Matching Items (174)
This thesis focuses on the continued extension, validation, and application of combined thermal-structural reduced order models for nonlinear geometric problems. The first part of the thesis focuses on the determination of the temperature distribution and structural response induced by an oscillating flux on the top surface of a flat panel. This flux is introduced here as a simplified representation of the thermal effects of an oscillating shock on a panel of a supersonic/hypersonic vehicle. Accordingly, a random acoustic excitation is also considered to act on the panel and the level of the thermo-acoustic excitation is assumed to be large enough to induce a nonlinear geometric response of the panel. Both temperature distribution and structural response are determined using recently proposed reduced order models and a complete one way, thermal-structural, coupling is enforced. A steady-state analysis of the thermal problem is first carried out that is then utilized in the structural reduced order model governing equations with and without the acoustic excitation. A detailed validation of the reduced order models is carried out by comparison with a few full finite element (Nastran) computations. The computational expedience of the reduced order models allows a detailed parametric study of the response as a function of the frequency of the oscillating flux. The nature of the corresponding structural ROM equations is seen to be of a Mathieu-type with Duffing nonlinearity (originating from the nonlinear geometric effects) with external harmonic excitation (associated with the thermal moments terms on the panel). A dominant resonance is observed and explained. The second part of the thesis is focused on extending the formulation of the combined thermal-structural reduced order modeling method to include temperature dependent structural properties, more specifically of the elasticity tensor and the coefficient of thermal expansion. These properties were assumed to vary linearly with local temperature and it was found that the linear stiffness coefficients and the "thermal moment" terms then are cubic functions of the temperature generalized coordinates while the quadratic and cubic stiffness coefficients were only linear functions of these coordinates. A first validation of this reduced order modeling strategy was successfully carried out.
Damage assessment and residual useful life estimation (RULE) are essential for aerospace, civil and naval structures. Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) attempts to automate the process of damage detection and identification. Multiscale modeling is a key element in SHM. It not only provides important information on the physics of failure, such as damage initiation and growth, the output can be used as "virtual sensing" data for detection and prognosis. The current research is part of an ongoing multidisciplinary effort to develop an integrated SHM framework for metallic aerospace components. In this thesis a multiscale model has been developed by bridging the relevant length scales, micro, meso and macro (or structural scale). Micro structural representations obtained from material characterization studies are used to define the length scales and to capture the size and orientation of the grains at the micro level. Parametric studies are conducted to estimate material parameters used in this constitutive model. Numerical and experimental simulations are performed to investigate the effects of Representative Volume Element (RVE) size, defect area fraction and distribution. A multiscale damage criterion accounting for crystal orientation effect is developed. This criterion is applied for fatigue crack initial stage prediction. A damage evolution rule based on strain energy density is modified to incorporate crystal plasticity at the microscale (local). Optimization approaches are used to calculate global damage index which is used for the RVE failure prediciton. Potential cracking directions are provided from the damage criterion simultaneously. A wave propagation model is incorporated with the damage model to detect changes in sensing signals due to plastic deformation and damage growth.
Given the process of tumorigenesis, biological signaling pathways have become of interest in the field of oncology. Many of the regulatory mechanisms that are altered in cancer are directly related to signal transduction and cellular communication. Thus, identifying signaling pathways that have become deregulated may provide useful information to better understanding altered regulatory mechanisms within cancer. Many methods that have been created to measure the distinct activity of signaling pathways have relied strictly upon transcription profiles. With advancements in comparative genomic hybridization techniques, copy number data has become extremely useful in providing valuable information pertaining to the genomic landscape of cancer. The purpose of this thesis is to develop a methodology that incorporates both gene expression and copy number data to identify signaling pathways that have become deregulated in cancer. The central idea is that copy number data may significantly assist in identifying signaling pathway deregulation by justifying the aberrant activity being measured in gene expression profiles. This method was then applied to four different subtypes of breast cancer resulting in the identification of signaling pathways associated with distinct functionalities for each of the breast cancer subtypes.
Multi-label learning, which deals with data associated with multiple labels simultaneously, is ubiquitous in real-world applications. To overcome the curse of dimensionality in multi-label learning, in this thesis I study multi-label dimensionality reduction, which extracts a small number of features by removing the irrelevant, redundant, and noisy information while considering the correlation among different labels in multi-label learning. Specifically, I propose Hypergraph Spectral Learning (HSL) to perform dimensionality reduction for multi-label data by exploiting correlations among different labels using a hypergraph. The regularization effect on the classical dimensionality reduction algorithm known as Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) is elucidated in this thesis. The relationship between CCA and Orthonormalized Partial Least Squares (OPLS) is also investigated. To perform dimensionality reduction efficiently for large-scale problems, two efficient implementations are proposed for a class of dimensionality reduction algorithms, including canonical correlation analysis, orthonormalized partial least squares, linear discriminant analysis, and hypergraph spectral learning. The first approach is a direct least squares approach which allows the use of different regularization penalties, but is applicable under a certain assumption; the second one is a two-stage approach which can be applied in the regularization setting without any assumption. Furthermore, an online implementation for the same class of dimensionality reduction algorithms is proposed when the data comes sequentially. A Matlab toolbox for multi-label dimensionality reduction has been developed and released. The proposed algorithms have been applied successfully in the Drosophila gene expression pattern image annotation. The experimental results on some benchmark data sets in multi-label learning also demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed algorithms.
Internet sites that support user-generated content, so-called Web 2.0, have become part of the fabric of everyday life in technologically advanced nations. Users collectively spend billions of hours consuming and creating content on social networking sites, weblogs (blogs), and various other types of sites in the United States and around the world. Given the fundamentally emotional nature of humans and the amount of emotional content that appears in Web 2.0 content, it is important to understand how such websites can affect the emotions of users. This work attempts to determine whether emotion spreads through an online social network (OSN). To this end, a method is devised that employs a model based on a general threshold diffusion model as a classifier to predict the propagation of emotion between users and their friends in an OSN by way of mood-labeled blog entries. The model generalizes existing information diffusion models in that the state machine representation of a node is generalized from being binary to having n-states in order to support n class labels necessary to model emotional contagion. In the absence of ground truth, the prediction accuracy of the model is benchmarked with a baseline method that predicts the majority label of a user's emotion label distribution. The model significantly outperforms the baseline method in terms of prediction accuracy. The experimental results make a strong case for the existence of emotional contagion in OSNs in spite of possible alternative arguments such confounding influence and homophily, since these alternatives are likely to have negligible effect in a large dataset or simply do not apply to the domain of human emotions. A hybrid manual/automated method to map mood-labeled blog entries to a set of emotion labels is also presented, which enables the application of the model to a large set (approximately 900K) of blog entries from LiveJournal.
Strong communities are important for society. One of the most important community builders, making friends, is poorly supported online. Dating sites support it but in romantic contexts. Other major social networks seem not to encourage it because either their purpose isn't compatible with introducing strangers or the prevalent methods of introduction aren't effective enough to merit use over real word alternatives. This paper presents a novel digital social network emphasizing creating friendships. Research has shown video chat communication can reach in-person levels of trust; coupled with a game environment to ease the discomfort people often have interacting with strangers and a recommendation engine, Zazzer, the presented system, allows people to meet and get to know each other in a manner much more true to real life than traditional methods. Its network also allows players to continue to communicate afterwards. The evaluation looks at real world use, measuring the frequency with which players choose the video chat game versus alternative, more traditional methods of online introduction. It also looks at interactions after the initial meeting to discover how effective video chat games are in creating sticky social connections. After initial use it became apparent a critical mass of users would be necessary to draw strong conclusions, however the collected data seemed to give preliminary support to the idea that video chat games are more effective than traditional ways of meeting online in creating new relationships.
The mechanical behavior of Pb-free solder alloys is important, since they must maintain mechanical integrity under thermomechanical fatigue, creep, and mechanical shock conditions. Mechanical shock, in particular, has become an increasing concern in the electronics industry, since electronic packages can be subjected to mechanical shock by mishandling during manufacture or by accidental dropping. In this study, the mechanical shock behavior of Sn and Sn-Ag-Cu alloys was systematically analyzed over the strain rate range 10-3 - 30 s-1 in bulk samples, and over 10-3 - 12 s-1 on the single solder joint level. More importantly, the influences of solder microstructure and intermetallic compounds (IMC) on mechanical shock resistance were quantified. A thorough microstructural characterization of Sn-rich alloys was conducted using synchrotron x-ray computed tomography. The three-dimensional morphology and distribution of contiguous phases and precipitates was analyzed. A multiscale approach was utilized to characterize Sn-rich phases on the microscale with x-ray tomography and focused ion beam tomography to characterize nanoscale precipitates. A high strain rate servohydraulic test system was developed in conjunction with a modified tensile specimen geometry and a high speed camera for quantifying deformation. The effect of microstructure and applied strain rate on the local strain and strain rate distributions were quantified using digital image correlation. Necking behavior was analyzed using a novel mirror fixture, and the triaxial stresses associated with necking were corrected using a self-consistent method to obtain the true stress-true strain constitutive behavior. Fracture mechanisms were quantified as a function of strain rate. Finally, the relationship between solder microstructure and intermetallic compound layer thickness with the mechanical shock resistance of Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu solder joints was characterized. It was found that at low strain rates the dynamic solder joint strength was controlled by the solder microstructure, while at high strain rates it was controlled by the IMC layer. The influences of solder microstructure and IMC layer thickness were then isolated using extended reflow or isothermal aging treatments. It was found that at large IMC layer thicknesses the trend described above does not hold true. The fracture mechanisms associated with the dynamic solder joint strength regimes were analyzed.
With the increasing focus on developing environmentally benign electronic packages, lead-free solder alloys have received a great deal of attention. Mishandling of packages, during manufacture, assembly, or by the user may cause failure of solder joint. A fundamental understanding of the behavior of lead-free solders under mechanical shock conditions is lacking. Reliable experimental and numerical analysis of lead-free solder joints in the intermediate strain rate regime need to be investigated. This dissertation mainly focuses on exploring the mechanical shock behavior of lead-free tin-rich solder alloys via multiscale modeling and numerical simulations. First, the macroscopic stress/strain behaviors of three bulk lead-free tin-rich solders were tested over a range of strain rates from 0.001/s to 30/s. Finite element analysis was conducted to determine appropriate specimen geometry that could reach a homogeneous stress/strain field and a relatively high strain rate. A novel self-consistent true stress correction method is developed to compensate the inaccuracy caused by the triaxial stress state at the post-necking stage. Then the material property of micron-scale intermetallic was examined by micro-compression test. The accuracy of this measure is systematically validated by finite element analysis, and empirical adjustments are provided. Moreover, the interfacial property of the solder/intermetallic interface is investigated, and a continuum traction-separation law of this interface is developed from an atomistic-based cohesive element method. The macroscopic stress/strain relation and microstructural properties are combined together to form a multiscale material behavior via a stochastic approach for both solder and intermetallic. As a result, solder is modeled by porous plasticity with random voids, and intermetallic is characterized as brittle material with random vulnerable region. Thereafter, the porous plasticity fracture of the solders and the brittle fracture of the intermetallics are coupled together in one finite element model. Finally, this study yields a multiscale model to understand and predict the mechanical shock behavior of lead-free tin-rich solder joints. Different fracture patterns are observed for various strain rates and/or intermetallic thicknesses. The predictions have a good agreement with the theory and experiments.
Concrete columns constitute the fundamental supports of buildings, bridges, and various other infrastructures, and their failure could lead to the collapse of the entire structure. As such, great effort goes into improving the fire resistance of such columns. In a time sensitive fire situation, a delay in the failure of critical load bearing structures can lead to an increase in time allowed for the evacuation of occupants, recovery of property, and access to the fire. Much work has been done in improving the structural performance of concrete including reducing column sizes and providing a safer structure. As a result, high-strength (HS) concrete has been developed to fulfill the needs of such improvements. HS concrete varies from normal-strength (NS) concrete in that it has a higher stiffness, lower permeability and larger durability. This, unfortunately, has resulted in poor performance under fire. The lower permeability allows for water vapor to build up causing HS concrete to suffer from explosive spalling under rapid heating. In addition, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of HS concrete is lower than that of NS concrete. In this study, the effects of introducing a region of crumb rubber concrete into a steel-reinforced concrete column were analyzed. The inclusion of crumb rubber concrete into a column will greatly increase the thermal resistivity of the overall column, leading to a reduction in core temperature as well as the rate at which the column is heated. Different cases were analyzed while varying the positioning of the crumb-rubber region to characterize the effect of position on the improvement of fire resistance. Computer simulated finite element analysis was used to calculate the temperature and strain distribution with time across the column's cross-sectional area with specific interest in the steel - concrete region. Of the several cases which were investigated, it was found that the improvement of time before failure ranged between 32 to 45 minutes.
Structural health management (SHM) is emerging as a vital methodology to help engineers improve the safety and maintainability of critical structures. SHM systems are designed to reliably monitor and test the health and performance of structures in aerospace, civil, and mechanical engineering applications. SHM combines multidisciplinary technologies including sensing, signal processing, pattern recognition, data mining, high fidelity probabilistic progressive damage models, physics based damage models, and regression analysis. Due to the wide application of carbon fiber reinforced composites and their multiscale failure mechanisms, it is necessary to emphasize the research of SHM on composite structures. This research develops a comprehensive framework for the damage detection, localization, quantification, and prediction of the remaining useful life of complex composite structures. To interrogate a composite structure, guided wave propagation is applied to thin structures such as beams and plates. Piezoelectric transducers are selected because of their versatility, which allows them to be used as sensors and actuators. Feature extraction from guided wave signals is critical to demonstrate the presence of damage and estimate the damage locations. Advanced signal processing techniques are employed to extract robust features and information. To provide a better estimate of the damage for accurate life estimation, probabilistic regression analysis is used to obtain a prediction model for the prognosis of complex structures subject to fatigue loading. Special efforts have been applied to the extension of SHM techniques on aerospace and spacecraft structures, such as UAV composite wings and deployable composite boom structures. Necessary modifications of the developed SHM techniques were conducted to meet the unique requirements of the aerospace structures. The developed SHM algorithms are able to accurately detect and quantify impact damages as well as matrix cracking introduced.