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Bleomycin, from start to finish: total synthesis of novel analogues to in vitro fluorescence microscopy imaging

Description

The bleomycins are a family of glycopeptide-derived antibiotics isolated from various Streptomyces species and have been the subject of much attention from the scientific community as a consequence of their antitumor activity. Bleomycin clinically and is an integral part of

The bleomycins are a family of glycopeptide-derived antibiotics isolated from various Streptomyces species and have been the subject of much attention from the scientific community as a consequence of their antitumor activity. Bleomycin clinically and is an integral part of a number of combination chemotherapy regimens. It has previously been shown that bleomycin has the ability to selectively target tumor cells over their non-malignant counterparts. Pyrimidoblamic acid, the N-terminal metal ion binding domain of bleomycin is known to be the moiety that is responsible for O2 activation and the subsequent chemistry leading to DNA strand scission and overall antitumor activity. Chapter 1 describes bleomycin and related DNA targeting antitumor agents as well as the specific structural domains of bleomycin. Various structural analogues of pyrimidoblamic acid were synthesized and subsequently incorporated into their corresponding full deglycoBLM A6 derivatives by utilizing a solid support. Their activity was measured using a pSP64 DNA plasmid relaxation assay and is summarized in Chapter 2. The specifics of bleomycin—DNA interaction and kinetics were studied via surface plasmon resonance and are presented in Chapter 3. By utilizing carefully selected 64-nucleotide DNA hairpins with variable 16-mer regions whose sequences showed strong binding in past selection studies, a kinetic profile was obtained for several BLMs for the first time since bleomycin was discovered in 1966. The disaccharide moiety of bleomycin has been previously shown to be a specific tumor cell targeting element comprised of L-gulose-D-mannose, especially between MCF-7 (breast cancer cells) and MCF-10A ("normal" breast cells). This phenomenon was further investigated via fluorescence microscopy using multiple cancerous cell lines with matched "normal" counterparts and is fully described in Chapter 4.

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Agent

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Date Created
2013

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Granule Formation, Structure and Content Uniformity from Single Drop Impact on Heterogeneous Powder Beds

Description

Single drop impact of liquid on a static powder bed was studied to investigate the granule formation mechanism, droplet penetration time, the characterization of granules (morphology, surface structure and internal structure), as well as the formation regime map. Water was

Single drop impact of liquid on a static powder bed was studied to investigate the granule formation mechanism, droplet penetration time, the characterization of granules (morphology, surface structure and internal structure), as well as the formation regime map. Water was used as the liquid and two pharmaceutical powders, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and acetaminophen (APAP), were mixed to make heterogeneous powder beds. The complete drop impact and penetration was recorded by a high-speed camera. Two granule formation mechanisms identified previously occurred: Spreading and Tunneling. Spreading occurred for mixtures of large particle sizes, while Tunneling started to occur when the particle sizes of the mixtures decreased. With an increase of APAP concentration, the overall drop penetration time increased, which was in good agreement with previous literature. The granule morphology, surface structure, and internal structure were characterized by a prism method with image analysis, scanning electron microscope, and X-ray microtomography, respectively. The Spreading mechanism produced flat disks with porous internal structures, while the Tunneling mechanism produced round granules with dense internal structures. Granules that were formed via a hybrid of the mechanisms, Spreading/Tunneling, were hybrid granules, with some dense areas and some porous areas. The results of the granule content uniformity from UV-vis spectrometry revealed that with the increase of APAP proportion, the overall uniformity was compromised for mixtures with fine ingredients, while the content was much more uniform for coarse mixtures. It is believed that the mean particle size of the powder bed is the predominant factor in influencing the formation mechanism, drop penetration time, and granule properties, while the content uniformity is affected by both the particle sizes and the mixture hydrophobicity.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2020