Matching Items (3)

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Compiler and runtime for memory management on software managed manycore processors

Description

We are expecting hundreds of cores per chip in the near future. However, scaling the memory architecture in manycore architectures becomes a major challenge. Cache coherence provides a single image of memory at any time in execution to all the

We are expecting hundreds of cores per chip in the near future. However, scaling the memory architecture in manycore architectures becomes a major challenge. Cache coherence provides a single image of memory at any time in execution to all the cores, yet coherent cache architectures are believed will not scale to hundreds and thousands of cores. In addition, caches and coherence logic already take 20-50% of the total power consumption of the processor and 30-60% of die area. Therefore, a more scalable architecture is needed for manycore architectures. Software Managed Manycore (SMM) architectures emerge as a solution. They have scalable memory design in which each core has direct access to only its local scratchpad memory, and any data transfers to/from other memories must be done explicitly in the application using Direct Memory Access (DMA) commands. Lack of automatic memory management in the hardware makes such architectures extremely power-efficient, but they also become difficult to program. If the code/data of the task mapped onto a core cannot fit in the local scratchpad memory, then DMA calls must be added to bring in the code/data before it is required, and it may need to be evicted after its use. However, doing this adds a lot of complexity to the programmer's job. Now programmers must worry about data management, on top of worrying about the functional correctness of the program - which is already quite complex. This dissertation presents a comprehensive compiler and runtime integration to automatically manage the code and data of each task in the limited local memory of the core. We firstly developed a Complete Circular Stack Management. It manages stack frames between the local memory and the main memory, and addresses the stack pointer problem as well. Though it works, we found we could further optimize the management for most cases. Thus a Smart Stack Data Management (SSDM) is provided. In this work, we formulate the stack data management problem and propose a greedy algorithm for the same. Later on, we propose a general cost estimation algorithm, based on which CMSM heuristic for code mapping problem is developed. Finally, heap data is dynamic in nature and therefore it is hard to manage it. We provide two schemes to manage unlimited amount of heap data in constant sized region in the local memory. In addition to those separate schemes for different kinds of data, we also provide a memory partition methodology.

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Date Created
2014

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WCET-aware scratchpad memory management for hard real-time systems

Description

Cyber-physical systems and hard real-time systems have strict timing constraints that specify deadlines until which tasks must finish their execution. Missing a deadline can cause unexpected outcome or endanger human lives in safety-critical applications, such as automotive or aeronautical systems.

Cyber-physical systems and hard real-time systems have strict timing constraints that specify deadlines until which tasks must finish their execution. Missing a deadline can cause unexpected outcome or endanger human lives in safety-critical applications, such as automotive or aeronautical systems. It is, therefore, of utmost importance to obtain and optimize a safe upper bound of each task’s execution time or the worst-case execution time (WCET), to guarantee the absence of any missed deadline. Unfortunately, conventional microarchitectural components, such as caches and branch predictors, are only optimized for average-case performance and often make WCET analysis complicated and pessimistic. Caches especially have a large impact on the worst-case performance due to expensive off- chip memory accesses involved in cache miss handling. In this regard, software-controlled scratchpad memories (SPMs) have become a promising alternative to caches. An SPM is a raw SRAM, controlled only by executing data movement instructions explicitly at runtime, and such explicit control facilitates static analyses to obtain safe and tight upper bounds of WCETs. SPM management techniques, used in compilers targeting an SPM-based processor, determine how to use a given SPM space by deciding where to insert data movement instructions and what operations to perform at those program locations. This dissertation presents several management techniques for program code and stack data, which aim to optimize the WCETs of a given program. The proposed code management techniques include optimal allocation algorithms and a polynomial-time heuristic for allocating functions to the SPM space, with or without the use of abstraction of SPM regions, and a heuristic for splitting functions into smaller partitions. The proposed stack data management technique, on the other hand, finds an optimal set of program locations to evict and restore stack frames to avoid stack overflows, when the call stack resides in a size-limited SPM. In the evaluation, the WCETs of various benchmarks including real-world automotive applications are statically calculated for SPMs and caches in several different memory configurations.

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Date Created
2017

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Scratchpad Management in Software Managed Manycore Architectures

Description

Caches have long been used to reduce memory access latency. However, the increased complexity of cache coherence brings significant challenges in processor design as the number of cores increases. While making caches scalable is still an important research problem, some

Caches have long been used to reduce memory access latency. However, the increased complexity of cache coherence brings significant challenges in processor design as the number of cores increases. While making caches scalable is still an important research problem, some researchers are exploring the possibility of a more power-efficient SRAM called scratchpad memories or SPMs. SPMs consume significantly less area, and are more energy-efficient per access than caches, and therefore make the design of on-chip memories much simpler. Unlike caches, which fetch data from memories automatically, an SPM requires explicit instructions for data transfers. SPM-only architectures are thus named as software managed manycore (SMM), since the data movements of such architectures rely on software. SMM processors have been widely used in different areas, such as embedded computing, network processing, or even high performance computing. While SMM processors provide a low-power platform, the hardware alone does not guarantee power efficiency, if applications on such processors deliver low performance. Efficient software techniques are therefore required. A big body of management techniques for SMM architectures are compiler-directed, as inserting data movement operations by hand forces programmers to trace flow of data, which can be error-prone and sometimes difficult if not impossible. This thesis develops compiler-directed techniques to manage data transfers for embedded applications on SMMs efficiently. The techniques analyze and find out the proper program points and insert data movement instructions accordingly. The techniques manage code, stack and heap data of applications, and reduce execution time by 14%, 52% and 80% respectively compared to their predecessors on typical embedded applications. On top of managing local data, a technique is also developed for shared data in SMM architectures. Experimental results show it achieves more than 2X speedup than the previous technique on average.

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Date Created
2017