Matching Items (7)

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Control and Estimation Theory in Ranging Applications

Description

For the last 50 years, oscillator modeling in ranging systems has received considerable

attention. Many components in a navigation system, such as the master oscillator

driving the receiver system, as well the

For the last 50 years, oscillator modeling in ranging systems has received considerable

attention. Many components in a navigation system, such as the master oscillator

driving the receiver system, as well the master oscillator in the transmitting system

contribute significantly to timing errors. Algorithms in the navigation processor must

be able to predict and compensate such errors to achieve a specified accuracy. While

much work has been done on the fundamentals of these problems, the thinking on said

problems has not progressed. On the hardware end, the designers of local oscillators

focus on synthesized frequency and loop noise bandwidth. This does nothing to

mitigate, or reduce frequency stability degradation in band. Similarly, there are not

systematic methods to accommodate phase and frequency anomalies such as clock

jumps. Phase locked loops are fundamentally control systems, and while control

theory has had significant advancement over the last 30 years, the design of timekeeping

sources has not advanced beyond classical control. On the software end,

single or two state oscillator models are typically embedded in a Kalman Filter to

alleviate time errors between the transmitter and receiver clock. Such models are

appropriate for short term time accuracy, but insufficient for long term time accuracy.

Additionally, flicker frequency noise may be present in oscillators, and it presents

mathematical modeling complications. This work proposes novel H∞ control methods

to address the shortcomings in the standard design of time-keeping phase locked loops.

Such methods allow the designer to address frequency stability degradation as well

as high phase/frequency dynamics. Additionally, finite-dimensional approximants of

flicker frequency noise that are more representative of the truth system than the

tradition Gauss Markov approach are derived. Last, to maintain timing accuracy in

a wide variety of operating environments, novel Banks of Adaptive Extended Kalman

Filters are used to address both stochastic and dynamic uncertainty.

Contributors

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Consensus algorithms and distributed structure estimation in wireless sensor networks

Description

Distributed wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have attracted researchers recently due to their advantages such as low power consumption, scalability and robustness to link failures. In sensor networks with no fusion

Distributed wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have attracted researchers recently due to their advantages such as low power consumption, scalability and robustness to link failures. In sensor networks with no fusion center, consensus is a process where

all the sensors in the network achieve global agreement using only local transmissions. In this dissertation, several consensus and consensus-based algorithms in WSNs are studied.

Firstly, a distributed consensus algorithm for estimating the maximum and minimum value of the initial measurements in a sensor network in the presence of communication noise is proposed. In the proposed algorithm, a soft-max approximation together with a non-linear average consensus algorithm is used. A design parameter controls the trade-off between the soft-max error and convergence speed. An analysis of this trade-off gives guidelines towards how to choose the design parameter for the max estimate. It is also shown that if some prior knowledge of the initial measurements is available, the consensus process can be accelerated.

Secondly, a distributed system size estimation algorithm is proposed. The proposed algorithm is based on distributed average consensus and L2 norm estimation. Different sources of error are explicitly discussed, and the distribution of the final estimate is derived. The CRBs for system size estimator with average and max consensus strategies are also considered, and different consensus based system size estimation approaches are compared.

Then, a consensus-based network center and radius estimation algorithm is described. The center localization problem is formulated as a convex optimization problem with a summation form by using soft-max approximation with exponential functions. Distributed optimization methods such as stochastic gradient descent and diffusion adaptation are used to estimate the center. Then, max consensus is used to compute the radius of the network area.

Finally, two average consensus based distributed estimation algorithms are introduced: distributed degree distribution estimation algorithm and algorithm for tracking the dynamics of the desired parameter. Simulation results for all proposed algorithms are provided.

Contributors

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Target discrimination against clutter based on unsupervised clustering and sequential Monte Carlo tracking

Description

The radar performance of detecting a target and estimating its parameters can deteriorate rapidly in the presence of high clutter. This is because radar measurements due to clutter returns

The radar performance of detecting a target and estimating its parameters can deteriorate rapidly in the presence of high clutter. This is because radar measurements due to clutter returns can be falsely detected as if originating from the actual target. Various data association methods and multiple hypothesis filtering approaches have been considered to solve this problem. Such methods, however, can be computationally intensive for real time radar processing. This work proposes a new approach that is based on the unsupervised clustering of target and clutter detections before target tracking using particle filtering. In particular, Gaussian mixture modeling is first used to separate detections into two Gaussian distinct mixtures. Using eigenvector analysis, the eccentricity of the covariance matrices of the Gaussian mixtures are computed and compared to threshold values that are obtained a priori. The thresholding allows only target detections to be used for target tracking. Simulations demonstrate the performance of the new algorithm and compare it with using k-means for clustering instead of Gaussian mixture modeling.

Contributors

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Fundamental Limits on Performance for Cooperative Radar-Communications Coexistence

Description

Spectral congestion is quickly becoming a problem for the telecommunications sector. In order to alleviate spectral congestion and achieve electromagnetic radio frequency (RF) convergence, communications and radar systems are increasingly

Spectral congestion is quickly becoming a problem for the telecommunications sector. In order to alleviate spectral congestion and achieve electromagnetic radio frequency (RF) convergence, communications and radar systems are increasingly encouraged to share bandwidth. In direct opposition to the traditional spectrum sharing approach between radar and communications systems of complete isolation (temporal, spectral or spatial), both systems can be jointly co-designed from the ground up to maximize their joint performance for mutual benefit. In order to properly characterize and understand cooperative spectrum sharing between radar and communications systems, the fundamental limits on performance of a cooperative radar-communications system are investigated. To facilitate this investigation, performance metrics are chosen in this dissertation that allow radar and communications to be compared on the same scale. To that effect, information is chosen as the performance metric and an information theoretic radar performance metric compatible with the communications data rate, the radar estimation rate, is developed. The estimation rate measures the amount of information learned by illuminating a target. With the development of the estimation rate, standard multi-user communications performance bounds are extended with joint radar-communications users to produce bounds on the performance of a joint radar-communications system. System performance for variations of the standard spectrum sharing problem defined in this dissertation are investigated, and inner bounds on performance are extended to account for the effect of continuous radar waveform optimization, multiple radar targets, clutter, phase noise, and radar detection. A detailed interpretation of the estimation rate and a brief discussion on how to use these performance bounds to select an optimal operating point and achieve RF convergence are provided.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Attack detection for cyber systems and probabilistic state estimation in partially observable cyber environments

Description

Detecting cyber-attacks in cyber systems is essential for protecting cyber infrastructures from cyber-attacks. It is very difficult to detect cyber-attacks in cyber systems

Detecting cyber-attacks in cyber systems is essential for protecting cyber infrastructures from cyber-attacks. It is very difficult to detect cyber-attacks in cyber systems due to their high complexity. The accuracy of the attack detection in the cyber systems depends heavily on the completeness of the collected sensor information. In this thesis, two approaches are presented: one to detecting attacks in completely observable cyber systems, and the other to estimating types of states in partially observable cyber systems for attack detection in cyber systems. These two approaches are illustrated using three large data sets of network traffic because the packet-level information of the network traffic data provides details about the cyber systems.

The approach to attack detection in cyber systems is based on a multimodal artificial neural network (MANN) using the collected network traffic data from completely observable cyber systems for training and testing. Since the training of MANN is computationally intensive, to reduce the computational overhead, an efficient feature selection algorithm using the genetic algorithm is developed and incorporated in this approach.

In order to detect attacks in cyber systems in partially observable environments, an approach to estimating the types of states in partially observable cyber systems, which is the first phase of attack detection in cyber systems in partially observable environments, is presented. The types of states of such cyber systems are useful to detecting cyber-attacks in such cyber systems. This approach involves the use of a convolutional neural network (CNN), and unsupervised learning with elbow method and k-means clustering algorithm.

Contributors

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Energy-efficient distributed estimation by utilizing a nonlinear amplifier

Description

Distributed estimation uses many inexpensive sensors to compose an accurate estimate of a given parameter. It is frequently implemented using wireless sensor networks. There have been several studies on optimizing

Distributed estimation uses many inexpensive sensors to compose an accurate estimate of a given parameter. It is frequently implemented using wireless sensor networks. There have been several studies on optimizing power allocation in wireless sensor networks used for distributed estimation, the vast majority of which assume linear radio-frequency amplifiers. Linear amplifiers are inherently inefficient, so in this dissertation nonlinear amplifiers are examined to gain efficiency while operating distributed sensor networks. This research presents a method to boost efficiency by operating the amplifiers in the nonlinear region of operation. Operating amplifiers nonlinearly presents new challenges. First, nonlinear amplifier characteristics change across manufacturing process variation, temperature, operating voltage, and aging. Secondly, the equations conventionally used for estimators and performance expectations in linear amplify-and-forward systems fail. To compensate for the first challenge, predistortion is utilized not to linearize amplifiers but rather to force them to fit a common nonlinear limiting amplifier model close to the inherent amplifier performance. This minimizes the power impact and the training requirements for predistortion. Second, new estimators are required that account for transmitter nonlinearity. This research derives analytically and confirms via simulation new estimators and performance expectation equations for use in nonlinear distributed estimation. An additional complication when operating nonlinear amplifiers in a wireless environment is the influence of varied and potentially unknown channel gains. The impact of these varied gains and both measurement and channel noise sources on estimation performance are analyzed in this paper. Techniques for minimizing the estimate variance are developed. It is shown that optimizing transmitter power allocation to minimize estimate variance for the most-compressed parameter measurement is equivalent to the problem for linear sensors. Finally, a method for operating distributed estimation in a multipath environment is presented that is capable of developing robust estimates for a wide range of Rician K-factors. This dissertation demonstrates that implementing distributed estimation using nonlinear sensors can boost system efficiency and is compatible with existing techniques from the literature for boosting efficiency at the system level via sensor power allocation. Nonlinear transmitters work best when channel gains are known and channel noise and receiver noise levels are low.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Dissertation on generalized empirical likelihood estimators

Description

Schennach (2007) has shown that the Empirical Likelihood (EL) estimator may not be asymptotically normal when a misspecified model is estimated. This problem occurs because the empirical probabilities of individual

Schennach (2007) has shown that the Empirical Likelihood (EL) estimator may not be asymptotically normal when a misspecified model is estimated. This problem occurs because the empirical probabilities of individual observations are restricted to be positive. I find that even the EL estimator computed without the restriction can fail to be asymptotically normal for misspecified models if the sample moments weighted by unrestricted empirical probabilities do not have finite population moments. As a remedy for this problem, I propose a group of alternative estimators which I refer to as modified EL (MEL) estimators. For correctly specified models, these estimators have the same higher order asymptotic properties as the EL estimator. The MEL estimators are obtained by the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) applied to an exactly identified model. The simulation results provide promising evidence for these estimators. In the second chapter, I introduce an alternative group of estimators to the Generalized Empirical Likelihood (GEL) family. The new group is constructed by employing demeaned moment functions in the objective function while using the original moment functions in the constraints. This designation modifies the higher-order properties of estimators. I refer to these new estimators as Demeaned Generalized Empirical Likelihood (DGEL) estimators. Although Newey and Smith (2004) show that the EL estimator in the GEL family has fewer sources of bias and is higher-order efficient after bias-correction, the demeaned exponential tilting (DET) estimator in the DGEL group has those superior properties. In addition, if data are symmetrically distributed, every estimator in the DGEL family shares the same higher-order properties as the best member.  

Contributors

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013