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Protecting Visual Information in Augmented Reality from Malicious Application Developers

Description

Visual applications – those that use camera frames as part of the application – provide a rich, context-aware experience. The continued development of mixed and augmented reality (MR/AR) computing environments furthers the richness of this experience by providing applications a

Visual applications – those that use camera frames as part of the application – provide a rich, context-aware experience. The continued development of mixed and augmented reality (MR/AR) computing environments furthers the richness of this experience by providing applications a continuous vision experience, where visual information continuously provides context for applications and the real world is augmented by the virtual. To understand user privacy concerns in continuous vision computing environments, this work studies three MR/AR applications (augmented markers, augmented faces, and text capture) to show that in a modern mobile system, the typical user is exposed to potential mass collection of sensitive information, posing privacy and security deficiencies to be addressed in future systems.

To address such deficiencies, a development framework is proposed that provides resource isolation between user information contained in camera frames and application access to the network. The design is implemented using existing system utilities as a proof of concept on the Android operating system and demonstrates its viability with a modern state-of-the-art augmented reality library and several augmented reality applications. Evaluation is conducted on the design on a Samsung Galaxy S8 phone by comparing the applications from the case study with modified versions which better protect user privacy. Early results show that the new design efficiently protects users against data collection in MR/AR applications with less than 0.7% performance overhead.

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Date Created
2019

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Accelerating Linear Algebra and Machine Learning Kernels on a Massively Parallel Reconfigurable Architecture

Description

This thesis presents efficient implementations of several linear algebra kernels, machine learning kernels and a neural network based recommender systems engine onto a massively parallel reconfigurable architecture, Transformer. The linear algebra kernels include Triangular Matrix Solver (TRSM), LU Decomposition (LUD),

This thesis presents efficient implementations of several linear algebra kernels, machine learning kernels and a neural network based recommender systems engine onto a massively parallel reconfigurable architecture, Transformer. The linear algebra kernels include Triangular Matrix Solver (TRSM), LU Decomposition (LUD), QR Decomposition (QRD), and Matrix Inversion. The machine learning kernels include an LSTM (Long Short Term Memory) cell, and a GRU (gated Recurrent Unit) cell used in recurrent neural networks. The neural network based recommender systems engine consists of multiple kernels including fully connected layers, embedding layer, 1-D batchnorm, Adam optimizer, etc.

Transformer is a massively parallel reconfigurable multicore architecture designed at the University of Michigan. The Transformer configuration considered here is 4 tiles and 16 General Processing Elements (GPEs) per tile. It supports a two level cache hierarchy where the L1 and L2 caches can operate in shared (S) or private (P) modes. The architecture was modeled using Gem5 and cycle accurate simulations were done to evaluate the performance in terms of execution times, giga-operations per second per Watt (GOPS/W), and giga-floating-point-operations per second per Watt (GFLOPS/W).

This thesis shows that for linear algebra kernels, each kernel achieves high performance for a certain cache mode and that this cache mode can change when the matrix size changes. For instance, for smaller matrix sizes, L1P, L2P cache mode is best for TRSM, while L1S, L2S is the best cache mode for LUD, and L1P, L2S is the best for QRD. For each kernel, the optimal cache mode changes when the matrix size is increased. For instance, for TRSM, the L1P, L2P cache mode is best for smaller matrix sizes ($N=64, 128, 256, 512$) and it changes to L1S, L2P for larger matrix sizes ($N=1024$). For machine learning kernels, L1P, L2P is the best cache mode for all network parameter sizes.

Gem5 simulations show that the peak performance for TRSM, LUD, QRD and Matrix Inverse in the 14nm node is 97.5, 59.4, 133.0 and 83.05 GFLOPS/W, respectively. For LSTM and GRU, the peak performance is 44.06 and 69.3 GFLOPS/W.

The neural network based recommender system was implemented in L1S, L2S cache mode. It includes a forward pass and a backward pass and is significantly more complex in terms of both computational complexity and data movement. The most computationally intensive block is the fully connected layer followed by Adam optimizer. The overall performance of the recommender systems engine is 54.55 GFLOPS/W and 169.12 GOPS/W.

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2019

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Viewpoint Recommendation for Aesthetic Photography

Description

This thesis addresses the problem of recommending a viewpoint for aesthetic photography. Viewpoint recommendation is suggesting the best camera pose to capture a visually pleasing photograph of the subject of interest by using any end-user device such as drone, mobile

This thesis addresses the problem of recommending a viewpoint for aesthetic photography. Viewpoint recommendation is suggesting the best camera pose to capture a visually pleasing photograph of the subject of interest by using any end-user device such as drone, mobile robot or smartphone. Solving this problem enables to capture visually pleasing photographs autonomously in areal photography, wildlife photography, landscape photography or in personal photography.

The viewpoint recommendation problem can be divided into two stages: (a) generating a set of dense novel views based on the basis views captured about the subject. The dense novel views are useful to better understand the scene and to know how the subject looks from different viewpoints and (b) each novel is scored based on how aesthetically good it is. The viewpoint with the greatest aesthetic score is recommended for capturing a visually pleasing photograph.

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Created

Date Created
2019

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Stagioni: Temperature management to enable near-sensor processing for performance, fidelity, and energy-efficiency of vision and imaging workloads

Description

Vision processing on traditional architectures is inefficient due to energy-expensive off-chip data movements. Many researchers advocate pushing processing close to the sensor to substantially reduce data movements. However, continuous near-sensor processing raises the sensor temperature, impairing the fidelity of imaging/vision

Vision processing on traditional architectures is inefficient due to energy-expensive off-chip data movements. Many researchers advocate pushing processing close to the sensor to substantially reduce data movements. However, continuous near-sensor processing raises the sensor temperature, impairing the fidelity of imaging/vision tasks.

The work characterizes the thermal implications of using 3D stacked image sensors with near-sensor vision processing units. The characterization reveals that near-sensor processing reduces system power but degrades image quality. For reasonable image fidelity, the sensor temperature needs to stay below a threshold, situationally determined by application needs. Fortunately, the characterization also identifies opportunities -- unique to the needs of near-sensor processing -- to regulate temperature based on dynamic visual task requirements and rapidly increase capture quality on demand.

Based on the characterization, the work proposes and investigate two thermal management strategies -- stop-capture-go and seasonal migration -- for imaging-aware thermal management. The work present parameters that govern the policy decisions and explore the trade-offs between system power and policy overhead. The work's evaluation shows that the novel dynamic thermal management strategies can unlock the energy-efficiency potential of near-sensor processing with minimal performance impact, without compromising image fidelity.

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Date Created
2019

Characterization of Energy and Performance Bottlenecks in an Omni-directional Camera System

Description

Generating real-world content for VR is challenging in terms of capturing and processing at high resolution and high frame-rates. The content needs to represent a truly immersive experience, where the user can look around in 360-degree view and perceive the

Generating real-world content for VR is challenging in terms of capturing and processing at high resolution and high frame-rates. The content needs to represent a truly immersive experience, where the user can look around in 360-degree view and perceive the depth of the scene. The existing solutions only capture and offload the compute load to the server. But offloading large amounts of raw camera feeds takes longer latencies and poses difficulties for real-time applications. By capturing and computing on the edge, we can closely integrate the systems and optimize for low latency. However, moving the traditional stitching algorithms to battery constrained device needs at least three orders of magnitude reduction in power. We believe that close integration of capture and compute stages will lead to reduced overall system power.

We approach the problem by building a hardware prototype and characterize the end-to-end system bottlenecks of power and performance. The prototype has 6 IMX274 cameras and uses Nvidia Jetson TX2 development board for capture and computation. We found that capturing is bottlenecked by sensor power and data-rates across interfaces, whereas compute is limited by the total number of computations per frame. Our characterization shows that redundant capture and redundant computations lead to high power, huge memory footprint, and high latency. The existing systems lack hardware-software co-design aspects, leading to excessive data transfers across the interfaces and expensive computations within the individual subsystems. Finally, we propose mechanisms to optimize the system for low power and low latency. We emphasize the importance of co-design of different subsystems to reduce and reuse the data. For example, reusing the motion vectors of the ISP stage reduces the memory footprint of the stereo correspondence stage. Our estimates show that pipelining and parallelization on custom FPGA can achieve real time stitching.

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Date Created
2018

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Computer Vision from Spatial-Multiplexing Cameras at Low Measurement Rates

Description

In UAVs and parking lots, it is typical to first collect an enormous number of pixels using conventional imagers. This is followed by employment of expensive methods to compress by throwing away redundant data. Subsequently, the compressed data is transmitted

In UAVs and parking lots, it is typical to first collect an enormous number of pixels using conventional imagers. This is followed by employment of expensive methods to compress by throwing away redundant data. Subsequently, the compressed data is transmitted to a ground station. The past decade has seen the emergence of novel imagers called spatial-multiplexing cameras, which offer compression at the sensing level itself by providing an arbitrary linear measurements of the scene instead of pixel-based sampling. In this dissertation, I discuss various approaches for effective information extraction from spatial-multiplexing measurements and present the trade-offs between reliability of the performance and computational/storage load of the system. In the first part, I present a reconstruction-free approach to high-level inference in computer vision, wherein I consider the specific case of activity analysis, and show that using correlation filters, one can perform effective action recognition and localization directly from a class of spatial-multiplexing cameras, called compressive cameras, even at very low measurement rates of 1\%. In the second part, I outline a deep learning based non-iterative and real-time algorithm to reconstruct images from compressively sensed (CS) measurements, which can outperform the traditional iterative CS reconstruction algorithms in terms of reconstruction quality and time complexity, especially at low measurement rates. To overcome the limitations of compressive cameras, which are operated with random measurements and not particularly tuned to any task, in the third part of the dissertation, I propose a method to design spatial-multiplexing measurements, which are tuned to facilitate the easy extraction of features that are useful in computer vision tasks like object tracking. The work presented in the dissertation provides sufficient evidence to high-level inference in computer vision at extremely low measurement rates, and hence allows us to think about the possibility of revamping the current day computer systems.

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Date Created
2017

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Generating Light Estimation for Mixed-reality Devices through Collaborative Visual Sensing

Description

Mixed reality mobile platforms co-locate virtual objects with physical spaces, creating immersive user experiences. To create visual harmony between virtual and physical spaces, the virtual scene must be accurately illuminated with realistic physical lighting. To this end, a system was

Mixed reality mobile platforms co-locate virtual objects with physical spaces, creating immersive user experiences. To create visual harmony between virtual and physical spaces, the virtual scene must be accurately illuminated with realistic physical lighting. To this end, a system was designed that Generates Light Estimation Across Mixed-reality (GLEAM) devices to continually sense realistic lighting of a physical scene in all directions. GLEAM optionally operate across multiple mobile mixed-reality devices to leverage collaborative multi-viewpoint sensing for improved estimation. The system implements policies that prioritize resolution, coverage, or update interval of the illumination estimation depending on the situational needs of the virtual scene and physical environment.

To evaluate the runtime performance and perceptual efficacy of the system, GLEAM was implemented on the Unity 3D Game Engine. The implementation was deployed on Android and iOS devices. On these implementations, GLEAM can prioritize dynamic estimation with update intervals as low as 15 ms or prioritize high spatial quality with update intervals of 200 ms. User studies across 99 participants and 26 scene comparisons reported a preference towards GLEAM over other lighting techniques in 66.67% of the presented augmented scenes and indifference in 12.57% of the scenes. A controlled lighting user study on 18 participants revealed a general preference for policies that strike a balance between resolution and update rate.

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Date Created
2018

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A Scalable and Programmable I/O Controller for Region-based Computing

Description

I present my work on a scalable and programmable I/O controller for region-based computing, which will be used in a rhythmic pixel-based camera pipeline. I provide a breakdown of the development and design of the I/O controller and how it

I present my work on a scalable and programmable I/O controller for region-based computing, which will be used in a rhythmic pixel-based camera pipeline. I provide a breakdown of the development and design of the I/O controller and how it fits in to rhythmic pixel regions, along with a studyon memory traffic of rhythmic pixel regions and how this translates to energy efficiency. This rhythmic pixel region-based camera pipeline has been jointly developed through Dr. Robert LiKamWa’s research lab. High spatiotemporal resolutions allow high precision for vision applications, such as for detecting features for augmented reality or face detection. High spatiotemporal resolution also comes with high memory throughput, leading to higher energy usage. This creates a tradeoff between high precision and energy efficiency, which becomes more important in mobile systems. In addition, not all pixels in a frame are necessary for the vision application, such as pixels that make up the background. Rhythmic pixel regions aim to reduce the tradeoff by creating a pipeline that allows an application developer to specify regions to capture at a non-uniform spatiotemporal resolution. This is accomplished by encoding the incoming image, and only sending the pixels within these specified regions. Later these encoded representations will be decoded to a standard frame representation usable by traditional vision applications. My contribution to this effort has been the design, testing and evaluation of the I/O controller.

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Date Created
2020