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Reconciling the differences between tolerance specification and measurement methods

Description

Dimensional Metrology is the branch of science that determines length, angular, and geometric relationships within manufactured parts and compares them with required tolerances. The measurements can be made using either manual methods or sampled coordinate metrology (Coordinate measuring machines). Manual

Dimensional Metrology is the branch of science that determines length, angular, and geometric relationships within manufactured parts and compares them with required tolerances. The measurements can be made using either manual methods or sampled coordinate metrology (Coordinate measuring machines). Manual measurement methods have been in practice for a long time and are well accepted in the industry, but are slow for the present day manufacturing. On the other hand CMMs are relatively fast, but these methods are not well established yet. The major problem that needs to be addressed is the type of feature fitting algorithm used for evaluating tolerances. In a CMM the use of different feature fitting algorithms on a feature gives different values, and there is no standard that describes the type of feature fitting algorithm to be used for a specific tolerance. Our research is focused on identifying the feature fitting algorithm that is best used for each type of tolerance. Each algorithm is identified as the one to best represent the interpretation of geometric control as defined by the ASME Y14.5 standard and on the manual methods used for the measurement of a specific tolerance type. Using these algorithms normative procedures for CMMs are proposed for verifying tolerances. The proposed normative procedures are implemented as software. Then the procedures are verified by comparing the results from software with that of manual measurements.

To aid this research a library of feature fitting algorithms is developed in parallel. The library consists of least squares, Chebyshev and one sided fits applied on the features of line, plane, circle and cylinder. The proposed normative procedures are useful for evaluating tolerances in CMMs. The results evaluated will be in accordance to the standard. The ambiguity in choosing the algorithms is prevented. The software developed can be used in quality control for inspection purposes.

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Date Created
2014

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Automating GD&T schema for mechanical assemblies

Description

Parts are always manufactured with deviations from their nominal geometry due to many reasons such as inherent inaccuracies in the machine tools and environmental conditions. It is a designer job to devise a proper tolerance scheme to allow reasonable freedom

Parts are always manufactured with deviations from their nominal geometry due to many reasons such as inherent inaccuracies in the machine tools and environmental conditions. It is a designer job to devise a proper tolerance scheme to allow reasonable freedom to a manufacturer for imperfections without compromising performance. It takes years of experience and strong practical knowledge of the device function, manufacturing process and GD&T standards for a designer to create a good tolerance scheme. There is almost no theoretical resource to help designers in GD&T synthesis. As a result, designers often create inconsistent and incomplete tolerance schemes that lead to high assembly scrap rates. Auto-Tolerancing project was started in the Design Automation Lab (DAL) to investigate the degree to which tolerance synthesis can be automated. Tolerance synthesis includes tolerance schema generation (sans tolerance values) and tolerance value allocation. This thesis aims to address the tolerance schema generation. To develop an automated tolerance schema synthesis toolset, to-be-toleranced features need to be identified, required tolerance types should be determined, a scheme for computer representation of the GD&T information need to be developed, sequence of control should be identified, and a procedure for creating datum reference frames (DRFs) should be developed. The first three steps define the architecture of the tolerance schema generation module while the last two steps setup a base to create a proper tolerance scheme with the help of GD&T good practice rules obtained from experts. The GD&T scheme recommended by this module is used by the tolerance value allocation/analysis module to complete the process of automated tolerance synthesis. Various test cases are studied to verify the suitability of this module. The results show that software-generated schemas are proper enough to address the assemblability issues (first order tolerancing). Since this novel technology is at its initial stage of development, performing further researches and case studies will definitely help to improve the software for making more comprehensive tolerance schemas that cover design intent (second order tolerancing) and cost optimization (third order tolerancing).

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Date Created
2016