAB converter is also presented herein. Cascaded SISO controllers are designed for the AC-DC stage. The QAB demanded power is calculated at the QAB controls and then fed into the rectifier controls in order to minimize the effect of the interaction between the two SST stages. The dynamic performance of the designed control loops based on the proposed control strategies are verified through extensive simulation of the SST average and switching models. The experimental results presented herein show that the transient responses for each control strategy match those from the simulations results thus validating them.

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2011

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Improved coherency-based dynamic equivalents

Description

Due to restructuring and open access to the transmission system, modern electric power systems are being operated closer to their operational limits. Additionally, the secure operational limits of modern power systems have become increasingly difficult to evaluate as the scale

Due to restructuring and open access to the transmission system, modern electric power systems are being operated closer to their operational limits. Additionally, the secure operational limits of modern power systems have become increasingly difficult to evaluate as the scale of the network and the number of transactions between utilities increase. To account for these challenges associated with the rapid expansion of electric power systems, dynamic equivalents have been widely applied for the purpose of reducing the computational effort of simulation-based transient security assessment. Dynamic equivalents are commonly developed using a coherency-based approach in which a retained area and an external area are first demarcated. Then the coherent generators in the external area are aggregated and replaced by equivalenced models, followed by network reduction and load aggregation. In this process, an improperly defined retained area can result in detrimental impacts on the effectiveness of the equivalents in preserving the dynamic characteristics of the original unreduced system. In this dissertation, a comprehensive approach has been proposed to determine an appropriate retained area boundary by including the critical generators in the external area that are tightly coupled with the initial retained area. Further-more, a systematic approach has also been investigated to efficiently predict the variation in generator slow coherency behavior when the system operating condition is subject to change. Based on this determination, the critical generators in the external area that are tightly coherent with the generators in the initial retained area are retained, resulting in a new retained area boundary. Finally, a novel hybrid dynamic equivalent, consisting of both a coherency-based equivalent and an artificial neural network (ANN)-based equivalent, has been proposed and analyzed. The ANN-based equivalent complements the coherency-based equivalent at all the retained area boundary buses, and it is designed to compensate for the discrepancy between the full system and the conventional coherency-based equivalent. The approaches developed have been validated on a large portion of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) system and on a test case including a significant portion of the eastern interconnection.

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2011

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Sensitivity-based Pricing and Multiobjective Control for Energy Management in Power Distribution Systems

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In the deregulated power system, locational marginal prices are used in transmission engineering predominantly as near real-time pricing signals. This work extends this concept to distribution engineering so that a distribution class locational marginal price might be used for real-time

In the deregulated power system, locational marginal prices are used in transmission engineering predominantly as near real-time pricing signals. This work extends this concept to distribution engineering so that a distribution class locational marginal price might be used for real-time pricing and control of advanced control systems in distribution circuits. A formulation for the distribution locational marginal price signal is presented that is based on power flow sensitivities in a distribution system. A Jacobian-based sensitivity analysis has been developed for application in the distribution pricing method. Increasing deployment of distributed energy sources is being seen at the distribution level and this trend is expected to continue. To facilitate an optimal use of the distributed infrastructure, the control of the energy demand on a feeder node in the distribution system has been formulated as a multiobjective optimization problem and a solution algorithm has been developed. In multiobjective problems the Pareto optimality criterion is generally applied, and commonly used solution algorithms are decision-based and heuristic. In contrast, a mathematically-robust technique called normal boundary intersection has been modeled for use in this work, and the control variable is solved via separable programming. The Roy Billinton Test System (RBTS) has predominantly been used to demonstrate the application of the formulation in distribution system control. A parallel processing environment has been used to replicate the distributed nature of controls at many points in the distribution system. Interactions between the real-time prices in a distribution feeder and the nodal prices at the aggregated load bus have been investigated. The application of the formulations in an islanded operating condition has also been demonstrated. The DLMP formulation has been validated using the test bed systems and a practical framework for its application in distribution engineering has been presented. The multiobjective optimization yields excellent results and is found to be robust for finer time resolutions. The work shown in this report is applicable to, and has been researched under the aegis of the Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management (FREEDM) center, which is a generation III National Science Foundation engineering research center headquartered at North Carolina State University.

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2012