Matching Items (5)

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The optical and electronic properties of Ge₁-ySny and Ge₁-x-ySixSny materials and devices for silicon integrated optoelectronics

Description

Group-IV semiconductor alloys are of interest for Si-integrated optoelectronic applications due to the band gap tunability and enhanced optical capabilities that can be achieved through compositional tuning. This work advances

Group-IV semiconductor alloys are of interest for Si-integrated optoelectronic applications due to the band gap tunability and enhanced optical capabilities that can be achieved through compositional tuning. This work advances the field by presenting a systematic study of the optical and electronic properties of Ge1-ySny and analogous Ge1-x-ySixSny alloys.

The fundamental direct and indirect band gaps of Ge1-ySny materials are measured by room temperature photoluminescence in samples containing 0 ≤ y ≤ 0.11 and a transition to direct gap materials is found to occur at yc = 0.087. This result is enabled by the development of sample growth and processing protocols that produce high-quality materials epitaxially on Ge-buffered Si(100) substrates. Strategies to optimize the optical performance are explored by varying the film thickness, thermal and surface treatments, and n-type doping. The electrical and optical properties of diodes based on these materials are characterized by current-voltage, optical responsivity, and electroluminescence measurements. These show improved optical performance near yc with tunable emission out to 2500 nm. Measuring the carrier lifetimes in devices with strain relaxed and fully strained interfaces show significantly longer lifetimes in the fully strained case.

The direct and indirect band gaps of Sn-rich (y > x) Ge1-x-ySixSny materials are measured by room temperature photoluminescence on optimized samples. These data confirm a transition to direct gap materials occurs for the ternary alloy as well. Devices based on compositions 0.02 ≤ x ≤ 0.10 and 0.03 ≤ y ≤ 0.11 are characterized by current-voltage, optical responsivity, and electroluminescence measurements and show competitive performance with analogous devices based on Ge1-ySny materials. A detailed study of the direct gap in Ge1-xSix alloys gives parameters crucial en route to a global description of the Ge1-x-ySixSny fundamental band gaps.

Archetypal laser device designs on Si are explored by fabricating degenerate pn junction diodes and highly doped waveguide devices based on high-quality Ge1-ySny materials. The diodes showed tunnel-like current-voltage characteristics and tailored electroluminescence based on the doping profile. The waveguides demonstrate emission under optical stimulation.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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Modeling, growth and characterization of III-V and dilute nitride antimonide materials and solar cells

Description

III-V multijunction solar cells have demonstrated record efficiencies with the best device currently at 46 % under concentration. Dilute nitride materials such as GaInNAsSb have been identified as a prime

III-V multijunction solar cells have demonstrated record efficiencies with the best device currently at 46 % under concentration. Dilute nitride materials such as GaInNAsSb have been identified as a prime choice for the development of high efficiency, monolithic and lattice-matched multijunction solar cells as they can be lattice-matched to both GaAs and Ge substrates. These types of cells have demonstrated efficiencies of 44% for terrestrial concentrators, and with their upright configuration, they are a direct drop-in product for today’s space and concentrator solar panels. The work presented in this dissertation has focused on the development of relatively novel dilute nitride antimonide (GaNAsSb) materials and solar cells using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy, along with the modeling and characterization of single- and multijunction solar cells.

Nitrogen-free ternary compounds such as GaInAs and GaAsSb were investigated first in order to understand their structural and optical properties prior to introducing nitrogen. The formation of extended defects and the resulting strain relaxation in these lattice-mismatched materials is investigated through extensive structural characterization. Temperature- and power-dependent photoluminescence revealed an inhomogeneous distribution of Sb in GaAsSb films, leading to carrier localization effects at low temperatures. Tuning of the growth parameters was shown to suppress these Sb-induced localized states.

The introduction of nitrogen was then considered and the growth process was optimized to obtain high quality GaNAsSb films lattice-matched to GaAs. Near 1-eV single-junction GaNAsSb solar cells were produced. The best devices used a p-n heterojunction configuration and demonstrated a current density of 20.8 mA/cm2, a fill factor of 64 % and an open-circuit voltage of 0.39 V, corresponding to a bandgap-voltage offset of 0.57 V, comparable with the state-of-the-art for this type of solar cells. Post-growth annealing was found to be essential to improve Voc but was also found to degrade the material quality of the top layers. Alternatives are discussed to improve this process. Unintentional high background doping was identified as the main factor limiting the device performance. The use of Bi-surfactant mediated growth is proposed for the first time for this material system to reduce this background doping and preliminary results are presented.

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  • 2017

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Determining carrier mobilities in GaAs and natural pyrite using geometrical magnetoresistance measurement

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Measurements of the geometrical magnetoresistance of a conventional semiconductor, gallium arsenide (GaAs), and a more recently developed semiconductor, iron pyrite (FeS2) were measured in the Corbino disc geometry as a

Measurements of the geometrical magnetoresistance of a conventional semiconductor, gallium arsenide (GaAs), and a more recently developed semiconductor, iron pyrite (FeS2) were measured in the Corbino disc geometry as a function of magnetic field to determine the carrier mobility (μm). These results were compared with measurements of the Hall mobility (μH) made in the Van der Pauw configuration. The scattering coefficient (ξ), defined as the ratio between magnetoresistance and Hall mobility (μm/μH), was determined experimentally for GaAs and natural pyrite from 300 K to 4.2 K. The effect of contact resistance and heating on the measurement accuracy is discussed.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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Structural characterization and optical properties of Group IV semiconductor alloys

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ABSTRACT This thesis focuses on structural characterizations and optical properties of Si, Ge based semiconductor alloys. Two material systems are characterized: Si-based III-V/IV alloys, which represent a possible pathway to

ABSTRACT This thesis focuses on structural characterizations and optical properties of Si, Ge based semiconductor alloys. Two material systems are characterized: Si-based III-V/IV alloys, which represent a possible pathway to augment the optical performance of elemental silicon as a solar cell absorber layer, and Ge-based Ge1-ySny and Ge1-x-ySixSny systems which are applicable to long wavelength optoelectronics. Electron microscopy is the primary tool used to study structural properties. Electron Energy Loss spectroscopy (EELS), Ellipsometry, Photoluminescence and Raman Spectroscopy are combined to investigate electronic band structures and bonding properties. The experiments are closely coupled with structural and property modeling and theory. A series of III-V-IV alloys have been synthesized by the reaction of M(SiH3)3 (M = P, As) with Al atoms from a Knudsen cell. In the AlPSi3 system, bonding configurations and elemental distributions are characterized by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM)/EELS and correlated with bulk optical behavior. The incorporation of N was achieved by addition of N(SiH3)3 into the reaction mixture yielding [Al(As1-xNx)]ySi5-2yalloys. A critical point analysis of spectroscopic ellipsometry data reveals the existence of direct optical transitions at energies as low as 2.5 eV, well below the lowest direct absorption edge of Si at 3.3 eV. The compositional dependence of the lowest direct gap and indirect gap in Ge1-ySny alloys extracted from room temperature photoluminescence indicates a crossover concentration of yc =0.073, much lower than virtual crystal approximation but agrees well with large atomic supercells predictions. A series of Ge-rich Ge1-x-ySixSny samples with a fixed 3-4% Si content and progressively increasing Sn content in the 4-10% range are grown and characterized by electron microscopy and photoluminescence. The ternary represents an attractive alternative to Ge1-ySny for applications in IR optoelectronic technologies.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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Interface electronic state characterization of plasma enhanced atomic layer deposited dielectrics on GaN

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In this dissertation, the interface chemistry and electronic structure of plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposited (PEALD) dielectrics on GaN are investigated with x-ray and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (XPS and UPS). Three

In this dissertation, the interface chemistry and electronic structure of plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposited (PEALD) dielectrics on GaN are investigated with x-ray and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (XPS and UPS). Three interrelated issues are discussed in this study: (1) PEALD dielectric growth process optimization, (2) interface electronic structure of comparative PEALD dielectrics on GaN, and (3) interface electronic structure of PEALD dielectrics on Ga- and N-face GaN. The first study involved an in-depth case study of PEALD Al2O3 growth using dimethylaluminum isopropoxide, with a special focus on oxygen plasma effects. Saturated and self-limiting growth of Al2O3 films were obtained with an enhanced growth rate within the PEALD temperature window (25-220 ºC). The properties of Al2O3 deposited at various temperatures were characterized to better understand the relation between the growth parameters and film properties. In the second study, the interface electronic structures of PEALD dielectrics on Ga-face GaN films were measured. Five promising dielectrics (Al2O3, HfO2, SiO2, La2O3, and ZnO) with a range of band gap energies were chosen. Prior to dielectric growth, a combined wet chemical and in-situ H2/N2 plasma clean process was employed to remove the carbon contamination and prepare the surface for dielectric deposition. The surface band bending and band offsets were measured by XPS and UPS for dielectrics on GaN. The trends of the experimental band offsets on GaN were related to the dielectric band gap energies. In addition, the experimental band offsets were near the calculated values based on the charge neutrality level model. The third study focused on the effect of the polarization bound charge of the Ga- and N-face GaN on interface electronic structures. A surface pretreatment process consisting of a NH4OH wet chemical and an in-situ NH3 plasma treatment was applied to remove carbon contamination, retain monolayer oxygen coverage, and potentially passivate N-vacancy related defects. The surface band bending and polarization charge compensation of Ga- and N-face GaN were investigated. The surface band bending and band offsets were determined for Al2O3, HfO2, and SiO2 on Ga- and N-face GaN. Different dielectric thicknesses and post deposition processing were investigated to understand process related defect formation and/or reduction.

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Date Created
  • 2014