Matching Items (5)

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Impacts of base-case and post-contingency constraint relaxations on static and dynamic operational security

Description

Constraint relaxation by definition means that certain security, operational, or financial constraints are allowed to be violated in the energy market model for a predetermined penalty price. System operators utilize this mechanism in an effort to impose a price-cap on

Constraint relaxation by definition means that certain security, operational, or financial constraints are allowed to be violated in the energy market model for a predetermined penalty price. System operators utilize this mechanism in an effort to impose a price-cap on shadow prices throughout the market. In addition, constraint relaxations can serve as corrective approximations that help in reducing the occurrence of infeasible or extreme solutions in the day-ahead markets. This work aims to capture the impact constraint relaxations have on system operational security. Moreover, this analysis also provides a better understanding of the correlation between DC market models and AC real-time systems and analyzes how relaxations in market models propagate to real-time systems. This information can be used not only to assess the criticality of constraint relaxations, but also as a basis for determining penalty prices more accurately.

Constraint relaxations practice was replicated in this work using a test case and a real-life large-scale system, while capturing both energy market aspects and AC real-time system performance. System performance investigation included static and dynamic security analysis for base-case and post-contingency operating conditions. PJM peak hour loads were dynamically modeled in order to capture delayed voltage recovery and sustained depressed voltage profiles as a result of reactive power deficiency caused by constraint relaxations. Moreover, impacts of constraint relaxations on operational system security were investigated when risk based penalty prices are used. Transmission lines in the PJM system were categorized according to their risk index and each category was as-signed a different penalty price accordingly in order to avoid real-time overloads on high risk lines.

This work also extends the investigation of constraint relaxations to post-contingency relaxations, where emergency limits are allowed to be relaxed in energy market models. Various scenarios were investigated to capture and compare between the impacts of base-case and post-contingency relaxations on real-time system performance, including the presence of both relaxations simultaneously. The effect of penalty prices on the number and magnitude of relaxations was investigated as well.

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Date Created
2016

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Dynamic analysis of multithreaded embedded software to expose atomicity violations

Description

Concurrency bugs are one of the most notorious software bugs and are very difficult to manifest. Significant work has been done on detection of atomicity violations bugs for high performance systems but there is not much work related to detect

Concurrency bugs are one of the most notorious software bugs and are very difficult to manifest. Significant work has been done on detection of atomicity violations bugs for high performance systems but there is not much work related to detect these bugs for embedded systems. Although criteria to claim existence of bugs remains same, approach changes a bit for embedded systems. The main focus of this research is to develop a systemic methodology to address the issue from embedded systems perspective. A framework is developed which predicts the access interleaving patterns that may violate atomicity using memory references of shared variables and provides support to force and analyze these schedules for any output change, system fault or change in execution path.

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Date Created
2016

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Human-structure interaction in the TCF Bank Stadium and a study of parameter estimation algorithms

Description

As more and more stadia structures nowadays are being built by making use of new high strength building materials which tend to be lighter than the "old" ones, composite systems and also the fact that engineers, contractors and clients want

As more and more stadia structures nowadays are being built by making use of new high strength building materials which tend to be lighter than the "old" ones, composite systems and also the fact that engineers, contractors and clients want their structures as optimized as possible, in terms of minimal materials used, there is an inevitable side effect that comes with this. The result is that structures are more flexible, and thus they become susceptible to undergone vibration problems due to the action of dynamic loading. Pop/rock concerts, exhibitions, boxing matches, and so forth are staged to supplement the football/sport seasons. Consequently, stadia structures must resist not only static loading, but also dynamic loading, such as the human induced loads from various activities of the spectators which include, standing, jumping, stamping, clapping and dancing, particularly in response to touchdowns (in football matches) or musical beats (during concerts). Active and passive models of humans are studied to see how they influence the response in TCF Bank Stadium for different ranges in excitation frequencies, by performing dynamic analyses and comparing the results with the ones obtained from static analysis. Parameter estimation and system identification in mechanical sciences and structural engineering have become increasingly important areas of research in the last three decades. Many nondestructive testing methods are based on the concepts of system identification and parameter estimation. In this document, two parameter estimation algorithms are studied, namely the Equation Error Estimator and the Output Error Estimator, through the simulation of modal data obtained from a computer structural analysis program and comparisons of their results are presented so that future researchers are better informed about the two and therefore can decide which one would give the best results for their application.

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Date Created
2014

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Model development and analysis of distribution feeders with high penetration of PV generation resources

Description

An increase in the number of inverter-interfaced photovoltaic (PV) generators on existing distribution feeders affects the design, operation, and control of the distri- bution systems. Existing distribution system analysis tools are capable of supporting only snapshot and quasi-static analyses. Capturing

An increase in the number of inverter-interfaced photovoltaic (PV) generators on existing distribution feeders affects the design, operation, and control of the distri- bution systems. Existing distribution system analysis tools are capable of supporting only snapshot and quasi-static analyses. Capturing the dynamic effects of the PV generators during the variation in the distribution system states is necessary when studying the effects of controller bandwidths, multiple voltage correction devices, and anti-islanding. This work explores the use of dynamic phasors and differential algebraic equations (DAE) for impact analysis of the PV generators on the existing distribution feeders.

The voltage unbalance induced by PV generators can aggravate the existing unbalance due to load mismatch. An increased phase unbalance significantly adds to the neutral currents, excessive neutral to ground voltages and violate the standards for unbalance factor. The objective of this study is to analyze and quantify the impacts of unbalanced PV installations on a distribution feeder. Additionally, a power electronic converter solution is proposed to mitigate the identified impacts and validate the solution's effectiveness through detailed simulations in OpenDSS.

The benefits associated with the use of energy storage systems for electric- utility-related applications are also studied. This research provides a generalized framework for strategic deployment of a lithium-ion based energy storage system to increase their benefits in a distribution feeder. A significant amount of work has been performed for a detailed characterization of the life cycle costs of an energy storage system. The objectives include - reduction of the substation transformer losses, reduction of the life cycle cost for an energy storage system, and accommodate the PV variability.

The distribution feeder laterals in the distribution feeder with relatively high PV generation as compared to the load can be operated as microgrids to achieve reliability, power quality and economic benefits. However, the renewable resources are intermittent and stochastic in nature. A novel approach for sizing and scheduling the energy storage system and microtrubine is proposed for reliable operation of microgrids. The size and schedule of the energy storage system and microturbine are determined using Benders' decomposition, considering the PV generation as a stochastic resource.

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Created

Date Created
2015

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Dynamic analysis of embedded software

Description

Most embedded applications are constructed with multiple threads to handle concurrent events. For optimization and debugging of the programs, dynamic program analysis is widely used to collect execution information while the program is running. Unfortunately, the non-deterministic behavior of multithreaded

Most embedded applications are constructed with multiple threads to handle concurrent events. For optimization and debugging of the programs, dynamic program analysis is widely used to collect execution information while the program is running. Unfortunately, the non-deterministic behavior of multithreaded embedded software makes the dynamic analysis difficult. In addition, instrumentation overhead for gathering execution information may change the execution of a program, and lead to distorted analysis results, i.e., probe effect. This thesis presents a framework that tackles the non-determinism and probe effect incurred in dynamic analysis of embedded software. The thesis largely consists of three parts. First of all, we discusses a deterministic replay framework to provide reproducible execution. Once a program execution is recorded, software instrumentation can be safely applied during replay without probe effect. Second, a discussion of probe effect is presented and a simulation-based analysis is proposed to detect execution changes of a program caused by instrumentation overhead. The simulation-based analysis examines if the recording instrumentation changes the original program execution. Lastly, the thesis discusses data race detection algorithms that help to remove data races for correctness of the replay and the simulation-based analysis. The focus is to make the detection efficient for C/C++ programs, and to increase scalability of the detection on multi-core machines.

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Date Created
2015