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Incorporating auditory models in speech/audio applications

Description

Following the success in incorporating perceptual models in audio coding algorithms, their application in other speech/audio processing systems is expanding. In general, all perceptual speech/audio processing algorithms involve minimization of an objective function that directly/indirectly incorporates properties of human perception.

Following the success in incorporating perceptual models in audio coding algorithms, their application in other speech/audio processing systems is expanding. In general, all perceptual speech/audio processing algorithms involve minimization of an objective function that directly/indirectly incorporates properties of human perception. This dissertation primarily investigates the problems associated with directly embedding an auditory model in the objective function formulation and proposes possible solutions to overcome high complexity issues for use in real-time speech/audio algorithms. Specific problems addressed in this dissertation include: 1) the development of approximate but computationally efficient auditory model implementations that are consistent with the principles of psychoacoustics, 2) the development of a mapping scheme that allows synthesizing a time/frequency domain representation from its equivalent auditory model output. The first problem is aimed at addressing the high computational complexity involved in solving perceptual objective functions that require repeated application of auditory model for evaluation of different candidate solutions. In this dissertation, a frequency pruning and a detector pruning algorithm is developed that efficiently implements the various auditory model stages. The performance of the pruned model is compared to that of the original auditory model for different types of test signals in the SQAM database. Experimental results indicate only a 4-7% relative error in loudness while attaining up to 80-90 % reduction in computational complexity. Similarly, a hybrid algorithm is developed specifically for use with sinusoidal signals and employs the proposed auditory pattern combining technique together with a look-up table to store representative auditory patterns. The second problem obtains an estimate of the auditory representation that minimizes a perceptual objective function and transforms the auditory pattern back to its equivalent time/frequency representation. This avoids the repeated application of auditory model stages to test different candidate time/frequency vectors in minimizing perceptual objective functions. In this dissertation, a constrained mapping scheme is developed by linearizing certain auditory model stages that ensures obtaining a time/frequency mapping corresponding to the estimated auditory representation. This paradigm was successfully incorporated in a perceptual speech enhancement algorithm and a sinusoidal component selection task.

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Date Created
2011

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A control engineering approach for designing an optimized treatment plan for fibromyalgia

Description

There is increasing interest in the medical and behavioral health communities towards developing effective strategies for the treatment of chronic diseases. Among these lie adaptive interventions, which consider adjusting treatment dosages over time based on participant response. Control engineering offers

There is increasing interest in the medical and behavioral health communities towards developing effective strategies for the treatment of chronic diseases. Among these lie adaptive interventions, which consider adjusting treatment dosages over time based on participant response. Control engineering offers a broad-based solution framework for optimizing the effectiveness of such interventions. In this thesis, an approach is proposed to develop dynamical models and subsequently, hybrid model predictive control schemes for assigning optimal dosages of naltrexone, an opioid antagonist, as treatment for a chronic pain condition known as fibromyalgia. System identification techniques are employed to model the dynamics from the daily diary reports completed by participants of a blind naltrexone intervention trial. These self-reports include assessments of outcomes of interest (e.g., general pain symptoms, sleep quality) and additional external variables (disturbances) that affect these outcomes (e.g., stress, anxiety, and mood). Using prediction-error methods, a multi-input model describing the effect of drug, placebo and other disturbances on outcomes of interest is developed. This discrete time model is approximated by a continuous second order model with zero, which was found to be adequate to capture the dynamics of this intervention. Data from 40 participants in two clinical trials were analyzed and participants were classified as responders and non-responders based on the models obtained from system identification. The dynamical models can be used by a model predictive controller for automated dosage selection of naltrexone using feedback/feedforward control actions in the presence of external disturbances. The clinical requirement for categorical (i.e., discrete-valued) drug dosage levels creates a need for hybrid model predictive control (HMPC). The controller features a multiple degree-of-freedom formulation that enables the user to adjust the speed of setpoint tracking, measured disturbance rejection and unmeasured disturbance rejection independently in the closed loop system. The nominal and robust performance of the proposed control scheme is examined via simulation using system identification models from a representative participant in the naltrexone intervention trial. The controller evaluation described in this thesis gives credibility to the promise and applicability of control engineering principles for optimizing adaptive interventions.

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2011

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Re-sonification of objects, events, and environments

Description

Digital sound synthesis allows the creation of a great variety of sounds. Focusing on interesting or ecologically valid sounds for music, simulation, aesthetics, or other purposes limits the otherwise vast digital audio palette. Tools for creating such sounds vary from

Digital sound synthesis allows the creation of a great variety of sounds. Focusing on interesting or ecologically valid sounds for music, simulation, aesthetics, or other purposes limits the otherwise vast digital audio palette. Tools for creating such sounds vary from arbitrary methods of altering recordings to precise simulations of vibrating objects. In this work, methods of sound synthesis by re-sonification are considered. Re-sonification, herein, refers to the general process of analyzing, possibly transforming, and resynthesizing or reusing recorded sounds in meaningful ways, to convey information. Applied to soundscapes, re-sonification is presented as a means of conveying activity within an environment. Applied to the sounds of objects, this work examines modeling the perception of objects as well as their physical properties and the ability to simulate interactive events with such objects. To create soundscapes to re-sonify geographic environments, a method of automated soundscape design is presented. Using recorded sounds that are classified based on acoustic, social, semantic, and geographic information, this method produces stochastically generated soundscapes to re-sonify selected geographic areas. Drawing on prior knowledge, local sounds and those deemed similar comprise a locale's soundscape. In the context of re-sonifying events, this work examines processes for modeling and estimating the excitations of sounding objects. These include plucking, striking, rubbing, and any interaction that imparts energy into a system, affecting the resultant sound. A method of estimating a linear system's input, constrained to a signal-subspace, is presented and applied toward improving the estimation of percussive excitations for re-sonification. To work toward robust recording-based modeling and re-sonification of objects, new implementations of banded waveguide (BWG) models are proposed for object modeling and sound synthesis. Previous implementations of BWGs use arbitrary model parameters and may produce a range of simulations that do not match digital waveguide or modal models of the same design. Subject to linear excitations, some models proposed here behave identically to other equivalently designed physical models. Under nonlinear interactions, such as bowing, many of the proposed implementations exhibit improvements in the attack characteristics of synthesized sounds.

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Date Created
2013

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Modeling and control for microgrids

Description

Traditional approaches to modeling microgrids include the behavior of each inverter operating in a particular network configuration and at a particular operating point. Such models quickly become computationally intensive for large systems. Similarly, traditional approaches to control do not use

Traditional approaches to modeling microgrids include the behavior of each inverter operating in a particular network configuration and at a particular operating point. Such models quickly become computationally intensive for large systems. Similarly, traditional approaches to control do not use advanced methodologies and suffer from poor performance and limited operating range. In this document a linear model is derived for an inverter connected to the Thevenin equivalent of a microgrid. This model is then compared to a nonlinear simulation model and analyzed using the open and closed loop systems in both the time and frequency domains. The modeling error is quantified with emphasis on its use for controller design purposes. Control design examples are given using a Glover McFarlane controller, gain sched- uled Glover McFarlane controller, and bumpless transfer controller which are compared to the standard droop control approach. These examples serve as a guide to illustrate the use of multi-variable modeling techniques in the context of robust controller design and show that gain scheduled MIMO control techniques can extend the operating range of a microgrid. A hardware implementation is used to compare constant gain droop controllers with Glover McFarlane controllers and shows a clear advantage of the Glover McFarlane approach.

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Date Created
2013

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Non-holonomic differential drive mobile robot control & design: critical dynamics and coupling constraints

Description

Mobile robots are used in a broad range of application areas; e.g. search and rescue, reconnaissance, exploration, etc. Given the increasing need for high performance mobile robots, the area has received attention by researchers. In this thesis, critical control and

Mobile robots are used in a broad range of application areas; e.g. search and rescue, reconnaissance, exploration, etc. Given the increasing need for high performance mobile robots, the area has received attention by researchers. In this thesis, critical control and control-relevant design issues for differential drive mobile robots is addressed. Two major themes that have been explored are the use of kinematic models for control design and the use of decentralized proportional plus integral (PI) control. While these topics have received much attention, there still remain critical questions which have not been rigorously addressed. In this thesis, answers to the following critical questions are provided: When is 1. a kinematic model sufficient for control design? 2. coupled dynamics essential? 3. a decentralized PI inner loop velocity controller sufficient? 4. centralized multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) control essential? and how can one design the robot to relax the requirements implied in 1 and 2? In this thesis, the following is shown: 1. The nonlinear kinematic model will suffice for control design when the inner velocity (dynamic) loop is much faster (10X) than the slower outer positioning loop. 2. A dynamic model is essential when the inner velocity (dynamic) loop is less than two times faster than the slower outer positioning loop. 3. A decentralized inner loop PI velocity controller will be sufficient for accomplish- ing high performance control when the required velocity bandwidth is small, rel- ative to the peak dynamic coupling frequency. A rule-of-thumb which depends on the robot aspect ratio is given. 4. A centralized MIMO velocity controller is needed when the required bandwidth is large, relative to the peak dynamic coupling frequency. Here, the analysis in the thesis is sparse making the topic an area for future analytical work. Despite this, it is clearly shown that a centralized MIMO inner loop controller can offer increased performance vis- ́a-vis a decentralized PI controller. 5. Finally, it is shown how the dynamic coupling depends on the robot aspect ratio and how the coupling can be significantly reduced. As such, this can be used to ease the requirements imposed by 2 and 4 above.

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Date Created
2013

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Feedback control and obstacle avoidance for non-holonomic differential drive robots

Description

This thesis discusses control and obstacle avoidance for non-holonomic differential drive mobile vehicles. The two important behaviors for the vehicle can be defined as go to goal and obstacle avoidance behavior. This thesis discusses both behaviors in detail. Go to

This thesis discusses control and obstacle avoidance for non-holonomic differential drive mobile vehicles. The two important behaviors for the vehicle can be defined as go to goal and obstacle avoidance behavior. This thesis discusses both behaviors in detail. Go to goal behavior is the ability of the mobile vehicle to go from one particular co-ordinate to another. Cruise control, cartesian and posture stabilization problems are discussed as the part of this behavior. Control strategies used for the above three problems are explained in the thesis. Matlab simulations are presented to verify these controllers. Obstacle avoidance behavior ensures that the vehicle doesn't hit object in its path while going towards the goal. Three different techniques for obstacle avoidance which are useful for different kind of obstacles are described in the thesis. Matlab simulations are presented to show and discuss the three techniques. The controls discussed for the cartesian and posture stabilization were implemented on a low cost miniature vehicle to verify the results practically. The vehicle is described in the thesis in detail. The practical results are compared with the simulations. Hardware and matlab codes have been provided as a reference for the reader.

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Date Created
2013

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Multipath mitigating correlation kernels

Description

Autonomous vehicle control systems utilize real-time kinematic Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) receivers to provide a position within two-centimeter of truth. GNSS receivers utilize the satellite signal time of arrival estimates to solve for position; and multipath corrupts the time

Autonomous vehicle control systems utilize real-time kinematic Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) receivers to provide a position within two-centimeter of truth. GNSS receivers utilize the satellite signal time of arrival estimates to solve for position; and multipath corrupts the time of arrival estimates with a time-varying bias. Time of arrival estimates are based upon accurate direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) code and carrier phase tracking. Current multipath mitigating GNSS solutions include fixed radiation pattern antennas and windowed delay-lock loop code phase discriminators. A new multipath mitigating code tracking algorithm is introduced that utilizes a non-symmetric correlation kernel to reject multipath. Independent parameters provide a means to trade-off code tracking discriminant gain against multipath mitigation performance. The algorithm performance is characterized in terms of multipath phase error bias, phase error estimation variance, tracking range, tracking ambiguity and implementation complexity. The algorithm is suitable for modernized GNSS signals including Binary Phase Shift Keyed (BPSK) and a variety of Binary Offset Keyed (BOC) signals. The algorithm compensates for unbalanced code sequences to ensure a code tracking bias does not result from the use of asymmetric correlation kernels. The algorithm does not require explicit knowledge of the propagation channel model. Design recommendations for selecting the algorithm parameters to mitigate precorrelation filter distortion are also provided.

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2013

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A study on constrained state estimators

Description

This study focuses on state estimation of nonlinear discrete time systems with constraints. Physical processes have inherent in them, constraints on inputs, outputs, states and disturbances. These constraints can provide additional information to the estimator in estimating states from the

This study focuses on state estimation of nonlinear discrete time systems with constraints. Physical processes have inherent in them, constraints on inputs, outputs, states and disturbances. These constraints can provide additional information to the estimator in estimating states from the measured output. Recursive filters such as Kalman Filters or Extended Kalman Filters are commonly used in state estimation; however, they do not allow inclusion of constraints in their formulation. On the other hand, computational complexity of full information estimation (using all measurements) grows with iteration and becomes intractable. One way of formulating the recursive state estimation problem with constraints is the Moving Horizon Estimation (MHE) approximation. Estimates of states are calculated from the solution of a constrained optimization problem of fixed size. Detailed formulation of this strategy is studied and properties of this estimation algorithm are discussed in this work. The problem with the MHE formulation is solving an optimization problem in each iteration which is computationally intensive. State estimation with constraints can be formulated as Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) with a projection applied to estimates. The states are estimated from the measurements using standard Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) algorithm and the estimated states are projected on to a constrained set. Detailed formulation of this estimation strategy is studied and the properties associated with this algorithm are discussed. Both these state estimation strategies (MHE and EKF with projection) are tested with examples from the literature. The average estimation time and the sum of square estimation error are used to compare performance of these estimators. Results of the case studies are analyzed and trade-offs are discussed.

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2013

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System identification using discontinuous data sets and PID loop-shaping control of a vertical take-off and landing drone

Description

Vertical taking off and landing (VTOL) drones started to emerge at the beginning of this century, and finds applications in the vast areas of mapping, rescuing, logistics, etc. Usually a VTOL drone control system design starts from a first principles

Vertical taking off and landing (VTOL) drones started to emerge at the beginning of this century, and finds applications in the vast areas of mapping, rescuing, logistics, etc. Usually a VTOL drone control system design starts from a first principles model. Most of the VTOL drones are in the shape of a quad-rotor which is convenient for dynamic analysis.

In this project, a VTOL drone with shape similar to a Convair XFY-1 is studied and the primary focus is developing and examining an alternative method to identify a system model from the input and output data, with which it is possible to estimate system parameters and compute model uncertainties on discontinuous data sets. We verify the models by designing controllers that stabilize the yaw, pitch, and roll angles for the VTOL drone in the hovering state.

This project comprises of three stages: an open-loop identification to identify the yaw and pitch dynamics, an intermediate closed-loop identification to identify the roll action dynamic and a closed-loop identification to refine the identification of yaw and pitch action. In open and closed loop identifications, the reference signals sent to the servos were recorded as inputs to the system and the angles and angular velocities in yaw and pitch directions read by inertial measurement unit were recorded as outputs of the system. In the intermediate closed loop identification, the difference between the reference signals sent to the motors on the contra-rotators was recorded as input and the roll angular velocity is recorded as output. Next, regressors were formed by using a coprime factor structure and then parameters of the system were estimated using the least square method. Multiplicative and divisive uncertainties were calculated from the data set and were used to guide PID loop-shaping controller design.

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Date Created
2015

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Localization in wireless sensor networks

Description

In many applications, measured sensor data is meaningful only when the location of sensors is accurately known. Therefore, the localization accuracy is crucial. In this dissertation, both location estimation and location detection problems are considered.

In location estimation problems, sensor

In many applications, measured sensor data is meaningful only when the location of sensors is accurately known. Therefore, the localization accuracy is crucial. In this dissertation, both location estimation and location detection problems are considered.

In location estimation problems, sensor nodes at known locations, called anchors, transmit signals to sensor nodes at unknown locations, called nodes, and use these transmissions to estimate the location of the nodes. Specifically, the location estimation in the presence of fading channels using time of arrival (TOA) measurements with narrowband communication signals is considered. Meanwhile, the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) for localization error under different assumptions is derived. Also, maximum likelihood estimators (MLEs) under these assumptions are derived.

In large WSNs, distributed location estimation algorithms are more efficient than centralized algorithms. A sequential localization scheme, which is one of distributed location estimation algorithms, is considered. Also, different localization methods, such as TOA, received signal strength (RSS), time difference of arrival (TDOA), direction of arrival (DOA), and large aperture array (LAA) are compared under different signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions. Simulation results show that DOA is the preferred scheme at the low SNR regime and the LAA localization algorithm provides better performance for network discovery at high SNRs. Meanwhile, the CRLB for the localization error using the TOA method is also derived.

A distributed location detection scheme, which allows each anchor to make a decision as to whether a node is active or not is proposed. Once an anchor makes a decision, a bit is transmitted to a fusion center (FC). The fusion center combines all the decisions and uses a design parameter $K$ to make the final decision. Three scenarios are considered in this dissertation. Firstly, location detection at a known location is considered. Secondly, detecting a node in a known region is considered. Thirdly, location detection in the presence of fading is considered. The optimal thresholds are derived and the total probability of false alarm and detection under different scenarios are derived.

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Date Created
2016