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Analysis and implementation of polyphase alternating current bi-ionic propulsion system for desalination of water

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Scarcity of potable water is one of the major problems faced in the world today. Majority of this problem can be solved if technology is developed to obtain potable water

Scarcity of potable water is one of the major problems faced in the world today. Majority of this problem can be solved if technology is developed to obtain potable water from brackish or saline water. The present desalination methods face challenges such as high costs in terms of energy consumption and infrastructure, physical size of the system, requirement of membrane and high pressure systems and hence have been facing various issues in implementation of the same.

This research provides a new low pressure, low energy, portable method to desalinate water without the need for separation membranes, heat or chemical reactions. This method is energy efficient, cost effective, compact, environment friendly and suitable for portable desalination units. This technology, named as Polyphase Alternating current Bi-Ionic Propulsion System (PACBIPS) makes use of polyphase alternating current source to create a gradient in salt concentration. The gradient in salt concentration is achieved due to the creation of a traveling wave which attracts anions on its positive peak (crests) and cations on its negative peak (troughs) and travels along a central pipe thereby flushing the ions down.

Another method of PACBIPS is based on Helmholtz capacitor which involves the formation of an electric double layer between the electrode and electrolyte consisting of equal and opposite ions which can be approximated as a capacitor. Charging and discharging this capacitor helps adsorb the ions onto a carbon electrode which has high surface area and electrical conductivity. This desalinates seawater and provides pure water. Mathematical modeling, analysis and implementation of the two methods have

been presented in this work. The effects of zeta potential, electric field screening, electric mobility on desalination have been discussed.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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Spatial spread of rabies in wildlife

Description

Rabies disease remains enzootic among raccoons, skunks, foxes and bats in the United States. It is of primary concern for public-health agencies to control spatial spread of rabies in wildlife

Rabies disease remains enzootic among raccoons, skunks, foxes and bats in the United States. It is of primary concern for public-health agencies to control spatial spread of rabies in wildlife and its potential spillover infection of domestic animals and humans. Rabies is invariably fatal in wildlife if untreated, with a non-negligible incubation period. Understanding how this latency affects spatial spread of rabies in wildlife is the concern of chapter 2 and 3. Chapter 1 deals with the background of mathematical models for rabies and lists main objectives. In chapter 2, a reaction-diffusion susceptible-exposed-infected (SEI) model and a delayed diffusive susceptible-infected (SI) model are constructed to describe the same epidemic process -- rabies spread in foxes. For the delayed diffusive model a non-local infection term with delay is resulted from modeling the dispersal during incubation stage. Comparison is made regarding minimum traveling wave speeds of the two models, which are verified using numerical experiments. In chapter 3, starting with two Kermack and McKendrick's models where infectivity, death rate and diffusion rate of infected individuals can depend on the age of infection, the asymptotic speed of spread $c^\ast$ for the cumulated force of infection can be analyzed. For the special case of fixed incubation period, the asymptotic speed of spread is governed by the same integral equation for both models. Although explicit solutions for $c^\ast$ are difficult to obtain, assuming that diffusion coefficient of incubating animals is small, $c^\ast$ can be estimated in terms of model parameter values. Chapter 4 considers the implementation of realistic landscape in simulation of rabies spread in skunks and bats in northeast Texas. The Finite Element Method (FEM) is adopted because the irregular shapes of realistic landscape naturally lead to unstructured grids in the spatial domain. This implementation leads to a more accurate description of skunk rabies cases distributions.

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Date Created
  • 2013