Matching Items (5)

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Tolerance maps for patterns of profiles

Description

This thesis contains the applications of the ASU mathematical model (Tolerance Maps, T-Maps) to the construction of T-Maps for patterns of line profiles. Previously, Tolerance Maps were developed for patterns

This thesis contains the applications of the ASU mathematical model (Tolerance Maps, T-Maps) to the construction of T-Maps for patterns of line profiles. Previously, Tolerance Maps were developed for patterns of features such as holes, pins, slots and tabs to control their position. The T-Maps that are developed in this thesis are fully compatible with the ASME Y14.5 Standard. A pattern of square profiles, both linear and 2D, is used throughout this thesis to illustrate the idea of constructing the T-Maps for line profiles. The Standard defines two ways of tolerancing a pattern of profiles - Composite Tolerancing and Multiple Single Segment Tolerancing. Further, in the composite tolerancing scheme, there are two different ways to control the entire pattern - repeating a single datum or two datums in the secondary datum reference frame. T-Maps are constructed for all the different specifications. The Standard also describes a way to control the coplanarity of discontinuous surfaces using a profile tolerance and T-Maps have been developed. Since verification of manufactured parts relative to the tolerance specifications is crucial, a least squares fit approach, which was developed earlier for line profiles, has been extended to patterns of line profiles. For a pattern, two tolerances are specified, and the manufactured profile needs to lie within the tolerance zones established by both of these tolerances. An i-Map representation of the manufactured variation, located within the T-Map is also presented in this thesis.

Contributors

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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3-D conformance analysis of manufacturing plans using M-maps, by explicating formal GD&T schema from the process plan

Description

A process plan is an instruction set for the manufacture of parts generated from detailed design drawings or CAD models. While these plans are highly detailed about machines, tools, fixtures

A process plan is an instruction set for the manufacture of parts generated from detailed design drawings or CAD models. While these plans are highly detailed about machines, tools, fixtures and operation parameters; tolerances typically show up in less formal manner in such plans, if at all. It is not uncommon to see only dimensional plus/minus values on rough sketches accompanying the instructions. On the other hand, design drawings use standard GD&T (Geometrical Dimensioning and tolerancing) symbols with datums and DRFs (Datum Reference Frames) clearly specified. This is not to say that process planners do not consider tolerances; they are implied by way of choices of fixtures, tools, machines, and operations. When converting design tolerances to the manufacturing datum flow, process planners do tolerance charting, that is based on operation sequence but the resulting plans cannot be audited for conformance to design specification.

In this thesis, I will present a framework for explicating the GD&T schema implied by machining process plans. The first step is to derive the DRFs from the fixturing method in each set-up. Then basic dimensions for the features to be machined in each set up are determined with respect to the extracted DRF. Using shop data for the machines and operations involved, the range of possible geometric variations are estimated for each type of tolerances (form, size, orientation, and position). The sequence of manufacturing operations determines the datum flow chain. Once we have a formal manufacturing GD&T schema, we can analyze and compare it to tolerance specifications from design using the T-map math model. Since the model is based on the manufacturing process plan, it is called resulting T-map or m-map. Then the process plan can be validated by adjusting parameters so that the m-map lies within the T-map created for the design drawing. How the m-map is created to be compared with the T-map is the focus of this research.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Reconciling the differences between tolerance specification and measurement methods

Description

Dimensional Metrology is the branch of science that determines length, angular, and geometric relationships within manufactured parts and compares them with required tolerances. The measurements can be made using either

Dimensional Metrology is the branch of science that determines length, angular, and geometric relationships within manufactured parts and compares them with required tolerances. The measurements can be made using either manual methods or sampled coordinate metrology (Coordinate measuring machines). Manual measurement methods have been in practice for a long time and are well accepted in the industry, but are slow for the present day manufacturing. On the other hand CMMs are relatively fast, but these methods are not well established yet. The major problem that needs to be addressed is the type of feature fitting algorithm used for evaluating tolerances. In a CMM the use of different feature fitting algorithms on a feature gives different values, and there is no standard that describes the type of feature fitting algorithm to be used for a specific tolerance. Our research is focused on identifying the feature fitting algorithm that is best used for each type of tolerance. Each algorithm is identified as the one to best represent the interpretation of geometric control as defined by the ASME Y14.5 standard and on the manual methods used for the measurement of a specific tolerance type. Using these algorithms normative procedures for CMMs are proposed for verifying tolerances. The proposed normative procedures are implemented as software. Then the procedures are verified by comparing the results from software with that of manual measurements.

To aid this research a library of feature fitting algorithms is developed in parallel. The library consists of least squares, Chebyshev and one sided fits applied on the features of line, plane, circle and cylinder. The proposed normative procedures are useful for evaluating tolerances in CMMs. The results evaluated will be in accordance to the standard. The ambiguity in choosing the algorithms is prevented. The software developed can be used in quality control for inspection purposes.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Interoperability of geometric dimension & tolerance data between CAD systems through ISO STEP AP 242

Description

There is very little in the way of prescriptive procedures to guide designers in tolerance specification. This shortcoming motivated the group at Design Automation Lab to automate tolerancing of mechanical

There is very little in the way of prescriptive procedures to guide designers in tolerance specification. This shortcoming motivated the group at Design Automation Lab to automate tolerancing of mechanical assemblies. GD&T data generated by the Auto-Tolerancing software is semantically represented using a neutral Constraint Tolerance Feature (CTF) graph file format that is consistent with the ASME Y14.5 standard and the ISO STEP Part 21 file. The primary objective of this research is to communicate GD&T information from the CTF file to a neutral machine readable format. The latest STEP AP 242 (ISO 10303-242) “Managed model based 3D engineering“ aims to support smart manufacturing by capturing semantic Product Manufacturing Information (PMI) within the 3D model and also helping with long-term archiving of the product information. In line with the recommended practices published by CAx Implementor Forum, this research discusses the implementation of CTF to AP 242 translator. The input geometry available in STEP AP 203 format is pre-processed using STEP-NC DLL and 3D InterOp. While the former is initially used to attach persistent IDs to the topological entities in STEP, the latter retains the IDs during translation to ACIS entities for consumption by other modules in the Auto-tolerancing module. The associativity of GD&T available in CTF file to the input geometry is through persistent IDs. C++ libraries used for the translation to STEP AP 242 is provided by StepTools Inc through the STEP-NC DLL. Finally, the output STEP file is tested using available AP 242 readers and shows full conformance with the STEP standard. Using the output AP 242 file, semantic GDT data can now be automatically consumed by downstream applications such as Computer Aided Process Planning (CAPP), Computer Aided Inspection (CAI), Computer Aided Tolerance Systems (CATS) and Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMM).

Contributors

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Automating GD&T schema for mechanical assemblies

Description

Parts are always manufactured with deviations from their nominal geometry due to many reasons such as inherent inaccuracies in the machine tools and environmental conditions. It is a designer job

Parts are always manufactured with deviations from their nominal geometry due to many reasons such as inherent inaccuracies in the machine tools and environmental conditions. It is a designer job to devise a proper tolerance scheme to allow reasonable freedom to a manufacturer for imperfections without compromising performance. It takes years of experience and strong practical knowledge of the device function, manufacturing process and GD&T standards for a designer to create a good tolerance scheme. There is almost no theoretical resource to help designers in GD&T synthesis. As a result, designers often create inconsistent and incomplete tolerance schemes that lead to high assembly scrap rates. Auto-Tolerancing project was started in the Design Automation Lab (DAL) to investigate the degree to which tolerance synthesis can be automated. Tolerance synthesis includes tolerance schema generation (sans tolerance values) and tolerance value allocation. This thesis aims to address the tolerance schema generation. To develop an automated tolerance schema synthesis toolset, to-be-toleranced features need to be identified, required tolerance types should be determined, a scheme for computer representation of the GD&T information need to be developed, sequence of control should be identified, and a procedure for creating datum reference frames (DRFs) should be developed. The first three steps define the architecture of the tolerance schema generation module while the last two steps setup a base to create a proper tolerance scheme with the help of GD&T good practice rules obtained from experts. The GD&T scheme recommended by this module is used by the tolerance value allocation/analysis module to complete the process of automated tolerance synthesis. Various test cases are studied to verify the suitability of this module. The results show that software-generated schemas are proper enough to address the assemblability issues (first order tolerancing). Since this novel technology is at its initial stage of development, performing further researches and case studies will definitely help to improve the software for making more comprehensive tolerance schemas that cover design intent (second order tolerancing) and cost optimization (third order tolerancing).

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016