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Vertebrate genomes demonstrate a remarkable range of sizes from 0.3 to 133 gigabase pairs. The proliferation of repeat elements are a major genomic expansion. In particular, long interspersed nuclear elements (LINES) are autonomous retrotransposons that have the ability to "cut and paste" themselves into a host genome through a mechanism called target-primed reverse transcription. LINES have been called "junk DNA," "viral DNA," and "selfish" DNA, and were once thought to be parasitic elements. However, LINES, which diversified before the emergence of many early vertebrates, has strongly shaped the evolution of eukaryotic genomes. This thesis will evaluate LINE abundance, diversity and activity in four anole lizards. An intrageneric analysis will be conducted using comparative phylogenetics and bioinformatics. Comparisons within the Anolis genus, which derives from a single lineage of an adaptive radiation, will be conducted to explore the relationship between LINE retrotransposon activity and causal changes in genomic size and composition.