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Optimal substation ground grid design based on genetic algorithm and pattern research

Description

Substation ground system insures safety of personnel, which deserves considerable attentions. Basic substation safety requirement quantities include ground grid resistance, mesh touch potential and step potential, moreover, optimal design of

Substation ground system insures safety of personnel, which deserves considerable attentions. Basic substation safety requirement quantities include ground grid resistance, mesh touch potential and step potential, moreover, optimal design of a substation ground system should include both safety concerns and ground grid construction cost. In the purpose of optimal designing the ground grid in the accurate and efficient way, an application package coded in MATLAB is developed and its core algorithm and main features are introduced in this work.

To ensure accuracy and personnel safety, a two-layer soil model is applied instead of the uniform soil model in this research. Some soil model parameters are needed for the two-layer soil model, namely upper-layer resistivity, lower-layer resistivity and upper-layer thickness. Since the ground grid safety requirement is considered under the earth fault, the value of fault current and fault duration time are also needed.

After all these parameters are obtained, a Resistance Matrix method is applied to calculate the mutual and self resistance between conductor segments on both the horizontal and vertical direction. By using a matrix equation of the relationship of mutual and self resistance and unit current of the conductor segments, the ground grid rise can be calculated. Green's functions are applied to calculate the earth potential at a certain point produced by horizontal or vertical line of current. Furthermore, the three basic ground grid safety requirement quantities: the mesh touch potential in the worst case point can be obtained from the earth potential and ground grid rise; the step potential can be obtained from two points' earth potential difference; the grid resistance can be obtained from ground grid rise and fault current.

Finally, in order to achieve ground grid optimization problem more accurate and efficient, which includes the number of meshes in the horizontal grid and the number of vertical rods, a novel two-step hybrid genetic algorithm-pattern search (GA-PS) optimization method is developed. The Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used first to search for an approximate starting point, which is used by the Pattern Search (PS) algorithm to find the final optimal result. This developed application provides an optimal grid design meeting all safety constraints. In the cause of the accuracy of the application, the touch potential, step potential, ground potential rise and grid resistance are compared with these produced by the industry standard application WinIGS and some theoretical ground grid model.

In summary, the developed application can solve the ground grid optimization problem with the accurate ground grid modeling method and a hybrid two-step optimization method.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Grounding systems analysis and optimization

Description

Today, more and more substations are created and reconstructed to satisfy the growing electricity demands for both industry and residence. It is always a big concern that the designed substation

Today, more and more substations are created and reconstructed to satisfy the growing electricity demands for both industry and residence. It is always a big concern that the designed substation must guarantee the safety of persons who are in the area of the substation. As a result, the safety metrics (touch voltage, step voltage and grounding resistance), which should be considered at worst case, are supposed to be under the allowable values. To improve the accuracy of calculating safety metrics, at first, it is necessary to have a relatively accurate soil model instead of uniform soil model. Hence, the two-layer soil model is employed in this thesis. The new approximate finite equations with soil parameters (upper-layer resistivity, lower-layer resistivity and upper-layer thickness) are used, which are developed based on traditional infinite expression. The weighted- least-squares regression with new bad data detection method (adaptive weighted function) is applied to fit the measurement data from the Wenner-method. At the end, a developed error analysis method is used to obtain the error (variance) of each parameter. Once the soil parameters are obtained, it is possible to use a developed complex images method to calculate the mutual (self) resistance, which is the induced voltage of a conductor/rod by unit current form another conductor/rod. The basis of the calculation is Green's function between two point current sources, thus, it can be expanded to either the functions between point and line current sources, or the functions between line and line current sources. Finally, the grounding system optimization is implemented with developed three-step optimization strategy using MATLAB solvers. The first step is using "fmincon" solver to optimize the cost function with differentiable constraint equations from IEEE standard. The result of the first step is set as the initial values to the second step, which is using "patternsearch" solver, thus, the non-differentiable and more accurate constraint calculation can be employed. The final step is a backup step using "ga" solver, which is more robust but lager time cost.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013