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Communication, goals and collaboration in buyer-supplier joint product design

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Original equipment manufacturers (buyers) are increasingly involving suppliers in new product development as a means to increase efficiency and expand capabilities. To realize such benefits, however, the two firms need

Original equipment manufacturers (buyers) are increasingly involving suppliers in new product development as a means to increase efficiency and expand capabilities. To realize such benefits, however, the two firms need to have appropriate communication and goal structures to minimize friction while maximizing design quality. In addition, the effectiveness of the inter-firm interaction process, i.e. their collaboration quality, is also a key success factor. This study draws from Information Process Theory to propose that higher technical and relational uncertainty requires more inter-firm communication. The misalignment between communication intensity and uncertainty reduces both design quality and design efficiency. Goal incongruence, which always lowers project performance, is less harmful for projects with high technical uncertainty due to the potential of the conflict resolving process in improving decision quality and efficiency. Finally I use Hackman's theory of work group effectiveness to propose that collaboration quality fully mediates the effects of communication intensity and goal congruence on project outcomes. The study used an empirical survey of manufacturers as the primary method of data collection. Manufacturers that integrate and assemble complex and discrete products are the target population. Design engineers and project managers from manufacturers were my target respondents. Both SEM and hierarchical regression were used to test the conceptual model. The dissertation made five theoretical contributions. First, I introduced the concept that there is an optimal level of inter-firm communication intensity, exceeding which lowers design efficiency without improving design quality. Second, I theoretically defined and empirically operationalized two types of uncertainty, one on the project level and one on the inter-firm level, which were shown to moderate the effects of inter-firm communication and goal structures on collaboration outcomes. Third, this study examined the conditions when goal congruence is more effective in improving collaboration outcomes. Fourth, this study nominally and operationally defined collaboration quality, a theoretical construct which measure the effectiveness of inter-partner interactions rather than mere existence or amount of certain activities pursued by partners. Finally, I proposed several enhancements to existing construct measures.

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  • 2011

An orchestra audition handbook for bass players

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The following project is an audition preparation handbook for double bass players. The materials and techniques included are designed for use by advanced collegiate bass players seeking work as freelance

The following project is an audition preparation handbook for double bass players. The materials and techniques included are designed for use by advanced collegiate bass players seeking work as freelance or contracted musicians. Subjects ranging from finding an opening, becoming mentally and physically prepared, and developing the skills and experience necessary to be successful will be examined. The most frequently requested audition excerpts are included in this document, carefully extracted from the original orchestra parts and notated with efficient fingerings. Elements of style and performance are discussed. Each of the excerpts is recorded on the enclosed CD, performed by the author as examples to the readers. It is the hope of the author that the study and use of this text will better prepare the readers for entrance into the working world of the music industry. Ideas, processes, and materials that are often neglected in a degree program are examined with the hope that students will be better prepared to audition for, and win orchestral positions.

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  • 2011

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Between reconciliation and justice: the struggles for justice and reconciliation in Colombia

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Over the past decades, Colombian society has endured the impact of a longstanding political conflict among different actors and outrageous expressions of violence, especially among left wing guerrillas, right wing

Over the past decades, Colombian society has endured the impact of a longstanding political conflict among different actors and outrageous expressions of violence, especially among left wing guerrillas, right wing paramilitary groups and the state government. Drawing on socio-legal studies in transitional justice and human rights, this research attempts to analyze the recent experience of transitional justice in Colombia. The main purpose of this research is to understand how political, institutional and social actors, especially the government, the courts, the human rights and transitional justice NGOs, and victims associations, frame the mechanisms of transitional justice and use legal instruments to transform the conflict and reach what they consider "justice." It also attempts to understand the relations between politics and law in the context of a hegemonic discourse of security and give account of the expressions of resistance of human rights networks. In doing so, this research advances theory on literature about law and society and transitional justice by means of applying and expanding the theoretical framework of socio-legal research via the process of transitional justice in Colombia. The dissertation presents information gathered in the field in Colombia between July 2009 and July 2010 through a qualitative research design based on document analysis and in-depth interviews with members of different international and domestic human rights organizations, victims' organizations and national institutions. The research explains how these organizations combined political and legal actions in order to contest a project of security, and more specifically a project of impunity that came from negotiations with the paramilitary groups. The research also explains how the human rights networks not only mobilized internationally to gain political support from the international community, but also how these organizations contributed to transform the political debate about victims' rights. The research also explains how the human rights organizations and victims' groups articulated the global discourse on human rights and the local and domestic meanings constructed by the emerging movements of victims. Finally, the research analyses the relevance of legal practices consisting on strategic use of law in order to protect the victims of human rights violations.

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  • 2011

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Growth, characterization, and thermodynamics of III-nitride semiconductors

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III-nitride alloys are wide band gap semiconductors with a broad range of applications in optoelectronic devices such as light emitting diodes and laser diodes. Indium gallium nitride light emitting diodes

III-nitride alloys are wide band gap semiconductors with a broad range of applications in optoelectronic devices such as light emitting diodes and laser diodes. Indium gallium nitride light emitting diodes have been successfully produced over the past decade. But the progress of green emission light emitting devices has been limited by the incorporation of indium in the alloy, mainly due to phase separation. This difficulty could be addressed by studying the growth and thermodynamics of these alloys. Knowledge of thermodynamic phase stabilities and of pressure - temperature - composition phase diagrams is important for an understanding of the boundary conditions of a variety of growth techniques. In this dissertation a study of the phase separation of indium gallium nitride is conducted using a regular solution model of the ternary alloy system. Graphs of Gibbs free energy of mixing were produced for a range of temperatures. Binodal and spinodal decomposition curves show the stable and unstable regions of the alloy in equilibrium. The growth of gallium nitride and indium gallium nitride was attempted by the reaction of molten gallium - indium alloy with ammonia at atmospheric pressure. Characterization by X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, and secondary electron microscopy show that the samples produced by this method contain only gallium nitride in the hexagonal phase. The instability of indium nitride at the temperatures required for activation of ammonia accounts for these results. The photoluminescence spectra show a correlation between the intensity of a broad green emission, related to native defects, and indium composition used in the molten alloy. A different growth method was used to grow two columnar-structured gallium nitride films using ammonium chloride and gallium as reactants and nitrogen and ammonia as carrier gasses. Investigation by X-ray diffraction and spatially-resolved cathodoluminescence shows the film grown at higher temperature to be primarily hexagonal with small quantities of cubic crystallites, while the one grown at lower temperature to be pure hexagonal. This was also confirmed by low temperature photoluminescence measurements. The results presented here show that cubic and hexagonal crystallites can coexist, with the cubic phase having a much sharper and stronger luminescence. Controlled growth of the cubic phase GaN crystallites can be of use for high efficiency light detecting and emitting devices. The ammonolysis of a precursor was used to grow InGaN powders with different indium composition. High purity hexagonal GaN and InN were obtained. XRD spectra showed complete phase separation for samples with x < 30%, with ~ 9% indium incorporation in the 30% sample. The presence of InGaN in this sample was confirmed by PL measurements, where luminescence from both GaN and InGaN band edge are observed. The growth of higher indium compositions samples proved to be difficult, with only the presence of InN in the sample. Nonetheless, by controlling parameters like temperature and time may lead to successful growth of this III-nitride alloy by this method.

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  • 2011

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The indices of bone changes in response to exercise

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The gold standard for bone measurement is DXA (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry). Typically, to observe changes in bone by DXA, a minimum of a 4-month intervention is required. Serum osteocalcin

The gold standard for bone measurement is DXA (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry). Typically, to observe changes in bone by DXA, a minimum of a 4-month intervention is required. Serum osteocalcin (OST) (a bone formation marker) and quantitative ultrasound (QUS) of the calcaneus can be used as indicators of bone change but the sensitivity and time course of these indices to short term interventions are unknown. The purpose of this study was twofold: to compare monthly changes in OST and QUS in response to jump training and to evaluate the relationship between DXA, OST and QUS. Young women with QUS t-scores less than 1.0 were randomized into a jump training (J) (n=16) or control (C) (n=16). J consisted of a progressive routine of 1 and 2-footed jumping performed 3 days per week for 4 months. Body composition, QUS and OST were measured at baseline, and monthly for 4 months. DXA and 24-hour dietary recalls were completed at baseline and 4 months. Low attrition rate (12.5%) and high compliance (98%) with the exercise intervention was recorded. No significant correlations between QUS and OST existed. No significant differences were observed between groups at baseline in body composition or bone variables. Monthly increases in OST were observed but there were no significant differences over time between groups in any bone variables. OST and QUS may be indicative of short term bone changes but these variables were not specifically sensitive to the jumping intervention in this population of women.

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  • 2011

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Thermo-mechanical analysis of temporary bonding systems for flexible microelectronics fabrication applications

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Temporary bonding-debonding of flexible plastic substrates to rigid carriers may facilitate effective substrate handling by automated tools for manufacture of flexible microelectronics. The primary challenges in implementing practical temporary bond-debond

Temporary bonding-debonding of flexible plastic substrates to rigid carriers may facilitate effective substrate handling by automated tools for manufacture of flexible microelectronics. The primary challenges in implementing practical temporary bond-debond technology originate from the stress that is developed during high temperature processing predominately through thermal-mechanical property mismatches between carrier, adhesive and substrate. These stresses are relaxed through bowing of the bonded system (substrate-adhesive-carrier), which causes wafer handling problems, or through delamination of substrate from rigid carrier. Another challenge inherent to flexible plastic substrates and linked to stress is their dimensional instability, which may manifest itself in irreversible deformation upon heating and cooling cycles. Dimensional stability is critical to ensure precise registration of different layers during photolithography. The global objective of this work is to determine comprehensive experimental characterization and develop underlying fundamental engineering concept that could enable widespread adoption and scale-up of temporary bonding processing protocols for flexible microelectronics manufacturing. A series of carriers with different coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), modulus and thickness were investigated to correlate the thermo-mechanical properties of carrier with deformation behavior of bonded systems. The observed magnitude of system bow scaled with properties of carriers according to well-established Stoney's equation. In addition, rheology of adhesive impacted the deformation of bonded system. In particular, distortion-bowing behavior correlated directly with the relative loss factor of adhesive and flexible plastic substrate. Higher loss factor of adhesive compared to that of substrate allowed the stress to be relaxed with less bow, but led to significantly greater dimensional distortion. Conversely, lower loss factor of adhesive allowed less distortion but led to larger wafer bow. A finite element model using ANSYS was developed to predict the trend in bow-distortion of bonded systems as a function of the viscoelastic properties of adhesive. Inclusion of the viscoelasticity of flexible plastic substrate itself was critical to achieving good agreement between simulation and experiment. Simulation results showed that there is a limited range within which tuning the rheology of adhesive can control the stress-distortion. Therefore, this model can aid in design of new adhesive formulations compatible with different processing requirements of various flexible microelectronics applications.

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  • 2011

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Learning to doctor on the margin of medicine: the socialization of naturopathic medical students

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This research explores the socialization and culture of naturopathic students. Naturopathic physicians are a rapidly growing group of health care providers with a different ideology than conventional physicians. At present

This research explores the socialization and culture of naturopathic students. Naturopathic physicians are a rapidly growing group of health care providers with a different ideology than conventional physicians. At present they work on the margins of the division of labor in health care. Only 15 U.S. states explicitly recognize, regulate, and license their practice, although the number is increasing. Therefore, the professional socialization of naturopathic students is framed within a context of a changing division of labor in health care. The recent growth of naturopathic physicians reflects the American public's increased interest and use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). However, these practitioners are not yet accepted as legitimate physicians by most conventional physicians. This research investigates how the professional socialization of students at a naturopathic medical school prepares them to assume their role as CAM providers in a division of labor that is dominated by conventional physicians. The research examines their choice to attend a naturopathic school, formal and informal socialization at the school, and the student culture. The main research site is a four-year, accredited naturopathic medical school where participant observation, intensive interviews, and a survey were used to collect data. Additional data are presented from observations at a national conference of the American Association of Naturopathic Physicians. Results indicate that the student culture and socialization process at the naturopathic medical school differ in some important ways from the previously documented socialization process at conventional medical schools. The average age of naturopathic students is much older than conventional medical students, and a much larger percentage are women. Unlike conventional medical students, who rely heavily on role models and previous knowledge of what it takes to become a medical doctor, naturopathic students select a career path based on values and beliefs that are more aligned with their own than conventional medicine. The formal and informal training and culture of naturopathic students prepares them to work alongside, rather than within, mainstream medicine. The documentation of how a group of CAM practitioners is created contributes to a better understanding of the ever-changing ideology and division of labor in health care.

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  • 2011

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Smooth surfaces for video game development

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The video game graphics pipeline has traditionally rendered the scene using a polygonal approach. Advances in modern graphics hardware now allow the rendering of parametric methods. This thesis explores various

The video game graphics pipeline has traditionally rendered the scene using a polygonal approach. Advances in modern graphics hardware now allow the rendering of parametric methods. This thesis explores various smooth surface rendering methods that can be integrated into the video game graphics engine. Moving over to parametric or smooth surfaces from the polygonal domain has its share of issues and there is an inherent need to address various rendering bottlenecks that could hamper such a move. The game engine needs to choose an appropriate method based on in-game characteristics of the objects; character and animated objects need more sophisticated methods whereas static objects could use simpler techniques. Scaling the polygon count over various hardware platforms becomes an important factor. Much control is needed over the tessellation levels, either imposed by the hardware limitations or by the application, to be able to adaptively render the mesh without significant loss in performance. This thesis explores several methods that would help game engine developers in making correct design choices by optimally balancing the trade-offs while rendering the scene using smooth surfaces. It proposes a novel technique for adaptive tessellation of triangular meshes that vastly improves speed and tessellation count. It develops an approximate method for rendering Loop subdivision surfaces on tessellation enabled hardware. A taxonomy and evaluation of the methods is provided and a unified rendering system that provides automatic level of detail by switching between the methods is proposed.

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  • 2011

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Women in student service roles: self-authorship and early career experiences

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Most research on the experience of young women in student service roles in higher education is focused on a reflection of the early career experiences of mid and senior level

Most research on the experience of young women in student service roles in higher education is focused on a reflection of the early career experiences of mid and senior level professionals. Young women enter the field with a set of expectations about the work and their early career experiences need to be uncovered in order to better understand what they expect from their roles in student services. This study focused on the experience of young women in student services and the dynamics they identify as being significant to their work experience. Six women in their mid-twenties working in student service roles participated in two dialogic interviews regarding their work experience. Findings from these women's stories suggest that women are aware of internal and external dynamics that shaped their work experience, and are engaged in their journey toward Self-Authorship along intrapersonal and interpersonal dimensions. Specifically, the women actively chose their career path, looked for opportunities to develop their professional cache, and were impacted by their relationships with their supervisors and colleagues. The women are interested in their professional development in student services in higher education and are active in shaping the experience to meet their expectations. The findings suggest that to understand the experience of young women in student service roles in higher education, women should be asked to share their stories on their early career experiences, including interactions with supervisors and other professional colleagues. By representing these voices in the dialogue on the experience of young women in student service roles, the dynamics that shaped those experiences can be better understood.

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  • 2011

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Embattled identities: constructions of contemporary American masculinity amongst mixed martial arts cagefighters

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Masculinity has been increasingly recognized as a critical and relatively unexplored area of inquiry in anthropological gender studies. This project seeks to expand anthropological research on masculinity to contemporary American

Masculinity has been increasingly recognized as a critical and relatively unexplored area of inquiry in anthropological gender studies. This project seeks to expand anthropological research on masculinity to contemporary American society. Using the case study of a male-centered popular new sport, Mixed Martial Arts (also known as cagefighting) this project integrates theories of embodiment and feminist perspectives to explore how masculinity and masculine hegemony are shaped, contested, and perpetuated in the United States. Using a multi-level framework this project explores: 1) How is masculinity experienced and expressed by Mixed Martial Arts fighters as a form of self-identity? How do their bodies play a role in constructing masculinity? 2) What are the pervasive forms of masculinity associated with Mixed Martial Arts (MMA)? Are they truly representative of the sport? 3) Can these pervasive forms of masculinity be seen as hegemonic? How would hegemony operate in relation to individual experience? Using multiple methods to capture multiple points of view was critical to thoroughly examining the complex notion of masculinity. This study employed participant observation, semi-structured interviews, focus groups, surveys, photo elicitation, and media content analysis, as each presented particular benefits and allowed for the development a more well-rounded understanding of masculinity within the realm of MMA. This study also situates the rise of MMA and its representations of masculinity within the greater perspective of contemporary American society. By doing so reveals how ideologies of prescribed masculinity do not arise out of a vacuum but in relation to particular economic, social and political contexts. An emphasis of this study was to examine the daily lives of MMA fighters to understand how their participation in what may be regarded as a hypermasculine activity affects their own perceptions of masculinity. In looking at how masculinity is embodied, the gaps and often contradictions between representation and individual experiences are revealed. Ultimately, the goal of this research is to contribute to a better understanding of masculinity as both an embodied and relational construct.

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  • 2011