Matching Items (93)
- Genre: Academic theses
- Genre: Masters Thesis
- Creators: Yang, Yezhou
Currently, one of the biggest limiting factors for long-term deployment of autonomous systems is the power constraints of a platform. In particular, for aerial robots such as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), the energy resource is the main driver of mission planning and operation definitions, as everything revolved around flight time. The focus of this work is to develop a new method of energy storage and charging for autonomous UAV systems, for use during long-term deployments in a constrained environment. We developed a charging solution that allows pre-equipped UAV system to land on top of designated charging pads and rapidly replenish their battery reserves, using a contact charging point. This system is designed to work with all types of rechargeable batteries, focusing on Lithium Polymer (LiPo) packs, that incorporate a battery management system for increased reliability. The project also explores optimization methods for fleets of UAV systems, to increase charging efficiency and extend battery lifespans. Each component of this project was first designed and tested in computer simulation. Following positive feedback and results, prototypes for each part of this system were developed and rigorously tested. Results show that the contact charging method is able to charge LiPo batteries at a 1-C rate, which is the industry standard rate, maintaining the same safety and efficiency standards as modern day direct connection chargers. Control software for these base stations was also created, to be integrated with a fleet management system, and optimizes UAV charge levels and distribution to extend LiPo battery lifetimes while still meeting expected mission demand. Each component of this project (hardware/software) was designed for manufacturing and implementation using industry standard tools, making it ideal for large-scale implementations. This system has been successfully tested with a fleet of UAV systems at Arizona State University, and is currently being integrated into an Arizona smart city environment for deployment.
Robots that anticipate pain: anticipating physical perturbations from visual cues through deep predictive models
To ensure system integrity, robots need to proactively avoid any unwanted physical perturbation that may cause damage to the underlying hardware. In this thesis work, we investigate a machine learning approach that allows robots to anticipate impending physical perturbations from perceptual cues. In contrast to other approaches that require knowledge about sources of perturbation to be encoded before deployment, our method is based on experiential learning. Robots learn to associate visual cues with subsequent physical perturbations and contacts. In turn, these extracted visual cues are then used to predict potential future perturbations acting on the robot. To this end, we introduce a novel deep network architecture which combines multiple sub- networks for dealing with robot dynamics and perceptual input from the environment. We present a self-supervised approach for training the system that does not require any labeling of training data. Extensive experiments in a human-robot interaction task show that a robot can learn to predict physical contact by a human interaction partner without any prior information or labeling. Furthermore, the network is able to successfully predict physical contact from either depth stream input or traditional video input or using both modalities as input.
This work presents a communication paradigm, using a context-aware mixed reality approach, for instructing human workers when collaborating with robots. The main objective of this approach is to utilize the physical work environment as a canvas to communicate task-related instructions and robot intentions in the form of visual cues. A vision-based object tracking algorithm is used to precisely determine the pose and state of physical objects in and around the workspace. A projection mapping technique is used to overlay visual cues on tracked objects and the workspace. Simultaneous tracking and projection onto objects enables the system to provide just-in-time instructions for carrying out a procedural task. Additionally, the system can also inform and warn humans about the intentions of the robot and safety of the workspace. It was hypothesized that using this system for executing a human-robot collaborative task will improve the overall performance of the team and provide a positive experience to the human partner. To test this hypothesis, an experiment involving human subjects was conducted and the performance (both objective and subjective) of the presented system was compared with a conventional method based on printed instructions. It was found that projecting visual cues enabled human subjects to collaborate more effectively with the robot and resulted in higher efficiency in completing the task.
With the rise of the Big Data Era, an exponential amount of network data is being generated at an unprecedented rate across a wide-range of high impact micro and macro areas of research---from protein interaction to social networks. The critical challenge is translating this large scale network data into actionable information.
A key task in the data translation is the analysis of network connectivity via marked nodes---the primary focus of our research. We have developed a framework for analyzing network connectivity via marked nodes in large scale graphs, utilizing novel algorithms in three interrelated areas: (1) analysis of a single seed node via it’s ego-centric network (AttriPart algorithm); (2) pathway identification between two seed nodes (K-Simple Shortest Paths Multithreaded and Search Reduced (KSSPR) algorithm); and (3) tree detection, defining the interaction between three or more seed nodes (Shortest Path MST algorithm).
In an effort to address both fundamental and applied research issues, we have developed the LocalForcasting algorithm to explore how network connectivity analysis can be applied to local community evolution and recommender systems. The goal is to apply the LocalForecasting algorithm to various domains---e.g., friend suggestions in social networks or future collaboration in co-authorship networks. This algorithm utilizes link prediction in combination with the AttriPart algorithm to predict future connections in local graph partitions.
Results show that our proposed AttriPart algorithm finds up to 1.6x denser local partitions, while running approximately 43x faster than traditional local partitioning techniques (PageRank-Nibble). In addition, our LocalForecasting algorithm demonstrates a significant improvement in the number of nodes and edges correctly predicted over baseline methods. Furthermore, results for the KSSPR algorithm demonstrate a speed-up of up to 2.5x the standard k-simple shortest paths algorithm.
Topological methods for data analysis present opportunities for enforcing certain invariances of broad interest in computer vision: including view-point in activity analysis, articulation in shape analysis, and measurement invariance in non-linear dynamical modeling. The increasing success of these methods is attributed to the complementary information that topology provides, as well as availability of tools for computing topological summaries such as persistence diagrams. However, persistence diagrams are multi-sets of points and hence it is not straightforward to fuse them with features used for contemporary machine learning tools like deep-nets. In this paper theoretically well-grounded approaches to develop novel perturbation robust topological representations are presented, with the long-term view of making them amenable to fusion with contemporary learning architectures. The proposed representation lives on a Grassmann manifold and hence can be efficiently used in machine learning pipelines.
The proposed representation.The efficacy of the proposed descriptor was explored on three applications: view-invariant activity analysis, 3D shape analysis, and non-linear dynamical modeling. Favorable results in both high-level recognition performance and improved performance in reduction of time-complexity when compared to other baseline methods are obtained.
In a collaborative environment where multiple robots and human beings are expected
to collaborate to perform a task, it becomes essential for a robot to be aware of multiple
agents working in its work environment. A robot must also learn to adapt to
different agents in the workspace and conduct its interaction based on the presence
of these agents. A theoretical framework was introduced which performs interaction
learning from demonstrations in a two-agent work environment, and it is called
This document is an in-depth description of the new state of the art Python
Framework for Interaction Primitives between two agents in a single as well as multiple
task work environment and extension of the original framework in a work environment
with multiple agents doing a single task. The original theory of Interaction
Primitives has been extended to create a framework which will capture correlation
between more than two agents while performing a single task. The new state of the
art Python framework is an intuitive, generic, easy to install and easy to use python
library which can be applied to use the Interaction Primitives framework in a work
environment. This library was tested in simulated environments and controlled laboratory
environment. The results and benchmarks of this library are available in the
related sections of this document.
The performance of most of the visual computing tasks depends on the quality of the features extracted from the raw data. Insightful feature representation increases the performance of many learning algorithms by exposing the underlying explanatory factors of the output for the unobserved input. A good representation should also handle anomalies in the data such as missing samples and noisy input caused by the undesired, external factors of variation. It should also reduce the data redundancy. Over the years, many feature extraction processes have been invented to produce good representations of raw images and videos.
The feature extraction processes can be categorized into three groups. The first group contains processes that are hand-crafted for a specific task. Hand-engineering features requires the knowledge of domain experts and manual labor. However, the feature extraction process is interpretable and explainable. Next group contains the latent-feature extraction processes. While the original feature lies in a high-dimensional space, the relevant factors for a task often lie on a lower dimensional manifold. The latent-feature extraction employs hidden variables to expose the underlying data properties that cannot be directly measured from the input. Latent features seek a specific structure such as sparsity or low-rank into the derived representation through sophisticated optimization techniques. The last category is that of deep features. These are obtained by passing raw input data with minimal pre-processing through a deep network. Its parameters are computed by iteratively minimizing a task-based loss.
In this dissertation, I present four pieces of work where I create and learn suitable data representations. The first task employs hand-crafted features to perform clinically-relevant retrieval of diabetic retinopathy images. The second task uses latent features to perform content-adaptive image enhancement. The third task ranks a pair of images based on their aestheticism. The goal of the last task is to capture localized image artifacts in small datasets with patch-level labels. For both these tasks, I propose novel deep architectures and show significant improvement over the previous state-of-art approaches. A suitable combination of feature representations augmented with an appropriate learning approach can increase performance for most visual computing tasks.
Aligning English Sentences with Abstract Meaning Representation Graphs using Inductive Logic Programming
In this thesis, I propose a new technique of Aligning English sentence words
with its Semantic Representation using Inductive Logic Programming(ILP). My
work focusses on Abstract Meaning Representation(AMR). AMR is a semantic
formalism to English natural language. It encodes meaning of a sentence in a rooted
graph. This representation has gained attention for its simplicity and expressive power.
An AMR Aligner aligns words in a sentence to nodes(concepts) in its AMR
graph. As AMR annotation has no explicit alignment with words in English sentence,
automatic alignment becomes a requirement for training AMR parsers. The aligner in
this work comprises of two components. First, rules are learnt using ILP that invoke
AMR concepts from sentence-AMR graph pairs in the training data. Second, the
learnt rules are then used to align English sentences with AMR graphs. The technique
is evaluated on publicly available test dataset and the results are comparable with
Computer Vision as a eld has gone through signicant changes in the last decade.
The eld has seen tremendous success in designing learning systems with hand-crafted
features and in using representation learning to extract better features. In this dissertation
some novel approaches to representation learning and task learning are studied.
Multiple-instance learning which is generalization of supervised learning, is one
example of task learning that is discussed. In particular, a novel non-parametric k-
NN-based multiple-instance learning is proposed, which is shown to outperform other
existing approaches. This solution is applied to a diabetic retinopathy pathology
detection problem eectively.
In cases of representation learning, generality of neural features are investigated
rst. This investigation leads to some critical understanding and results in feature
generality among datasets. The possibility of learning from a mentor network instead
of from labels is then investigated. Distillation of dark knowledge is used to eciently
mentor a small network from a pre-trained large mentor network. These studies help
in understanding representation learning with smaller and compressed networks.
Light field imaging is limited in its computational processing demands of high
sampling for both spatial and angular dimensions. Single-shot light field cameras
sacrifice spatial resolution to sample angular viewpoints, typically by multiplexing
incoming rays onto a 2D sensor array. While this resolution can be recovered using
compressive sensing, these iterative solutions are slow in processing a light field. We
present a deep learning approach using a new, two branch network architecture,
consisting jointly of an autoencoder and a 4D CNN, to recover a high resolution
4D light field from a single coded 2D image. This network decreases reconstruction
time significantly while achieving average PSNR values of 26-32 dB on a variety of
light fields. In particular, reconstruction time is decreased from 35 minutes to 6.7
minutes as compared to the dictionary method for equivalent visual quality. These
reconstructions are performed at small sampling/compression ratios as low as 8%,
allowing for cheaper coded light field cameras. We test our network reconstructions
on synthetic light fields, simulated coded measurements of real light fields captured
from a Lytro Illum camera, and real coded images from a custom CMOS diffractive
light field camera. The combination of compressive light field capture with deep
learning allows the potential for real-time light field video acquisition systems in the