Matching Items (7)

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Design of a digitally controlled pulse width modulator for DC-DC converter applications

Description

Synchronous buck converters have become the obvious choice of design for high efficiency voltage down-conversion applications and find wide scale usage in today's IC industry. The use of digital control

Synchronous buck converters have become the obvious choice of design for high efficiency voltage down-conversion applications and find wide scale usage in today's IC industry. The use of digital control in synchronous buck converters is becoming increasingly popular because of its associated advantages over traditional analog counterparts in terms of design flexibility, reduced use of off-chip components, and better programmability to enable advanced controls. They also demonstrate better immunity to noise, enhances tolerance to the process, voltage and temperature (PVT) variations, low chip area and as a result low cost. It enables processing in digital domain requiring a need of analog-digital interfacing circuit viz. Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) and Digital to Analog Converter (DAC). A Digital to Pulse Width Modulator (DPWM) acts as time domain DAC required in the control loop to modulate the ON time of the Power-MOSFETs. The accuracy and efficiency of the DPWM creates the upper limit to the steady state voltage ripple of the DC - DC converter and efficiency in low load conditions. This thesis discusses the prevalent architectures for DPWM in switched mode DC - DC converters. The design of a Hybrid DPWM is presented. The DPWM is 9-bit accurate and is targeted for a Synchronous Buck Converter with a switching frequency of 1.0 MHz. The design supports low power mode(s) for the buck converter in the Pulse Frequency Modulation (PFM) mode as well as other fail-safe features. The design implementation is digital centric making it robust across PVT variations and portable to lower technology nodes. Key target of the design is to reduce design time. The design is tested across large Process (+/- 3σ), Voltage (1.8V +/- 10%) and Temperature (-55.0 °C to 125 °C) and is in the process of tape-out.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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A fast settling oversampled digital sliding-mode controller for DC-DC buck converters

Description

Sliding-Mode Control (SMC) has several benefits over traditional Proportional-Integral-Differential (PID) control in terms of fast transient response, robustness to parameter and component variations, and low sensitivity to loop disturbances. An

Sliding-Mode Control (SMC) has several benefits over traditional Proportional-Integral-Differential (PID) control in terms of fast transient response, robustness to parameter and component variations, and low sensitivity to loop disturbances. An All-Digital Sliding-Mode (ADSM) controlled DC-DC converter, utilizing single-bit oversampled frequency domain digitizers is proposed. In the proposed approach, feedback and reference digitizing Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADC) are based on a single-bit, first order Sigma-Delta frequency to digital converter, running at 32MHz over-sampling rate. The ADSM regulator achieves 1% settling time in less than 5uSec for a load variation of 600mA. The sliding-mode controller utilizes a high-bandwidth hysteretic differentiator and an integrator to perform the sliding control law in digital domain. The proposed approach overcomes the steady state error (or DC offset), and limits the switching frequency range, which are the two common problems associated with sliding-mode controllers. The IC is designed and fabricated on a 0.35um CMOS process occupying an active area of 2.72mm-squared. Measured peak efficiency is 83%.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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Analytical Modeling and Development of GaN-Based Point of Load Buck Converter with Optimized Reverse Conduction Loss

Description

This work analyzes and develops a point-of-load (PoL) synchronous buck converter using enhancement-mode Gallium Nitride (e-GaN), with emphasis on optimizing reverse conduction loss by using a well-known technique of placing

This work analyzes and develops a point-of-load (PoL) synchronous buck converter using enhancement-mode Gallium Nitride (e-GaN), with emphasis on optimizing reverse conduction loss by using a well-known technique of placing an anti-parallel Schottky diode across the synchronous power device. This work develops an improved analytical switching model for the GaN-based converter with the Schottky diode using piecewise linear approximations.

To avoid a shoot-through between the power switches of the buck converter, a small dead-time is inserted between gate drive switching transitions. Despite optimum dead-time management for a power converter, optimum dead-times vary for different load conditions. These variations become considerably large for PoL applications, which demand high output current with low output voltages. At high switching frequencies, these variations translate into losses that contribute significantly to the total loss of the converter. To understand and quantify power loss in a hard-switching buck converter that uses a GaN power device in parallel with a Schottky diode, piecewise transitions are used to develop an analytical switching model that quantifies the contribution of reverse conduction loss of GaN during dead-time.

The effects of parasitic elements on the dynamics of the switching converter are investigated during one switching cycle of the converter. A designed prototype of a buck converter is correlated to the predicted model to determine the accuracy of the model. This comparison is presented using simulations and measurements at 400 kHz and 2 MHz converter switching speeds for load (1A) condition and fixed dead-time values. Furthermore, performance of the buck converter with and without the Schottky diode is also measured and compared to demonstrate and quantify the enhanced performance when using an anti-parallel diode. The developed power converter achieves peak efficiencies of 91.7% and 93.86% for 2 MHz and 400 KHz switching frequencies, respectively, and drives load currents up to 6A for a voltage conversion from 12V input to 3.3V output.

In addition, various industry Schottky diodes have been categorized based on their packaging and electrical characteristics and the developed analytical model provides analytical expressions relating the diode characteristics to power stage performance parameters. The performance of these diodes has been characterized for different buck converter voltage step-down ratios that are typically used in industry applications and different switching frequencies ranging from 400 KHz to 2 MHz.

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Date Created
  • 2020

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Improved Accuracy Area Efficient Hybrid CMOS/GaN DC-DC Buck Converterfor High Step-Down Ratio Applications

Description

Point of Load (POL) DC-DC converters are increasingly used in space applications, data centres, electric vehicles, portable computers and devices and medical electronics. Heavy computing and processing capabilities of the

Point of Load (POL) DC-DC converters are increasingly used in space applications, data centres, electric vehicles, portable computers and devices and medical electronics. Heavy computing and processing capabilities of the modern devices have ushered the use of higher battery supply voltage to increase power storage. The need to address this consumer experience driven requirement has propelled the evolution of the next generation of small form-factor power converters which can operate with higher step down ratios while supplying heavy continuous load currents without sacrificing efficiency. Constant On-Time (COT) converter topology is capable of achieving stable operation at high conversion ratio with minimum off-chip components and small silicon area. This work proposes a Constant On-Time buck dc-dc converter for a wide dynamic input range and load currents from 100mA to 10A. Accuracy of this ripple based converter is improved by a unique voltage positioning technique which modulates the reference voltage to lower the average ripple profile close to the nominal output. Adaptive On-time block features a transient enhancement scheme to assist in faster voltage droop recovery when the output voltage dips below a defined threshold. UtilizingGallium Nitride (GaN) power switches enable the proposed converter to achieve very high efficiency while using smaller size inductor-capacitor (LC) power-stage. Use of novel Superjunction devices with higher drain-source blocking voltage simplifies the complex driver design and enables faster frequency of operation. It allows 1.8VComplementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) devices to effectively drive GaNpower FETs which require 5V gate signal swing. The presented controller circuit uses internal ripple generation which reduces reliance on output cap equivalent series resistance (ESR) for loop stability and facilitates ripples reduction at the output. The ripple generation network is designed to provide ai

optimally stable performance while maintaining load regulation and line regulation accuracy withing specified margin. The chip with ts external Power FET package is proposed to be integrated on a printed circuit board for testing. The designed power converter is expected to operate under 200 MRad of a total ionising dose of radiation enabling it to function within large hadron collider at CERN and space satellite and probe missions.

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Date Created
  • 2019

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Time-Domain/Digital Frequency Synchronized Hysteresis Based Fully Integrated Voltage Regulator

Description

Power management integrated circuit (PMIC) design is a key module in almost all electronics around us such as Phones, Tablets, Computers, Laptop, Electric vehicles, etc. The on-chip loads such as

Power management integrated circuit (PMIC) design is a key module in almost all electronics around us such as Phones, Tablets, Computers, Laptop, Electric vehicles, etc. The on-chip loads such as microprocessors cores, memories, Analog/RF, etc. requires multiple supply voltage domains. Providing these supply voltages from off-chip voltage regulators will increase the overall system cost and limits the performance due to the board and package parasitics. Therefore, an on-chip fully integrated voltage regulator (FIVR) is required.

The dissertation presents a topology for a fully integrated power stage in a DC-DC buck converter achieving a high-power density and a time-domain hysteresis based highly integrated buck converter. A multi-phase time-domain comparator is proposed in this work for implementing the hysteresis control, thereby achieving a process scaling friendly highly digital design. A higher-order LC notch filter along with a flying capacitor which couples the input and output voltage ripple is implemented. The power stage operates at 500 MHz and can deliver a maximum power of 1.0 W and load current of 1.67 A, while occupying 1.21 mm2 active die area. Thus achieving a power density of 0.867 W/mm2 and current density of 1.377 A/mm2. The peak efficiency obtained is 71% at 780 mA of load current. The power stage with the additional off-chip LC is utilized to design a highly integrated current mode hysteretic buck converter operating at 180 MHz. It achieves 20 ns of settling and 2-5 ns of rise/fall time for reference tracking.

The second part of the dissertation discusses an integrated low voltage switched-capacitor based power sensor, to measure the output power of a DC-DC boost converter. This approach results in a lower complexity, area, power consumption, and a lower component count for the overall PV MPPT system. Designed in a 180 nm CMOS process, the circuit can operate with a supply voltage of 1.8 V. It achieves a power sense accuracy of 7.6%, occupies a die area of 0.0519 mm2, and consumes 0.748 mW of power.

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Date Created
  • 2019

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Extending efficiency in a DC/DC converter with automatic mode switching from PFM to PWM

Description

Switch mode DC/DC converters are suited for battery powered applications, due to their high efficiency, which help in conserving the battery lifetime. Fixed Frequency PWM based converters, which are generally

Switch mode DC/DC converters are suited for battery powered applications, due to their high efficiency, which help in conserving the battery lifetime. Fixed Frequency PWM based converters, which are generally used for these applications offer good voltage regulation, low ripple and excellent efficiency at high load currents. However at light load currents, fixed frequency PWM converters suffer from poor efficiencies The PFM control offers higher efficiency at light loads at the cost of a higher ripple. The PWM has a poor efficiency at light loads but good voltage ripple characteristics, due to a high switching frequency. To get the best of both control modes, both loops are used together with the control switched from one loop to another based on the load current. Such architectures are referred to as hybrid converters. While transition from PFM to PWM loop can be made by estimating the average load current, transition from PFM to PWM requires voltage or peak current sensing. This theses implements a hysteretic PFM solution for a synchronous buck converter with external MOSFET's, to achieve efficiencies of about 80% at light loads. As the PFM loop operates independently of the PWM loop, a transition circuit for automatically transitioning from PFM to PWM is implemented. The transition circuit is implemented digitally without needing any external voltage or current sensing circuit.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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PID controller tuning and adaptation of a buck converter

Description

Buck converters are electronic devices that changes a voltage from one level to a lower one and are present in many everyday applications. However, due to factors like aging, degradation

Buck converters are electronic devices that changes a voltage from one level to a lower one and are present in many everyday applications. However, due to factors like aging, degradation or failures, these devices require a system identification process to track and diagnose their parameters. The system identification process should be performed on-line to not affect the normal operation of the device. Identifying the parameters of the system is essential to design and tune an adaptive proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller.

Three techniques were used to design the PID controller. Phase and gain margin still prevails as one of the easiest methods to design controllers. Pole-zero cancellation is another technique which is based on pole-placement. However, although these controllers can be easily designed, they did not provide the best response compared to the Frequency Loop Shaping (FLS) technique. Therefore, since FLS showed to have a better frequency and time responses compared to the other two controllers, it was selected to perform the adaptation of the system.

An on-line system identification process was performed for the buck converter using indirect adaptation and the least square algorithm. The estimation error and the parameter error were computed to determine the rate of convergence of the system. The indirect adaptation required about 2000 points to converge to the true parameters prior designing the controller. These results were compared to the adaptation executed using robust stability condition (RSC) and a switching controller. Two different scenarios were studied consisting of five plants that defined the percentage of deterioration of the capacitor and inductor within the buck converter. The switching logic did not always select the optimal controller for the first scenario because the frequency response of the different plants was not significantly different. However, the second scenario consisted of plants with more noticeable different frequency responses and the switching logic selected the optimal controller all the time in about 500 points. Additionally, a disturbance was introduced at the plant input to observe its effect in the switching controller. However, for reasonable low disturbances no change was detected in the proper selection of controllers.

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Date Created
  • 2016