Matching Items (3)

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White organic light emitting diodes for solid state lighting: a path towards high efficiency and device stability

Description

White organic light emitting diodes (WOLEDs) are currently being developed as the next generation of solid state lighting sources. Although, there has been considerable improvements in device efficiency from the early days up until now, there are still major drawbacks

White organic light emitting diodes (WOLEDs) are currently being developed as the next generation of solid state lighting sources. Although, there has been considerable improvements in device efficiency from the early days up until now, there are still major drawbacks for the implementation of WOLEDs to commercial markets. These drawbacks include short lifetimes associated with highly efficient and easier to fabricate device structures. Platinum (II) complexes are been explored as emitters for single emissive layer WOLEDs, due to their higher efficiencies and stability in device configurations. These properties have been attributed to their square planar nature. Tetradentate platinum (II) complexes in particular have been shown to be more rigid and thus more stable than their other multidentate counterparts. This thesis aims to explore the different pathways via molecular design of tetradentate platinum II complexes and in particular the percipient engineering of a highly efficient and stable device structure. Previous works have been able to obtain either highly efficient devices or stable devices in different device configurations. In this work, we demonstrate a device structure employing Pt2O2 as the emitter using mCBP as a host with EQE of above 20% and lifetime values (LT80) exceeding 6000hours at practical luminance of 100cd/m2. These results open up the pathway towards the commercialization of white organic light emitting diodes as a solid state lighting source.

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Date Created
2016

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Design and fabrication of monolithically-integrated laterally-arrayed multiple band gap solar cells using composition-graded alloy nanowires for spectrum-splitting photovoltaic systems

Description

This dissertation aims to demonstrate a new approach to fabricating solar cells for spectrum-splitting photovoltaic systems with the potential to reduce their cost and complexity of manufacturing, called Monolithically Integrated Laterally Arrayed Multiple Band gap (MILAMB) solar cells. Single crystal

This dissertation aims to demonstrate a new approach to fabricating solar cells for spectrum-splitting photovoltaic systems with the potential to reduce their cost and complexity of manufacturing, called Monolithically Integrated Laterally Arrayed Multiple Band gap (MILAMB) solar cells. Single crystal semiconductor alloy nanowire (NW) ensembles are grown with the alloy composition and band gap changing continuously across a broad range over the surface of a single substrate in a single, inexpensive growth step by the Dual-Gradient Method. The nanowire ensembles then serve as the absorbing materials in a set of solar cells for spectrum-splitting photovoltaic systems.

Preliminary design and simulation studies based on Anderson's model band line-ups were undertaken for CdPbS and InGaN alloys. Systems of six subcells obtained efficiencies in the 32-38% range for CdPbS and 34-40% for InGaN at 1-240 suns, though both materials systems require significant development before these results could be achieved experimentally. For an experimental demonstration, CdSSe was selected due to its availability. Proof-of-concept CdSSe nanowire ensemble solar cells with two subcells were fabricated simultaneously on one substrate. I-V characterization under 1 sun AM1.5G conditions yielded open-circuit voltages (Voc) up to 307 and 173 mV and short-circuit current densities (Jsc) up to 0.091 and 0.974 mA/cm2 for the CdS- and CdSe-rich cells, respectively. Similar thin film cells were also fabricated for comparison. The nanowire cells showed substantially higher Voc than the film cells, which was attributed to higher material quality in the CdSSe absorber. I-V measurements were also conducted with optical filters to simulate a simple form of spectrum-splitting. The CdS-rich cells showed uniformly higher Voc and fill factor (FF) than the CdSe-rich cells, as expected due to their larger band gaps. This suggested higher power density was produced by the CdS-rich cells on the single-nanowire level, which is the principal benefit of spectrum-splitting. These results constitute a proof-of-concept experimental demonstration of the MILAMB approach to fabricating multiple cells for spectrum-splitting photovoltaics. Future systems based on this approach could help to reduce the cost and complexity of manufacturing spectrum-splitting photovoltaic systems and offer a low cost alternative to multi-junction tandems for achieving high efficiencies.

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Date Created
2014

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New materials and device designs for organic light-emitting diodes

Description

Research and development of organic materials and devices for electronic applications has become an increasingly active area. Display and solid-state lighting are the most mature applications and, and products have been commercially available for several years as of this writing.

Research and development of organic materials and devices for electronic applications has become an increasingly active area. Display and solid-state lighting are the most mature applications and, and products have been commercially available for several years as of this writing. Significant efforts also focus on materials for organic photovoltaic applications. Some of the newest work is in devices for medical, sensor and prosthetic applications.

Worldwide energy demand is increasing as the population grows and the standard of living in developing countries improves. Some studies estimate as much as 20% of annual energy usage is consumed by lighting. Improvements are being made in lightweight, flexible, rugged panels that use organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), which are particularly useful in developing regions with limited energy availability and harsh environments.

Displays also benefit from more efficient materials as well as the lighter weight and ruggedness enabled by flexible substrates. Displays may require different emission characteristics compared with solid-state lighting. Some display technologies use a white OLED (WOLED) backlight with a color filter, but these are more complex and less efficient than displays that use separate emissive materials that produce the saturated colors needed to reproduce the entire color gamut. Saturated colors require narrow-band emitters. Full-color OLED displays up to and including television size are now commercially available from several suppliers, but research continues to develop more efficient and more stable materials.

This research program investigates several topics relevant to solid-state lighting and display applications. One project is development of a device structure to optimize performance of a new stable Pt-based red emitter developed in Prof Jian Li's group. Another project investigates new Pt-based red, green and blue emitters for lighting applications and compares a red/blue structure with a red/green/blue structure to produce light with high color rendering index. Another part of this work describes the fabrication of a 14.7" diagonal full color active-matrix OLED display on plastic substrate. The backplanes were designed and fabricated in the ASU Flexible Display Center and required significant engineering to develop; a discussion of that process is also included.

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Date Created
2017