Matching Items (4)

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Improved grid resiliency through interactive system control

Description

With growing complexity of power grid interconnections, power systems may become increasingly vulnerable to low frequency oscillations (especially inter-area oscillations) and dependent on stabilizing controls using either local signals or wide-area signals to provide adequate damping. In recent years, the

With growing complexity of power grid interconnections, power systems may become increasingly vulnerable to low frequency oscillations (especially inter-area oscillations) and dependent on stabilizing controls using either local signals or wide-area signals to provide adequate damping. In recent years, the ability and potential to use wide-area signals for control purposes has increased since a significant investment has been made in the U. S. in deploying synchrophasor measurement technology. Fast and reliable communication systems are essential to enable the use of wide-area signals in controls. If wide-area signals find increased applicability in controls the security and reliability of power systems could be vulnerable to disruptions in communication systems. Even though numerous modern techniques have been developed to lower the probability of communication errors, communication networks cannot be designed to be always reliable. Given this background the motivation of this work is to build resiliency in the power grid controls to respond to failures in the communication network when wide-area control signals are used. In addition, this work also deals with the delay uncertainty associated with the wide-area signal transmission. In order to counteract the negative impact of communication failures on control effectiveness, two approaches are proposed and both approaches are motivated by considering the use of a robustly designed supplementary damping control (SDC) framework associated with a static VAr compensator (SVC). When there is no communication failure, the designed controller guarantees enhanced improvement in damping performance. When the wide-area signal in use is lost due to a communication failure, however, the resilient control provides the required damping of the inter-area oscillations by either utilizing another wide-area measurement through a healthy communication route or by simply utilizing an appropriate local control signal. Simulation results prove that with either of the proposed controls included, the system is stabilized regardless of communication failures, and thereby the reliability and sustainability of power systems is improved. The proposed approaches can be extended without loss of generality to the design of any resilient controller in cyber-physical engineering systems.

Contributors

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Created

Date Created
2014

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Evaluation and mitigation of power system oscillations arising from high solar penetration

Description

An important operating aspect of all transmission systems is power system stability

and satisfactory dynamic performance. The integration of renewable resources in general, and photovoltaic resources in particular into the grid has created new engineering issues. A particularly problematic operating scenario

An important operating aspect of all transmission systems is power system stability

and satisfactory dynamic performance. The integration of renewable resources in general, and photovoltaic resources in particular into the grid has created new engineering issues. A particularly problematic operating scenario occurs when conventional generation is operated at a low level but photovoltaic solar generation is at a high level. Significant solar photovoltaic penetration as a renewable resource is becoming a reality in some electric power systems. In this thesis, special attention is given to photovoltaic generation in an actual electric power system: increased solar penetration has resulted in significant strides towards meeting renewable portfolio standards. The impact of solar generation integration on power system dynamics is studied and evaluated.

This thesis presents the impact of high solar penetration resulting in potentially

problematic low system damping operating conditions. This is the case because the power system damping provided by conventional generation may be insufficient due to reduced system inertia and change in power flow patterns affecting synchronizing and damping capability in the AC system. This typically occurs because conventional generators are rescheduled or shut down to allow for the increased solar production. This problematic case may occur at any time of the year but during the springtime months of March-May, when the system load is low and the ambient temperature is relatively low, there is the potential that over voltages may occur in the high voltage transmission system. Also, reduced damping in system response to disturbances may occur. An actual case study is considered in which real operating system data are used. Solutions to low damping cases are discussed and a solution based on the retuning of a conventional power system stabilizer is given in the thesis.

Contributors

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Created

Date Created
2015

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Robust corrective topology control for system reliability and renewable integration

Description

Corrective transmission topology control schemes are an essential part of grid operations and are used to improve the reliability of the grid as well as the operational efficiency. However, topology control schemes are frequently established based on the operator's past

Corrective transmission topology control schemes are an essential part of grid operations and are used to improve the reliability of the grid as well as the operational efficiency. However, topology control schemes are frequently established based on the operator's past knowledge of the system as well as other ad-hoc methods. This research presents robust corrective topology control, which is a transmission switching methodology used for system reliability as well as to facilitate renewable integration.

This research presents three topology control (corrective transmission switching) methodologies along with the detailed formulation of robust corrective switching. The robust model can be solved off-line to suggest switching actions that can be used in a dynamic security assessment tool in real-time. The proposed robust topology control algorithm can also generate multiple corrective switching actions for a particular contingency. The solution obtained from the robust topology control algorithm is guaranteed to be feasible for the entire uncertainty set, i.e., a range of system operating states.

Furthermore, this research extends the benefits of robust corrective topology control to renewable resource integration. In recent years, the penetration of renewable resources in electrical power systems has increased. These renewable resources add more complexities to power system operations, due to their intermittent nature. This research presents robust corrective topology control as a congestion management tool to manage power flows and the associated renewable uncertainty. The proposed day-ahead method determines the maximum uncertainty in renewable resources in terms of do-not-exceed limits combined with corrective topology control. The results obtained from the topology control algorithm are tested for system stability and AC feasibility.

The scalability of do-not-exceed limits problem, from a smaller test case to a realistic test case, is also addressed in this research. The do-not-exceed limit problem is simplified by proposing a zonal do-not-exceed limit formulation over a detailed nodal do-not-exceed limit formulation. The simulation results show that the zonal approach is capable of addressing scalability of the do-not-exceed limit problem for a realistic test case.

Contributors

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Created

Date Created
2015

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Harnessing flexibility of the transmission grid to enhance reliability of the power system

Description

The standard optimal power flow (OPF) problem is an economic dispatch (ED) problem combined with transmission constraints, which are based on a static topology. However, topology control (TC) has been proposed in the past as a corrective mechanism to relieve

The standard optimal power flow (OPF) problem is an economic dispatch (ED) problem combined with transmission constraints, which are based on a static topology. However, topology control (TC) has been proposed in the past as a corrective mechanism to relieve overloads and voltage violations. Even though the benefits of TC are presented by several research works in the past, the computational complexity associated with TC has been a major deterrent to its implementation. The proposed work develops heuristics for TC and investigates its potential to improve the computational time for TC for various applications. The objective is to develop computationally light methods to harness the flexibility of the grid to derive maximum benefits to the system in terms of reliability. One of the goals of this research is to develop a tool that will be capable of providing TC actions in a minimal time-frame, which can be readily adopted by the industry for real-time corrective applications.

A DC based heuristic, i.e., a greedy algorithm, is developed and applied to improve the computational time for the TC problem while still maintaining the ability to find quality solutions. In the greedy algorithm, an expression is derived, which indicates the impact on the objective for a marginal change in the state of a transmission line. This expression is used to generate a priority list with potential candidate lines for switching, which may provide huge improvements to the system. The advantage of this method is that it is a fast heuristic as compared to using mixed integer programming (MIP) approach.

Alternatively, AC based heuristics are developed for TC problem and tested on actual data from PJM, ERCOT and TVA. AC based N-1 contingency analysis is performed to identify the contingencies that cause network violations. Simple proximity based heuristics are developed and the fast decoupled power flow is solved iteratively to identify the top five TC actions, which provide reduction in violations. Time domain simulations are performed to ensure that the TC actions do not cause system instability. Simulation results show significant reductions in violations in the system by the application of the TC heuristics.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2016